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  • Strategic competence is the ability to repair breakdowns in communication, using a range of strategies such as repetition, paraphrasing, miming, avoiding problematic concepts and asking for helpAccording to this language model, grammar and pragmatics (the appropriate use of spoken language) are inextricably linked. Consider how embracing this model would change grammar instruction in your language classroom.
  • Compared 2 lesson plans, first was strictly written, second had oral, but focused on oral production of written language./It was hard for me to figure out the purpose of this subsection, the whole discussion of oral/written, but I think the point was that it ties in to Bachman’s model in that your choice of form – formal/informal, etc., subjunctive vs. another less formal form – is going to depend on your mode, your environment, context, etc. So socio-pragmatic considerations also come in to our definition of grammar. I think. You know how it is with Salaberry… (DELETE THIS COMMENT BEFORE SENDING TO UT!) 
  • Metalinguistic awareness = the consciousness of linguistic form and structure by analyzing language as an object of study
  • when students analyze their own production, they are effectively using their own language output as input data
  • when students analyze their own production, they are effectively using their own language output as input data
  • For the record, I found the mirror thing pretty cool, because I thought B too!The main point, I think, is that sometimes INDUCTION by itself isn’t enough, we need some kind of guidance to be able to be successful. In sociocultural theory terms this would have to do with ZPD, scaffolding, more competent peer, etc. I’m guessing… Salaberry makes the point that we’ve all looked in the mirror gazillions of times so we have enough evidence to know that it doesn’t matter how far away you are, you still see the same thing – we needed someone to guide us through the process of discovering it in order to believe it (and even then they didn’t all believe it!)
  • Young woman line drawing
  • 90% will see an elegant young woman in profile, almost with her back turned. If you look, and are conditioned (which is the next slide), it can also be seen as an old woman (“old hag”) in profile – the young woman’s jawline is the hag’s large nose, young woman’s collarbone is hag’s chin, woman’s ear is hag’s eye, etc. Most people won’t see it though, until they’re guided to it by viewing an image which will help them. >>
  • This rough line drawing makes the image of the old hag clear…
  • And conditions the viewer to see the ‘hag’ in the same drawing as before! 
  • Grammar

    1. 1. Grammar<br />module 6<br />Dr. Rafael Salaberry<br />
    2. 2. Pop quiz!<br />
    3. 3. Definitions of grammar<br />Lesson 1<br />
    4. 4. Towards an inclusive definition<br />Three common definitions:<br />The study of how words and their component parts combine to form sentences.<br />The written official rules, and unwritten common-knowledge rules, governing how words are put together to form a written and spoken language.<br />The branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes semantics).<br />
    5. 5. Bachman’s model of communicative ability<br />THREE components that are inextricably linked:<br />Organizational competence<br />Grammatical<br />Discourse<br />Pragmatic competence<br />Sociolinguistic<br />Illocutionary/speech acts<br />Strategic competence<br />(less linguistic in nature)<br />
    6. 6. Oral vs. Written<br />What role does mode (i.e., oral versus written form of speech) have on our definition and understanding of “grammar”?<br />Do we have two grammars? <br />Which “grammar” do we teach?<br />Salaberry pointed out that the YouTube video he showed used oral language as a way to produce grammar particular to written language.<br />
    7. 7. A contextualized definition<br />How to define “grammar,” then? Much more broadly, as “language”…<br />Contextual factors that are part of language:<br />Mode<br />Interlocutors<br />Regional variety<br />Register<br />General Physical-temporal context<br />Purpose of communication<br />
    8. 8. Discuss!<br />
    9. 9. Elements of grammar instruction<br />Lesson 2<br />
    10. 10. Explicit approach<br />Norris & Ortega (2000) reviewed research focused on determining the most effective ways of teaching grammar. <br />Questions they examined were:<br />Is an implicit or an explicit approach more effective for L2 instruction?<br />Can raising learners' metalinguistic awareness of specific L2 forms facilitate acquisition?<br />Is attention to forms in meaning-focused lessons more effective than an exclusive focus on meaning and content?<br />Is negative feedback beneficial for L2 development?<br />Is comprehension practice as effective as production practice?<br />
