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Food additives


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Food additives

  2. 2. Why do we use additives more now than we did in the past?
  3. 3. WE WANT WHOLESOME FOOD WITH……  High in nutritional value  Good taste  Long shelf life  Safe  Sensory pleasing
  4. 4. CONDITIONS THAT AFFECT WHOLESOMENESS  Temperature  Sanitation  Storage  Packaging  Age  Preservation techniques
  5. 5. WHAT ARE FOOD ADDITIVES?  Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance.  Food Additives can be intentional or unintentional
  6. 6. FUNCTIONS Prolong shelf life  Change/preserve color Enhance flavor Improve nutritional value Compensate for vitamin and mineral deficiencies Maintain freshness Prevent spoiling Facilitate food processing
  7. 7. BENEFITS OF FOOD ADDITIVES Reduce food spoilage Maintain nutrient quality Lower food costs Reduce occurrence of disease
  8. 8. WHY NOT KEEP TO NATURAL ADDITIVES?  Some artificial colours have almost disappeared from foods being identified as harmful.  No sufficient variety of natural additives required to perform all the required functions of additives.  Manmade additives may prove more efficient at preserving  Some natural colours fade in some products.
  9. 9. NUMBERING OF ADDITIVES  Each additive is assigned a unique number, termed as "E numbers“ which is used in Europe for all approved additives. This numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission E 100 – Curcumin, turmeric E 123 – Amaranth E 140 – Chlorophylls, Chlorophyllin E 210 – Benzoic acid E 224 – Potassium metabisulphite E 300 – Ascorbic acid E 330 – Citric acid
  10. 10. TYPES OF ADDITIVES  Natural – found naturally, such as extracts from beetroot juice (E162), used as a colouring agent;  Manmade versions – synthetic identical copies of substances found naturally, such as benzoic acid (E210), used as a preservative;  Artificial – produced synthetically and not found naturally, such as Nisin (E234), used as a preservative in some dairy products and in semolina and tapioca puddings.
  12. 12. ACIDS  Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants.  Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid.
  13. 13. ACIDITY REGULATORS  Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods.  Examples --- Acetic acid, Citric acid
  14. 14. ANTIFOAMING AGENTS  Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.  Examples -- polydimethylsiloxane (a type of silicone). Silicone oil is also added to cooking oil to prevent foaming in deep-frying.
  15. 15. ANTICAKING AGENTS  Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking.  Examples -- Sodium bicarbonate (E500), Calcium silicate (E552), Sodium aluminosilicate (E554), Bentonite (E558)
  16. 16. ANTIOXIDANTS  Antioxidants act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and can be beneficial to health.  Examples – Ascorbic acid (Vit C), Tocopherols (Vit E)
  17. 17. BULKING AGENTS  Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional value.
  18. 18. FOOD COLORING  Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive.  Natural colorants are Caramel coloring (E150), Annatto (E160b), chlorophyll (E140), Cochineal (E120), Betanin extracted from beets, Turmeric (curcuminoids, E100), Grape Skin Extract etc.  Synthetic colorants are FD&C Blue No. 1 – (E133), FD&C Green No. 3 (E143), FD&C Red No. 40 (E129) etc.
  19. 19. COLOR RETENTION AGENTS  In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color.  Example – Ascorbic acid (E300)
  20. 20. EMULSIFIERS  Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenized milk.
  21. 21. FLAVOURS  Flavours are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially.
  22. 22. FLAVOR ENHANCERS  Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. They may be extracted from natural sources (through distillation, solvent extraction, maceration, among other methods) or created artificially.  E620 Glutamic acid  E621 Monosodium glutamate, MSG  E622 Monopotassium glutamate
  23. 23. FLOUR TREATMENT AGENTS  Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking.  azodicarbonamide (E927)  carbamide (E927b)
  24. 24. GLAZING AGENTS  Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods.  Stearic acid (E570)  Beeswax (E901)  Candelilla wax (E902)
  25. 25. HUMECTANTS  Humectants prevent foods from drying out.  Examples – glycerol/propylene glycol (E1520), and glyceryl triacetate (E1518), sorbitol (E420)
  26. 26. PRESERVATIVES  Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.
  27. 27. STABILIZERS  Stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions.
  28. 28. SWEETENERS  Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea.  Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, in general, called artificial sweeteners.  Examples -- stevia, aspartame, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame potassium, and saccharin
  29. 29. THICKENERS  Thickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties.  Example -- arrowroot, cornstarch, potato starch, sago, tapioca, vegetable gums (guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum, protein (Proteins used as food thickeners include collagen, egg whites etc.
  30. 30. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All the photographs and graphics used in the slides are downloaded versions from web. Thanks to those creators for their brilliant works