History of film photo s2011

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History of film photo s2011

  1. 1. History of Film Photo
  2. 2. Camera Obscura
  3. 3. A room or a small building with no windows. There is one small hole in one wall and it is fitted with a lens. This projected an image from outside onto the opposite wall inside the room! However the image was upside down. WHY? Light travels in a straight line and when some of the rays reflected from a bright subject pass through a small hole in thin material they do not scatter but cross and reform as an upside down image on a flat surface held parallel to the hole. (Is that a run-on sentence????)
  4. 4. The earliest mention of this type of device was by the Chinese philosopher Mo-Ti (5th century BC). That’s 2,500 Years Ago! Portable versions developed in the 1660”s
  5. 5. Johann Heinrich Schulze 1725
  6. 7. In around the year 1725, this German anatomy professor discovered that by leaving a glass bottle filled with chalk , silver chloride , and nitric acid by a window, the sunlight would turn the chemicals on the sunlight exposed side darker (due to the silver chloride) However, he could not figure out how to make the “images” (created by the silver chloride mixture and sunlight) remain permanent.
  7. 8. Carl Wilhelm Scheele 1777
  8. 10. Carl Scheele repeated Johanne Schulze’s experiment in around 1777. He also noted the chemical reaction of light on silver compounds as well as other substances. Unlike Johanne Schulze, Scheele discovered that ammonia would dissolve the silver chloride and leave an image intact.
  9. 11. First Printed Photographs 1816-1840
  10. 12. Worlds Oldest Photo Sold to the French National Library in 2002 <ul><li>The image of an engraving depicting a man leading a horse was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicephore Niepce , who invented a technique known as heliography. </li></ul>
  11. 13. But It Doesn’t Look Like a Photo?!?! <ul><li>Philippe Garner, who was in charge of the sale for the auctioneers Sotheby's, in Paris said: &quot;If you look at this, it might not first be recognized as what we call today a photograph. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;And in fact, it is printed ink on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The crucial stage in creating this plate, however, is the etching by the action of light on light-sensitive chemicals of a metal plate which is then used as the printing plate.&quot; </li></ul>
  12. 14. 1826 by Joseph Nicephore Niepce A Heliograph (Sun Drawing) created with an 8 hour exposure. &quot;View from the Window at Le Gras&quot;
  13. 15. Louis Jaques Mande Daguerre 1835-1837
  14. 17. Louis Jacques-Mande Daguerre in 1837 &quot;L’Atelier de l’artiste&quot;
  15. 18. Louis Jacques-Mande Daguerre in 1838
  16. 19. <ul><li>This is one of the oldest known photograph of a human being in existence. It depends on how one defines photograph, but this was taken by Louis Jacques-Mande Daguerre in 1838 . This is a photo of the Boulevard du Temple in Paris. This is a busy street and there was a lot of traffic, but since the exposure was so long, about 15-20 minutes, none of the moving figures can be seen. The only people visible are a guy getting his boots polished and the bootblack. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Louis Daguerre exposed silver coated copper plates to iodine , which obtained silver iodide. He then exposed the plates to light for several minutes. He then coated the plate with mercury vapor which was heated to 75°C to adhere the mercury with the silver. He then “fixed” the image in salt water . These Daguerreotypes were the earliest type of photograph that was commercially available to the public. Very popular during the late 1840’s to the early 1850’s. Rarely made after the 1860’s.
  18. 21. 1840's Coldwater Hotel Coldwater, Michigan Daguerreotype photo of a hotel located near the Coldwater River and Sauk Trail.
  19. 22. 1840
  20. 23. Robert Cornelius 1839 First Self Portrait
  21. 24. William Henry Fox Talbot 1835-1841
  22. 26. William Talbot created a photographic process called a Calotype . He first made an exposure on paper that was treated with silver compounds which produced a negative image . This paper with a negative image was than placed over another sheet of paper that was treated with silver compounds. This “paper sandwich” was then exposed to bright light which produced a positive image on that second sheet of paper. Our first photo assignment in FILM PHOTOGRAPHY will be making Calotypes!
