Water security background paper by GWP Technical Committee Members
Water SecurityBackground PaperHow can you contribute from your region? Wouter Lincklaen Arriens Eelco van Beek Oscar Cordeiro Zaki Shubber 24 Aug 2012 1
Outline of the Paper (see template)1. IWRM: our journey and mental models – link between IWRM and water security – 10 pages2. Water Security: what it is and what it takes – dimensions and definition of water security – how to quantify: framework and indicators – 25 pages3. Good Practice: making a difference – how to implement and apply in decision making – 25 pages 2
Water Security as emerging paradigm• The term is used more and more – at policy/political level (e.g. Nile agreement) but also at business level (e.g. WEF)• Mainly to express something we want to achieve – … a water secure world …. (GWP) – … recognizing the vital importance of water security …. (Nile agreement)• Few attempts as yet to quantify water securityQuestion 1: who is our target audience for the paper?Question 2: why and how quantify water security?
Chapter 1 - IWRM and Water Security1. IWRM and its role to support economic development and social well-being2. Summarizing the key principles and concepts of IWRM3. Water security – an emerging paradigm4. Water security and IWRM – are they complementary?5. IWRM as an adaptive process to increase water security6. No country is the same – no river basin is the same
Key message in chapter 1• Water Security and IWRM are complementary – IWRM focuses on process / governance – Water security specifies what we aim to achieve IWRM in the Planning Cycle Water Security Defining water security Dimensions Indicators Targets Quantifying water security Present situation Measures Scoring
Chapter 21. Dimensions of water security2. Defining water security3. Scales in water security – water security for who?4. Water security in relation to other „securities‟5. Increasing water security – depending on the conditions6. Quantifying water security – the indicators7. An analysis framework to apply water security in planning and decision making
Definitions of water security• Different disciplines have a different framing of the term• Many definitions (> 25)• Most frequently used: The availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people Grey and Sadoff (2007)• The 3 dimensions of Water Security in river basins: – managing the resource (for economic and human use) – mitigating the risks (flood, droughts, etc.) – sharing water and benefits (upsteam-downstream, transboundary, etc.)• Water Security at different scales: national, river basin, specific geographic areas (e.g. delta‟s), cities, local communities, households
Critiques – mainly from academic community• Inside or outside the water box?• Link to other securities like food and energy?
Global web of national water securities Zeitoun, University of East AngliaBack to Question 1: who is our target audience for the paper?
Flip-side of water security• Does your water security come at the cost of insecurity: – for someone else? – somewhere else?• Virtual water / water foot printingQuestion 3: How to deal with virtual water in the paper?
Quantifying water security• Steps involved: – selecting relevant indicators for water security – combining indicators into a water security index• Integrated approaches – some examples – Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO) and pilot application to river basin indexes by the Network of Asian River Basin Organizations (NARBO) – Maplecroft• What should GWP recommend?Question 4: What kind of score cards could we use?
AWDO Approach – 5 Key Dimensions1. Satisfy household water and sanitation needs in all communities Composite Index2. Support productive economies in agriculture and industry3. Develop vibrant, livable cities and towns Example: Brantas Basin - Indonesia4. Restore healthy rivers and ecosystems5. Build resilient communities that can adapt to change.
Asian Water Development Outlook (AWDO)Vision for Water Security with 5 Key Dimensions (for countries)1. Satisfy household water and sanitation needs in all communities2. Support productive economies in agriculture and industry3. Develop vibrant, livable cities and towns4. Restore healthy rivers and ecosystems5. Build resilient communities that can adapt to change.
Water Security Assessments for BasinsHow far is water security improved in IWRM process? IWRM Spiral Model AWDO Basin Capital Water Security Indices
Water Security Assessments in River BasinsAdapting Water Security Index to River Basins and Estimating Basin CapitalsPilot Basins: • Brantas – Indonesia • Laguna Lake – Philippines • Tone-Ara – Japan
KD1: Household Water Security Index What it measures: Performance in satisfying household water and sanitation needs and improving hygiene for public health KD 1 = f (water supply (%), sanitation (%), DALY*) * DALY: Age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (for diarrhea)
KD2: Economic Water Security Index What it measures: Performance in ensuring the productive use of water to sustain economic growth in food production, industry and energy KD 2 = f (water productivity in agriculture, industry, and energy)
KD3: Urban Water Security Index What it measures: Performance in creating better urban water services and management to develop vibrant, livable cities and towns KD 3 = f (urban water supply (%), sanitation (%), flood)
KD4: Environmental Water Security Index What it measures: Performance in restoring their river basins and ecosystems to health on a national and regional scale KD 4 = f (pressures/threats, vulnerability/resilience)
KD5: Resilience Index (water-related disasters) What it measures: Performance in building resilient communities that can adapt to change KD 5 = f (exposure, vulnerability, capacity)
Composite Water Security Index What it measures: How countries or basins are progressing towards water security CI = f (KD1, KD2, KD3, KD4, KD5) expressed in 5 stages: 5: Model 4: Effective 3: Capable 2: Engaged 1: Hazardous
Pilot BasinsAdapting Water Security Index to River Basins and Estimating Basin Capitals Brantas River Basin Laguna Lake Basin Tone and Ara Basin Indonesia Philippines Japan Area: 11,988 km2 Area: 3,059 km2 Area: 19,780 km2 Population: 13.3 million Population: 7.8 million Population: 32.1 million 5.6 % of National GDP 13.0 % of National GDP 29.9 % of National GDP
Maplecroft Approach – Water Security Risk Index• Indicators used – access to improved drinking water and sanitation – availability of renewable water – reliance on external water supplies – the relationship between water supply and demand within a country – the overall water dependency of each country‟s economy• Result – water security risk assessment (score between 0-10) per country; from extreme risk (0-2.5) to low risk (7.5-10) – mainly designed for business purposes – no local conditions, – no attention for other securities (food, energy, etc.)
