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Transboundary Management of the
Kura-Araks River Basin
Lusine Taslakyan
June 9, 2014
Dundee, Scotland, UK
http://www.kura-...
Overview
• Kura-Araks River Basin
• Socio-economic characteristics
• Main trans-boundary issues
• National Legislation
• B...
Kura-Araks River Basin
• Total area of the basin is 190,190 km2
• Armenia (100%), Georgia (50%), Azerbaijan (70%)
• Iran (...
Kura-Araks River Basin
Note: Prepared by the UNDP/GEF Kura Aras project (2012).
Climate and Ecosystems
• Climate: heterogeneous (moist temperate in the western
foothills, warm temperate in the central a...
Socio-Economic Characteristics
• Population in the basin: Azerbaijan - 47%, Georgia - 24%,
Armenia - 29%.
• The urban popu...
Socio-Economic Characteristics
Total country GDP GDP per capita
Source: National statistical data
Water Use
• Irrigation
• Domestic
• Industrial
• Hydropower
• Fishery
• Recreation
• Evaporation
Current Water Use
Agriculture
65%
Industry
20%
Municipal
15%
Kura Aras basin
71%
22%
7%
Armenia
70%
18%
12%
Azerbaijan
24%...
Main trans-boundary issues
Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA), updated in
2013, available online in English and Russi...
TDA Recommendations
• Improve management of groundwater and surface
water resources
• Reduce losses of water resources
• I...
TDA Recommendations (cont.)
• Monitor and assess the status of river ecosystems
• Improved sustainable use of natural reso...
Who are the stakeholders?
National Water Legislation - Armenia
• RA Water Code (2002) declares Armenian water
resources as State property, their use...
National Water Legislation – Armenia (cont.)
• Law on "Fundamental Provisions of the National Water
Policy“ (2005)- a long...
National Water Legislation - Georgia
• Law of Georgia on Environment Protection (1997)
• Law of Georgia on Water (1997)
• ...
National Water Legislation - Azerbaijan
• Strategy Paper for 2007-2013 under the European
Neighbourhood and Partnership In...
Bi-lateral Agreements
• The convention of 1927 between the USSR and Turkey on
the Regulation of the Use of trans-boundary ...
Bi-lateral Agreements
• The agreement of 1957 between Iran and the USSR on the
Joint Utilization of Trans-boundary Waters ...
MEAs
EU Water Framework Directive
• EU Water Framework Directive and Association
Agreement
• EU Water Initiative
• National Pol...
Challenges for Transboundary Legislation
• Political tensions, legal and institutional differences
• Lack of compatibility...
Opportunities for Improved Cooperation
• Water and Health Protocol
• Activities through
internationally funded projects
• ...
Thank you!
lusine.taslakyan@gmail.com
http://www.kura-aras.org
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Transboundary Management of the Kura-Araks River Basin - by by Lusine Taslakyan

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Transboundary Management of the Kura-Araks River Basin - by by Lusine Taslakyan