  23. 27. Flowers, Leaves, and Stem Oak Tree in Winter 1838 1842
  24. 28. Solar Photo-Micrograph, Transverse Section Stem 1839
  25. 29. Frederick Scott Archer 1851
  26. 31. In around 1851 Frederick Archer introduced the Collodian wet-plate photographic process. A clean glass plate had to be evenly coated with a substance called collodian. While still damp, the plate had to be dipped into a silver nitrate solution, then inserted into the camera, and then exposed. It was then developed immediately and then allowed to dry.
  27. 32. How to take and make photographs by the wet plate Collodian process | Video
  28. 33. Kenilworth: Caesar's Tower from the Inner Court Early 1850's
  29. 34. Rochester Cathedral, Castle, and Bridge 1850-1859
  30. 35. Mathew Brady 1861-1865
  31. 37. Civil War Photographer He employed Alexander Gardner , James Gardner , Timothy H. O'Sullivan , William Pywell , George N. Barnard , Thomas C. Roche , and seventeen other men, each of whom was given a traveling darkroom, to go out and photograph the Civil War.
  32. 38. Lincoln and his Commanders 1863
  33. 40. The Devil’s Den
  34. 42. Timothy O’Sullivan 1861-1869
  35. 43. Civil War Photographer 1861-1865
  36. 44. Dead Boy at Fredericksburg December 1862
  37. 45. Harvest of Death 1863
  38. 46. Official Photographer on the U.S. Geological Exploration 1867-1869 He photographed the west to attract settlers.
  39. 47. Mojave Men Southwest Indian 1871
  40. 48. Black Canyon Colorado River 1871
  41. 49. Shoshone Falls Snake River, Idaho 1874
  42. 50. Will Soule 1869-1874
  43. 51. Native American Photographer at Fort Sill Oklahoma
  44. 52. Scalped Hunter Near Fort Dodge, Kansas December 7, 1868
  45. 53. Lone bear, Kiowa 1868
  46. 54. Native American silversmith from Navajo tribe sitting with his wares. 1870
  47. 55. Asa-to-yet, Native American Comanche chief, sitting with arms crossed & gun in hand. 1870
  48. 56. William Henry Jackson mid 1800’s - early 1900’s
  49. 58. High Bridge in Loop, Colorado 1828
  50. 59. Photographer for the U.S. Geological Survey during 1871 He photographed the west to attract settlers.
  51. 60. Liberty Cap Mammoth Hot Springs YNP 1871
  52. 61. The Beehive Group of Geysers Yellowstone Park
  53. 62. Tower Falls Yellowstone National Park 1892
  54. 63. Late 1880’s………. Flexible film was created to replace the heavy glass plates
  55. 64. The Kodak “Brownie” (1900, 1952-1967 )
  56. 66. Jacob Riis late 1880’s-1890’s
  57. 67. Famous for recording the poverty in New York City Streets
  58. 68. Five Cents Lodging Bayard Street 1889
  59. 69. Children sleeping in Mulberry Street 1890
  60. 70. Minding Baby 1890
  61. 71. Young Boys Asleep In Street
  62. 72. Edward Curtis 1895-early 1900’s
  63. 73. Native American Photographer
  64. 74. Two Hopi girls sit on the ground eating melons 1900
  65. 75. Zuni Girl with Jar 1903
  66. 76. Chief Red Hawk – Sioux 1905
  67. 77. Qahatika Indian Girl 1907
  68. 78. Crow’s Heart - Mandan 1908
  69. 79. White Man Runs Him – Crow Scout for Custer 1908
  70. 80. Plenty Coups 1908
  71. 81. Clarence White late 1890’s - early 1900’s
  72. 82. In 1914 he opened up his own School of Photography. He photographed simple subjects and tried to focus on mood and romanticism. His main subjects were women and children.
  73. 83. The Orchard 1905
  74. 84. Morning 1908
  75. 86. Frances Benjamin Johnston 1890’s-1920’s
  76. 87. One of the earliest female photographers. Around 1900, she spent time at Hampton Institute in Hampton Virginia photographing African Americans while they were learning trades.
  77. 88. Cooking Class 1899
  78. 89. Stairway of the Treasurer's Residence, Students at Work, The Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia . 1899-1900.