GWP approach?• No country is the same – no river basin is the same – no one-size-fits all solution to increase water security – stakeholders to determine the keys for success in each case• Different scales and purposes – measuring water security at national, basin, and city scale – assessing water security performance in own location – comparing water security with other countries, basins, cities – presenting water security status to professionals or decision-makers and general public• Question 5: What framework / method will GWP recommend for measuring water security?
Start with determining relevant indicators to assess water security in your own location: Example matrix for use in river basins IWRM criteria Economic Social EnvironmentalDimension efficiency equity sustainability indicator 5Managing the indicator 1 indicator 3 Indicator 6 resource Indicator 2 Indicator 4 Indicator 7 indicator 9Mitigating the risks indicator 8 Indicator 10 indicator 11Sharing water and indicator 13 indicator 16 indicator 15 benefits Indicator 14 Indicator 17
What might become GWP‟s approach?Step 1: Assess relevant indicators (for own location) – guided by a matrix of indicators for key dimensions and reflecting economic, social and environmental criteria (dimensions may be different for water security at national, basin and city scales) – assess current status and present values in a score cardStep 2: Determine actions (for own location) – determine vision and desired indicator target values – select development path (road map) with specific measures to increase water security and achieve visionStep 3: Determine index values – compare own performance with other locations and benchmarks using national, basin or city water security indexes, basin capital, and others ….. (also useful when presenting to decision-makers)
Research into indicators• Literature research – What quantifiable indicators can be used to measure important aspects of water security?• Sources looked at: – World Water Development Report 4 “Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk” – UN-Water Key Water Sector Indicators – Expert Group on Indicators, Monitoring and Databases Proposed Indicators – Water Poverty Index – Asian Water Development Outlook – Others (suggestions welcome)
How to increase water security (from Perspectives Paper) Water Coping Capacity Stress LOW HIGH Water security issues: Water security issues: Vulnerability to floods Mitigate for past, present and future Pollution pollution Increasing needs for water & sanitation Ecosystems need for water services (mainly to large cities) Legal frameworks ensuring access for all LOW Increasing water security through: Increasing water security through: Development of an appropriate stock of Effective legal frameworks at a range of infrastructure (storage, flood control, etc.) scales Proper legislation and adequate Economic incentives institutions More ethical management Integrated and comprehensive water planning Water security issues Water security issues: Water demand growing fast Declining water resources Water availability falling to crisis level Pollution abatement Overexploitation of groundwater Environmental requirements Shortages compounded by pollution Conflicts of use Low efficiency of irrigation Vulnerability to floods/droughts HIGH Increasing water security through: Increasing water security through: Optimal mix of increasing supply and Water conservation and reuse managing demand Sustainable policies and legal frameworks Strengthening the institutional capacities and institutions for water management and and adopting a more cohesive and dispute prevention and resolution integrated legal framework Strengthening waste water and pollution Developing appropriate mechanisms for control through enforceable legal and intersectoral water allocation institutional mechanisms
Chapter 31. Building capacity and partnerships2. Practical tools and approaches • including tools to help to map the road from level A to level B3. Water security and governance4. Dealing with uncertainty and managing risk
Time schedule• Now: outline and contributions from GWP regions and knowledge chain• September: inter-regional expert workshop• End October: first draft for peer-review• December: final draft for editing and lay-outing• January: launch paper at Abu Dhabi summitPlease contribute now! 37
Contributions requested (see template) • Chapter 1 on IWRM: our journey and mental models – Successful IWRM implementation cases in countries, river basins, and cities – Cases showing the „IWRM spiral of progress‟ (e.g. update of basin plan, showing realization and increased performance level) • Chapter 2 on Water Security: what it is and what it takes – Suggestions for figures that illustrate the various dimensions of water security in relation to IWRM criteria – Examples of assessing and measuring water security (for countries, river basins, and cities), illustrating methodology (science) as well as practical guidelines (the art). – Case of IWRM approach for water-food-energy-climate nexus • Chapter 3 on Good Practice: making a difference – Successful leadership examples in IWRM implementation through multi-stakeholder platforms and partnerships – Examples of specific tools and approaches to quantify the various dimensions of water security
For discussion now1. Clarify concept, approach, rationale2. Contribute cases, examples, justification from the regions3. Create how will you use the background paper to create opportunities to increase water security in our own location? 39