    11. 11. Explicit approach<br />Norris & Ortega (2000) found that, in general,<br />Explicit grammar instruction tends to be more effective than implicit<br />Focus on Form (focus on meaning and content) and Focus on Forms (attention to forms in meaning focused lessons) produced similar outcomes<br />However…<br />Limited generalizability, difficult definitions<br />Test effects (discrete focused tests – not open-ended and perhaps unrealistic)<br />
    12. 12. Metalinguistic awareness<br />Metalinguistic awareness can be useful in second language learning because<br />divergent and creative thinking<br />interactional and/or pragmatic competence<br />communicative sensitivity and flexibility<br />Do these advantages provide a theoretical foundation for the explicit teaching of grammar in the second language class?Why or why not?<br />
    13. 13. Auto-input and output processing<br />A potential problem with explicit grammatical awareness is that  learners may not be developmentally ready to process the grammar points selected by the teacher. <br />One solution to this problem is to focus students on analysis of their own language production.<br />= auto-input<br />
    14. 14. Auto-input and output processing<br />Processing of auto-input can help students:<br />understand the limitations of their own knowledge <br /> identify more precisely their learning goals<br />OUTPUT PROCESSING: the need to produce output forces learners to test hypotheses and examine syntax > spot mismatch > resolve mismatch > restructure interlanguage<br />
    15. 15. Discuss!<br />In groups, discuss dictogloss activities.<br />What do these activities entail?<br />How are they carried out?<br />What are the outcomes of the activities?<br />What are the advantages and disadvantages to such activities?<br />
    16. 16. Inductive approaches to teaching grammar<br />Lesson 3<br />
    17. 17. Historical definitions of ‘induction’<br />Seliger (1975): Teacher presents the grammatical rule at the end of the session.<br />Shaffer (1989): Students' attention is focused on the structure being learned; and the students are required to formulate for themselves and then verbalize the underlying pattern.<br />Decoo (1996): Exposure to instances of language use, from which learners gather patterns of use, "goes from the specific to the general, namely first the real language use, from which will 'emerge' patterns and generalizations."<br />Herron & Tomasello (1992): Students learn best when they produce a hypothesis and receive immediate feedback because this creates maximal conditions under which they may cognitively compare their own developing system to that of mature speakers.<br />Erlam (2003): Students take an active role in hypothesis testing but do not search for rules or an underlying pattern. Neither teacher nor students state grammatical rules.<br />
    18. 18. Defining induction on a continuum<br />
    19. 19. Guided induction in practice<br />Decoo (1996: 97) labels the fourth category on the continuum from deduction to induction as subconscious induction. <br />“…the students are exposed to language material that has been structured in such a way to help the inductive process. The principle advocates that through the systematic repetition of the same pattern, through graded variations, through drill and practice, the student will come to an 'integrated mastery' of the rule, without conscious analysis.”<br />
    20. 20. Guided induction in practice<br />Begin with an analysis of language data in context<br />Can make use of the whole spectrum of options identified on the continuum:<br />Example:<br />Lesson with mirrors<br />
    21. 21. Guided induction: another example<br />Look at this drawing for 5-10 seconds. What do you see?<br />
    22. 22. Guided induction: another example<br />Now look at this drawing. What do you see?<br />
    23. 23. Guided induction: another example<br />Look for a few seconds at this drawing…<br />
    24. 24. Guided induction: another example<br />… and then look again at this one. Now what do you see?<br />
    25. 25. Discuss!<br />
    26. 26. Implementing a guidedinduction approach<br />Lesson 4<br />
    27. 27. Examples<br />Sample lesson plans<br />Sample lesson plan for teaching gustar<br />Revised sample lesson plan with inclusion of guided induction approach<br />Dictogloss lesson plan/grammar class<br />Consider:<br />Is the guided induction approach effective, as far as you can tell?<br />What aspects do not seem to work?<br />What would you do differently? Why?<br />What else about the plan or class called your attention (positively or negatively)?<br />
    28. 28. Discuss!<br />
    29. 29. FOR NEXT WEEK<br />Prepare Pragmatics module<br />Reflection topic #8 <br />Note: Portfolio 2 due (week of) Nov. 2<br />Note: Observation 3 due (week of) Nov. 16<br />