  79. 90. Tuskegee History Class 1902
  80. 91. 1900
  81. 92. Alfred Stieglitz late 1890’s- early 1930’s
  82. 93. The Founding Father of Photographic Art
  83. 94. GEORGIA O’KEEFFE 1918 1930
  84. 95. Icy Night 1893
  85. 96. A bit of Venice 1894
  86. 97. Edward Weston 1903-1948
  87. 98. Precise and Sharp presentation of Still Life's and Landscapes
  88. 99. Shell 1927
  89. 100. Cypress Point Lobos 1929
  90. 101. Cabbage Leaf 1931
  91. 102. Edward Steichen 1905 – 1950’s
  92. 103. Director of Arial photography during WWI, Naval Photo Institute Director during WWII, and Fashion Photographer
  93. 105. After Attack 1918
  94. 106. Gloria Swanson 1924
  95. 107. Kendall Lee 1925
  96. 108. Greta Garbo 1928
  97. 109. Lewis Hine early 1904-1930’s
  98. 110. He photographed social issues and things that needed to be changed….such as The Great Depression and Child Labor.
  99. 111. Cotton Mill spinner 1909
  100. 114. Power House Mechanic Working on Steam Pump 1920
  101. 115. Construction of the Empire State Building 1930 -1931
  102. 116. Charles Clyde Ebbets <ul><li>Construction of the Rockefeller Center or </li></ul>Lunch Break Rockefeller Center Construction 1932
  103. 117. 1913…… 35mm Black and White film was created
  104. 118. Dorothea Lange early 1920’s-1950’s
  105. 119. Famous for her photographs of the Great Depression
  106. 120. Migrant Mother 1936 Migrant Mother&quot;
  107. 121. Men walking towards Los Angeles 1937
  108. 122. Dust Bowl Farm
  109. 123. Woman of the High Plains Texas Panhandle 1938
  110. 124. Margaret Bourke-White 1920’s – 1950’s
  111. 126. Photojournalist and Activist on Humanitarian Issues throughout the world. Technological Developments 1929-1933 Industrial Photographer for Fortune Magazine 1930’s Great Depression / Dust Bowl 1930’s Staff Photographer for Life Magazine 1940’s WWII and the liberation of Concentration Camps 1940’s Gandhi’s campaign of nonviolence in India 1950’s African mine workers and apartheid in South Africa
  112. 127. Fort Peck Dam Montana 1936 Cover of the First Life Magazine
  113. 128. Buchenwald Concentration Camp Germany 1945
  114. 129. &quot;Using a camera was almost a relief. It interposed a slight barrier between myself and the horror in front of me.&quot;
  115. 130. Gandhi India 1946
  116. 131. South African Miners Johannesburg Gold Mine 1950
  117. 132. Paul Strand 1920’s-1970’s
  118. 133. His photographic work focused on composition, light, and shadows.
  119. 134. Wire Wheel 1917
  120. 135. Porch Shadows 1916
  121. 136. His work also reflects using his camera as a tool for promoting social and political issues.
  122. 137. Blind Woman New York 1916
  123. 138. Young Boy France 1951
  124. 139. Walker Evans 1928-1939
  125. 140. Most well known for his documentary photography during the Great Depression.
  126. 141. Brooklyn Bridge 1929
  127. 142. Alabama Cotton Tenant Farmer Wife 1936
  128. 143. Ansel Adams late 1920’s-late 1970’s
  129. 144. He is a legendary black and white photographer of the American West.
  130. 153. Aaron Siskind 1930’s-1991
  131. 154. He was known as an abstract expressionist that also took close-up and detailed photos of nature and architecture.
  132. 158. Henri Cartier-Bresson 1930’s – 1970’s
  133. 159. Known as the “Decisive Moment” Photographer “ the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as the precise organization of forms which gives that event its proper expression.&quot;
  134. 160. Behind the Gare Saint-Lazare 1932
  135. 161. Hyeres 1932
  136. 162. Shanghai 1948
  137. 163. 1935…… Kodachrome 35mm color film was created
  138. 164. Harry Callahan 1938-1977
  139. 165. Natural and built landscapes of the Midwest and his family. Street Scenes Photography Professor
  140. 166. Detroit 1943
  141. 167. Eleanor Chicago 1949
  142. 168. 1965
  143. 169. Providence 1966
  144. 170. Providence 1968
  145. 171. Cairo 1973
  146. 172. Providence 1977

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