  1. 1. Transboundary Management of the Kura-Araks River Basin Lusine Taslakyan June 9, 2014 Dundee, Scotland, UK http://www.kura-aras.org
  2. 2. Overview • Kura-Araks River Basin • Socio-economic characteristics • Main trans-boundary issues • National Legislation • Bi-lateral agreements • Multilateral International Environmental Agreements • EU Water Framework Directive • Challenges for transboundary legislation in the basin • Opportunities for improved cooperation
  3. 3. Kura-Araks River Basin • Total area of the basin is 190,190 km2 • Armenia (100%), Georgia (50%), Azerbaijan (70%) • Iran (north-western part, 2.1%), Turkey (north-east, 3.7%) • Total length of Kura River is 1,515 km • Total length of Araks River is 1,070 km. • Fed by snow , ice melt water from glaciers, underground sources and rain
  4. 4. Kura-Araks River Basin Note: Prepared by the UNDP/GEF Kura Aras project (2012).
  5. 5. Climate and Ecosystems • Climate: heterogeneous (moist temperate in the western foothills, warm temperate in the central areas, wet mountains, dry subtropical plains, steppe & semi-desert areas in the eastern Caspian coastal zone. • 444 mm, 527 mm, and 955 mm – respectively in Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia • Ecosystems: glaciers and snowfields, alpine and subalpine meadows, coniferous and broadleaf forests, arid shrub- and wood-lands, steppes, semi-deserts as well as wetlands, including the Kura delta
  6. 6. Socio-Economic Characteristics • Population in the basin: Azerbaijan - 47%, Georgia - 24%, Armenia - 29%. • The urban population of Armenia and Georgia is high • The majority of the population in the basin is considered rural • Population density per square kilometer in the basin: 110 in Armenia, 87 in Azerbaijan and 79 in Georgia. • In Armenia and Georgia the country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is significantly lower than in Azerbaijan • GDP per capita in Azerbaijan more than double those of Armenia and Georgia
  7. 7. Socio-Economic Characteristics Total country GDP GDP per capita Source: National statistical data
  8. 8. Water Use • Irrigation • Domestic • Industrial • Hydropower • Fishery • Recreation • Evaporation
  9. 9. Current Water Use Agriculture 65% Industry 20% Municipal 15% Kura Aras basin 71% 22% 7% Armenia 70% 18% 12% Azerbaijan 24% 34% 42% Georgia
  10. 10. Main trans-boundary issues Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA), updated in 2013, available online in English and Russian languages, UNDP/GEF Kura-Aras Project: www.kura-aras.org • Variation and reduction of hydrological flow • Deterioration of water quality • Ecosystem Degradation • Flooding • Climate Change as a cross cutting issue
  11. 11. TDA Recommendations • Improve management of groundwater and surface water resources • Reduce losses of water resources • Improve monitoring programs • Prevent and reduce pollution • Harmonize Water Quality Standards
  12. 12. TDA Recommendations (cont.) • Monitor and assess the status of river ecosystems • Improved sustainable use of natural resources • Restoration of the River Ecosystems • Reduce the negative impacts from flooding • Adapt to Climate Change • Implement public awareness measures to highlight local adaptation strategies for sustainable water use. http://www.kura-aras.org
  13. 13. Who are the stakeholders?
  14. 14. National Water Legislation - Armenia • RA Water Code (2002) declares Armenian water resources as State property, their use and disposal controlled through economic instruments (WUPs, State Water Cadastre). • CHAPTER 7. REGULATION OF THE USE OF TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES • Article 63. Conditions of Use and Protection of Transboundary Water Resources • Article 64. Authorities and Obligations of the Commission of the Republic of Armenia of Transboundary Water Resources • Article 65. Ensuring Publicity of Information Regarding Transboundary Water Resources
  15. 15. National Water Legislation – Armenia (cont.) • Law on "Fundamental Provisions of the National Water Policy“ (2005)- a long-term development concept for strategic use and protection of water resources and water systems. • The National Water Program Law (2006) defines the strategy and specific actions for implementation of the objectives prescribed by the National Water Policy. • PPM: Short-term (until 2010), medium-term (2010-2015) and long-term (2015-2021) measures for implementation of the National Water Program objectives are defined
  16. 16. National Water Legislation - Georgia • Law of Georgia on Environment Protection (1997) • Law of Georgia on Water (1997) • Law on Licenses and Permits (2005) • New Framework Water Law of Georgia • EU Harmonization Process
  17. 17. National Water Legislation - Azerbaijan • Strategy Paper for 2007-2013 under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument • National Water Code (1997) – Law on Water Supply and Wastewater(1999) – Law on Amelioration and Irrigation (1996) – Law on Hydrometeorological Activities(2004) – Law on Safety of Hydrotechnical Installations(2003) • Presidential decree prioritizing water management for Azerbaijan (2013) • State Program on Socio-Economic development in AZ (2014-2018)
  18. 18. Bi-lateral Agreements • The convention of 1927 between the USSR and Turkey on the Regulation of the Use of trans-boundary Waters (50/50 between the parties) • The convention between the USSR and Turkey on the Utilization of Trans-boundary Streams signed on April 8, 1927, included several provisions for the protection of water quality. • The agreement of 1957 between the USSR and Iran on Establishing the Regime on the Soviet-Iran Border and the Procedure of Settlement of Boundary Disputes and Incidents. Under this agreement the parties would take the responsibility to preserve the boundary waters in due condition of purity, protect the resources against pollution and exchange information on a regular basis.
  19. 19. Bi-lateral Agreements • The agreement of 1957 between Iran and the USSR on the Joint Utilization of Trans-boundary Waters of the Rivers Aras and Artak for Irrigation and Power Generation purposes. Under this agreement the waters and energy resources of the rivers Aras and Artak were shared 50/50 between the parties. • Agreement between the Republic of Azerbaijan and Georgia on cooperation in the field of protection and sustainable use of water resources of the Kura River Basin, the UNECE Bilateral agreement • Interstate Commission of Armenia and Turkey on the Use of Akhuryan Water Reservoir. • Armenis-Georgia Agreement on Cooperation in the Sphere of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, signed on May 3, 1997 in Yerevan and came into force on November 30, 1999.
  20. 20. MEAs
  21. 21. EU Water Framework Directive • EU Water Framework Directive and Association Agreement • EU Water Initiative • National Policy Dialogue
  22. 22. Challenges for Transboundary Legislation • Political tensions, legal and institutional differences • Lack of compatibility of water standards • Lack of specific legislative acts/by-laws • Lack of financial means, also for scientific research • Absence of information database, as well as imperfect monitoring system • Weak cooperation between state regional governmental bodies, as well as between state environmental structures and NGOs • Lack of environmental education and low public awareness • Social-economic difficulties of the transition period
  23. 23. Opportunities for Improved Cooperation • Water and Health Protocol • Activities through internationally funded projects • UNECE Convention
  24. 24. Thank you! lusine.taslakyan@gmail.com http://www.kura-aras.org

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