A room or a small building with no windows. There is one small hole in one wall and it is fitted with a lens. This projected an image from outside onto the opposite wall inside the room! However the image was upside down. WHY? Light travels in a straight line and when some of the rays reflected from a bright subject pass through a small hole in thin material they do not scatter but cross and reform as an upside down image on a flat surface held parallel to the hole. (Is that a run-on sentence????)
The earliest mention of this type of device was by the Chinese philosopher Mo-Ti (5th century BC). That’s 2,500 Years Ago! Portable versions developed in the 1660”s
In around the year 1725, this German anatomy professor discovered that by leaving a glass bottle filled with chalk , silver chloride , and nitric acid by a window, the sunlight would turn the chemicals on the sunlight exposed side darker (due to the silver chloride) However, he could not figure out how to make the “images” (created by the silver chloride mixture and sunlight) remain permanent.
Carl Scheele repeated Johanne Schulze’s experiment in around 1777. He also noted the chemical reaction of light on silver compounds as well as other substances. Unlike Johanne Schulze, Scheele discovered that ammonia would dissolve the silver chloride and leave an image intact.
Worlds Oldest Photo Sold to the French National Library in 2002 <ul><li>The image of an engraving depicting a man leading a horse was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicephore Niepce , who invented a technique known as heliography. </li></ul>
But It Doesn’t Look Like a Photo?!?! <ul><li>Philippe Garner, who was in charge of the sale for the auctioneers Sotheby's, in Paris said: "If you look at this, it might not first be recognized as what we call today a photograph. </li></ul><ul><li>"And in fact, it is printed ink on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>"The crucial stage in creating this plate, however, is the etching by the action of light on light-sensitive chemicals of a metal plate which is then used as the printing plate." </li></ul>
1826 by Joseph Nicephore Niepce A Heliograph (Sun Drawing) created with an 8 hour exposure. "View from the Window at Le Gras"
<ul><li>This is one of the oldest known photograph of a human being in existence. It depends on how one defines photograph, but this was taken by Louis Jacques-Mande Daguerre in 1838 . This is a photo of the Boulevard du Temple in Paris. This is a busy street and there was a lot of traffic, but since the exposure was so long, about 15-20 minutes, none of the moving figures can be seen. The only people visible are a guy getting his boots polished and the bootblack. </li></ul>
Louis Daguerre exposed silver coated copper plates to iodine , which obtained silver iodide. He then exposed the plates to light for several minutes. He then coated the plate with mercury vapor which was heated to 75°C to adhere the mercury with the silver. He then “fixed” the image in salt water . These Daguerreotypes were the earliest type of photograph that was commercially available to the public. Very popular during the late 1840’s to the early 1850’s. Rarely made after the 1860’s.
1840's Coldwater Hotel Coldwater, Michigan Daguerreotype photo of a hotel located near the Coldwater River and Sauk Trail.
William Talbot created a photographic process called a Calotype . He first made an exposure on paper that was treated with silver compounds which produced a negative image . This paper with a negative image was than placed over another sheet of paper that was treated with silver compounds. This “paper sandwich” was then exposed to bright light which produced a positive image on that second sheet of paper. Our first photo assignment in FILM PHOTOGRAPHY will be making Calotypes!
Flowers, Leaves, and Stem Oak Tree in Winter 1838 1842
Solar Photo-Micrograph, Transverse Section Stem 1839
In around 1851 Frederick Archer introduced the Collodian wet-plate photographic process. A clean glass plate had to be evenly coated with a substance called collodian. While still damp, the plate had to be dipped into a silver nitrate solution, then inserted into the camera, and then exposed. It was then developed immediately and then allowed to dry.
How to take and make photographs by the wet plate Collodian process | Video
Kenilworth: Caesar's Tower from the Inner Court Early 1850's
Rochester Cathedral, Castle, and Bridge 1850-1859
Civil War Photographer He employed Alexander Gardner , James Gardner , Timothy H. O'Sullivan , William Pywell , George N. Barnard , Thomas C. Roche , and seventeen other men, each of whom was given a traveling darkroom, to go out and photograph the Civil War.
Photojournalist and Activist on Humanitarian Issues throughout the world. Technological Developments 1929-1933 Industrial Photographer for Fortune Magazine 1930’s Great Depression / Dust Bowl 1930’s Staff Photographer for Life Magazine 1940’s WWII and the liberation of Concentration Camps 1940’s Gandhi’s campaign of nonviolence in India 1950’s African mine workers and apartheid in South Africa
Fort Peck Dam Montana 1936 Cover of the First Life Magazine
Known as the “Decisive Moment” Photographer “ the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as the precise organization of forms which gives that event its proper expression."