Iuwm www 2011 a bahri final


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  • Better to have a quote, not just the cover of the book; need title in English, some background of the book And better this comes at the end of the talk
  • Iuwm www 2011 a bahri final

    1. 1. Akiça Bahri GWP TEC Technical Committee and GWP Regions – Joint Meeting 17 August 2011, Stockholm
    2. 2. Challenges <ul><li>Cities accommodate half the world’s population. Yet, water security is not assured for billions of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution limits water supply for potable purposes and is the vector for avoidable disease and death. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of traditional infrastructure is priced out of reach for most of the world’s people. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change impacts cities with droughts, floods and sea level rise. The uncertainty of these CC impacts changes the design reliability of the systems in place. </li></ul><ul><li>How cities can respond to a range of infrastructure needs? </li></ul><ul><li>What is GWP’s role? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Conventional UWM: shortcomings
    4. 4. Accelerated urbanization threats <ul><li>Megacities : </li></ul><ul><li>Much of urban growth is expected to come from unplanned settlements or slums in and around megacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Water security may be compromised from the impacts of unplanned development and untreated wastewater. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Accelerated urbanization threats <ul><li>Coastal cities: </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the world’s population live within 100 km of the sea and 3/4s of all large cities are located on the coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization in these areas often leads to pollution of coastal waters, salinization of aquifers, and the destruction of ecosystems. These environmental impacts extend beyond the boundaries of the city itself. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Cities in transboundary basins: </li></ul><ul><li>Two in every five people live in water basins that are shared by more than one country. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of common water bodies by cities poses a special threat to freshwater quality and aquatic ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Border cities are also often affected by pollution problems in the upper part of the basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Small and mid-sized cities : </li></ul><ul><li>The growing numbers of emerging small and mid-sized cities will have significant impacts on water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity to embed IUWM practices into institutional arrangements and urban planning from the outset. </li></ul>Accelerated urbanization threats
    7. 7. Sanitation Solid waste Water supply Urban drainage Water facilities Integrated urban water management Source: Tucci, 2009 Institutional: legislation and management Goals: quality of life and environmental conservation Urban planning: Soil use
    8. 8. Policy and institutional arrangements for IUWM <ul><li>The role of: </li></ul><ul><li>Central government </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal government </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>How to relate ‘urban’ and ‘basin’ management </li></ul>
    9. 9. Integration of management at basin and city levels Space Administration level Management Instrument Characteristics Basin (usually > 1000 km 2 ) Nation or State Basin Committee and Agency Basin Water Plan Sustainable management of quantity and quality of the rivers in the basin Municipality (usually < 50 km 2 ) Metropolitan Area Municipality Integrated Water Plan Sustainable development of urban water facilities inside the city, avoiding downstream impacts in the river system according to basin regulations
    10. 10. Management approaches and tools <ul><li>Wastewater reclamation and reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Stormwater management </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Green infrastructure’ </li></ul><ul><li>Payment for ecosystem services </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient water use </li></ul>
    11. 11. Economic and financial instruments <ul><li>Specific strategies to leverage resources from local authorities, consumers and the private sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful microfinance, output-based aid and loan-financed approaches particularly in the sanitation sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Green Water Credits - a type of Payment for Ecosystem Services - that bridges the incentive gap through taking regular compensation from water users to water providers for specified water management services. </li></ul>
    12. 12. The future: improved urban water governance
    13. 13. Public Institutional framework Legislation Soil use, environment, water resource City Management City plans Integrated urban water plan Urban development master plan Other facilities plans such as transport Basin Management Parkinson et al., 2010 Institutional and municipal land use framework
    14. 14. <ul><li>Understanding IUWRM through the prism of water security </li></ul><ul><li>Building RWPs/CWPs and using the Network to address core issue on the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering on GWP Strategy through the Knowledge Chain </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>The methodology - Knowledge chain
    15. 15. City case studies
    16. 16. Water for gold – the development of water supply to Johannesburg and the Gauteng Province <ul><li>The supply of water shows that water resources planning and management has to be undertaken at the appropriate scale – and, for big cities, far beyond the urban boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking a multi user, multi-basin approach has allowed to achieve substantial social and economic development with limited and unreliable water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years, water quality management (salinity) has proved just as much of a challenge as water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the platinum mining industry and surrounding towns need water, they are prepared to pay part of the costs of treatment and transfer, a win-win situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of the inter-linked system is that energy use and supply reliability can be optimised to the benefit of users – and the river environment. </li></ul>
