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  1. 1. Pragmatics<br />Dr. Dale Koike<br />
  2. 2. Why Pragmatics?<br />Defined as “language in use” to communicate intentions and understand others’ intentions<br />Encompasses language at linguistic level but also, social and cultural level<br />Reflects an emphasis on language functions of ACTFL guidelines/Standards<br />
  3. 3. Terms and Scope<br />Interpretation of intentions; levels of meaning and function<br />Example: In your home: “It’s hot in here” – (implication: turn on air) but would be different if in library<br />Can anyone come up with a different example?<br />
  4. 4. Sociocultural Norms<br />Let’s try a role play<br />Divide into pairs.<br />First Person A will read the screen and then when indicated Person B will read what’s on the screen. <br />Let’s get started…<br />
  5. 5. Person A<br />Role Play<br />Person A: You have just invited your friend to a special fundraising gala put on by the Young Professionals club in your city. The event is “black tie” and includes appetizers. Tickets are $75. You try to convince your friend at attend, even though s/he does not like formal gatherings.<br />
  6. 6. Person B<br />Person B: Your friend is mover and shaker in your city and always wants to be part of the crowd. S/he wants to see and be seen. S/he invites you to an event. You have never been to a black tie event and really don’t want to go. You agree to attend the gala only if your friend will help you to find an outfit to wear and not abandon you during the gala.<br />
  7. 7. Debrief<br />What kinds of sociocultural norms do you think might have been operating in the role play you just participated in?<br />
  8. 8. Speech Acts<br />Defn: communicative acts that convey an intended language function. <br />Examples: requests, apologies, suggestions, commands, offers, and appropriate responses to those acts. <br />
  9. 9. Your turn….<br />
  10. 10. Face Threatening Acts<br />These acts can make someone possibly lose face, or damage it in some way<br />Often softened by positive (please) or negative (I know this is a terrible imposition) politeness<br />
  11. 11. Reflect and Discuss<br />Think about a situation you may have encountered in learning another language in which you either made a mistake that caused a misunderstanding of intentions (or in which the native speaker caused you to misunderstand his/her intentions). Was it due to a lack of grammar/vocabulary, mispronunciation, or an error in speech act? Did it cause a threat to someone's face? How was the situation resolved?<br />
  12. 12. Cross Cultural Information<br />What might be going on in this dialogue? What linguistic choices are made?<br />Susan: Yang, it’s good to see you again. How do you like your new job?<br />Yang: It’s a very nice place to work. I’m very happy.<br />S: We miss you.<br />Y: How is everything at B&G?<br />S: You know: the usual. Aren’t you glad you left?<br />Y: How are Jan and David?<br />
  13. 13. Appropriateness<br />Appropriateness of a speech act is measured against sociocultural norms<br />
  14. 14. Reflect and Discuss<br />Think about a sociocultural norm that differs between the target language that you teach and that of the first language of your students. Jot down an example of how you would illustrate the difference to your students, either explicitly or by letting them guess the difference themselves (implicitly).<br />
  15. 15. How to incorporate more pragmatics into the classroom?<br />Contextualized language practice in situations (role play, situation cards, etc.)<br />Focus on dialogue<br />Metapragmatic discussion<br />Awareness of sociocultural norms<br />
  16. 16. Focus on dialogue <br />They are valuable because they…<br />Imply a wider scope of language practice, at sentence level<br />Move from word to phrase to longer units<br />Emphasize what the listener says in reaction > co-constructing talk<br />Illustrate sociocultural differences in dialogue<br />
  17. 17. Formulas – Formulaic Expressions<br />In the US …..<br />Thank you (with response “you bet”)<br />Drop by sometime <br />Asking how you are doing (usually meaningless)<br />Complimenting someone (just to have something to say)<br />Can you come up with some other examples?<br />Do we teach these variations? Do we teach what people say? How do we incorporate these variations in the L2 classroom?<br />
  18. 18. Metapragmatic Discussion<br />Occurs when the learners and instructor engage in a dialogue about pragmatic expression that they have just seen and heard<br />Purpose: point out and make students aware of pragmatic features. <br />What is the difference in meaning?<br />A) Will you fix my computer?<br /> B) Would you fix my computer? <br />C) When you get a chance, would you mind fixing my computer? <br />D) I would like you to fix my computer please.<br />Which one is the strongest? most polite? least polite?<br />
  19. 19. Awareness of sociocultural norms<br />What does the expression “Make yourself at home” mean to you?<br />Discuss expectations, politeness, etc.<br />
  20. 20. Teachability of Pragmatics<br />Should we teach pragmatics?<br />When should pragmatics be taught?<br />Are pragmatic tasks appropriate for beginning and advanced levels? Why? Why not? How might these differ?<br />
  21. 21. Reflect and Discuss<br />Finally, reflect on the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century and whether or not they reflect pragmatics at all. Recall that the Standards include:<br />Communication: real life<br />Culture: understanding<br />Connections: with other subject areas<br />Comparisons: compare and contrast<br />Communities: global society<br />Do pragmatics fit with any of these?<br />
  22. 22. For next time<br />Prepare Culture module<br />Reflection topic #9 <br />Note: Portfolio 2 due (week of) Nov. 2<br />Note: Observation 3 due (week of) Nov. 16<br />