Why do we
than we did in
WE WANT WHOLESOME FOOD WITH……
High in nutritional value
Long shelf life
CONDITIONS THAT AFFECT WHOLESOMENESS
WHAT ARE FOOD ADDITIVES?
Food additives are substances added to
food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste
Food Additives can be intentional or
Prolong shelf life
Improve nutritional value
Compensate for vitamin and mineral
Facilitate food processing
BENEFITS OF FOOD ADDITIVES
Reduce food spoilage
Maintain nutrient quality
Lower food costs
Reduce occurrence of disease
WHY NOT KEEP TO NATURAL ADDITIVES?
Some artificial colours have almost disappeared
from foods being identified as harmful.
No sufficient variety of natural additives required to
perform all the required functions of additives.
Manmade additives may prove more efficient at
Some natural colours fade in some products.
NUMBERING OF ADDITIVES
Each additive is assigned a unique number, termed
as "E numbers“ which is used in Europe for all
approved additives. This numbering scheme has
now been adopted and extended by the Codex
E 100 – Curcumin, turmeric
E 123 – Amaranth
E 140 – Chlorophylls, Chlorophyllin
E 210 – Benzoic acid
E 224 – Potassium metabisulphite
E 300 – Ascorbic acid
E 330 – Citric acid
TYPES OF ADDITIVES
Natural – found naturally, such as extracts
from beetroot juice (E162), used as a
Manmade versions – synthetic identical
copies of substances found naturally, such
as benzoic acid (E210), used as a
Artificial – produced synthetically and not
found naturally, such as Nisin (E234), used
as a preservative in some dairy products and
in semolina and tapioca puddings.
Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper",
and also act as preservatives and antioxidants.
Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid,
tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic
Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise
control the acidity and alkalinity of foods.
Examples --- Acetic acid, Citric acid
Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in
Examples -- polydimethylsiloxane (a type of
silicone). Silicone oil is also added to cooking oil to
prevent foaming in deep-frying.
Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk
powder from caking or sticking.
Examples -- Sodium bicarbonate (E500), Calcium
silicate (E552), Sodium aluminosilicate (E554),
Antioxidants act as preservatives by inhibiting the
effects of oxygen on food, and can be beneficial to
Examples – Ascorbic acid (Vit C), Tocopherols (Vit
Bulking agents such as starch are additives that
increase the bulk of a food without affecting its
Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during
preparation, or to make food look more attractive.
Natural colorants are Caramel coloring (E150), Annatto
(E160b), chlorophyll (E140), Cochineal (E120), Betanin
extracted from beets, Turmeric (curcuminoids, E100),
Grape Skin Extract etc.
Synthetic colorants are FD&C Blue No. 1 – (E133), FD&C
Green No. 3 (E143), FD&C Red No. 40 (E129) etc.
COLOR RETENTION AGENTS
In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are
used to preserve a food's existing color.
Example – Ascorbic acid (E300)
Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed
together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice
cream, and homogenized milk.
Flavours are additives that give food a particular
taste or smell, and may be derived from natural
ingredients or created artificially.
Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors.
They may be extracted from natural sources
(through distillation, solvent extraction, maceration,
among other methods) or created artificially.
E620 Glutamic acid
E621 Monosodium glutamate, MSG
E622 Monopotassium glutamate
FLOUR TREATMENT AGENTS
Flour treatment agents are added to flour to
improve its color or its use in baking.
Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or
protective coating to foods.
Stearic acid (E570)
Candelilla wax (E902)
Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food
due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.
Stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar
or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a
firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers,
they help to stabilize emulsions.
Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring.
Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the
food energy (calories) low, or because they have
beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth
decay and diarrhea.
Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are
synthetic. Those that are not natural are, in general,
called artificial sweeteners.
Examples -- stevia, aspartame, sucralose,
neotame, acesulfame potassium, and saccharin
Thickeners are substances which, when added to
the mixture, increase its viscosity without
substantially modifying its other properties.
Example -- arrowroot, cornstarch, potato starch,
sago, tapioca, vegetable gums (guar gum, locust
bean gum, and xanthan gum, protein (Proteins
used as food thickeners include collagen, egg
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