    17. 17. 1890s local springs 1902 Rand Water - Zuurbekom 1923 Vaal Barrage 1938 Vaal Dam 1982 Tugela-Vaal 1998 Lesotho Highlands Phase 1a 2004 Lesotho Highlands Phase 1b Evolution of Gauteng’s water supply “footprint” 1970s Waste from Gauteng to Crocodile Next, the Zambezi?! 2020 Lesotho Highlands Phase 2 An inter-linked system where energy use and supply reliability can be optimized to the benefit of users – and the river environment 2010 Waste to Lephalale & Limpopo
    18. 18. Vaal System – the big one <ul><li>SCENARIO A </li></ul><ul><li>High water requirement scenario, no further water loss reduction, no reduction in water use due to WC/WDM. </li></ul><ul><li>• Increasing irrigation water use continues until 2016. </li></ul><ul><li>• Implement both Phase 2 of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (Polihali Dam) and the Thukela Water Project (Jana Dam and Mielietuin Dam ) </li></ul>SCENARIO B • Unlawful irrigation water use eradicated in 2011 and controlled thereafter <ul><li>SCENARIO C </li></ul><ul><li>15% reduction in water use due to water conservation and demand management (WC/WDM) </li></ul><ul><li>• Unlawful irrigation water use eradicated in 2011 and controlled thereafter </li></ul><ul><li>• Phase 2 Lesotho Highlands Water Project (Polihali Dam) and Thukela Water Project (Jana Dam and Mielietuin Dam ) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Water for gold – the development of water supply to Johannesburg and the Gauteng Province <ul><li>Effective water resource management in situations of water stress will inevitably go far beyond city boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities are important partners in this process. Their role is to inform the wider system planning, to reduce water use as far as possible through conservation and efficient management and to manage their wastes effectively, as part of the overall system. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing water as part of a wider, multi-basin system, brings far greater efficiencies as well as economic and social opportunities than would be achieved by attempting to manage water within the city’s boundaries alone. Cities must work as part of the larger team. </li></ul>
    20. 20. SINGAPORE <ul><li>The approach adopted is to integrate water beyond just managing it in an integrated way. It is not just integration within the water loop but within the broader urban environment. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ For us, water is a critical resource, so we had to look at it holistically and in an integrated way’ . ‘Water is woven into the urban fabric’ (Mr. Khoo). </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater harvesting in urbanized catchments, reclaiming wastewater into NEWater for ind. use and IPR, and desal. and getting the community on board, recognizing water not just as a resource but as a very important environmental asset. Thus, transforming Singapore into a ‘city of gardens and water’. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Rain Sea PUB Manages the Complete Water Cycle From drainage of stormwater to sourcing, collection, purification and supply of drinking water, treatment of used water and turning it into NEWater NEWater Direct Non-Potable Use Indirect Potable Use
    22. 22. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Water For All Innovation Technology <ul><li>Water For All </li></ul><ul><li>100% Access to Safe Drinking Water </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial, industrial and recreational uses </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable adequate quantity (eg water reuse) </li></ul><ul><li>Public acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve Value Enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient Water Use </li></ul><ul><li>Water Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Water Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Value of Water </li></ul><ul><li>Water Pollution Control and Management </li></ul>Conserve Value Enjoy <ul><li>Environment Sustainablity </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing energy </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering chemical use </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizing sludge </li></ul>Integrated Water Management for Cities of the Future
    23. 23. Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water 4 National Taps 3P Approach “ Conserve Water” “ Value Our Water” “ Enjoy Our Waters” “ Water for All” “ Conserve, Value, Enjoy” PUB’s Integrated Water Resource Management
    24. 24. The context: GWP Strategy 2009-2013 GOAL 2: Address critical development challenges <ul><li>Tackling urbanization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of the world's population lives in urban areas and, with changing demographics characterized by massive migration into cities, by 2025 the percentage is projected to be 60%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban water and wastewater management is a serious threat in most developing countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most cities are unable to expand basic water services or manage growing competition among users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given the trends in urbanization, the need to improve water and waste management in cities is urgent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, this must take impacts over a wide area into consideration, both upstream and downstream, as well as across basin and aquifer boundaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of this effort, GWP will continue its work with UN-Habitat Water Operators Partnerships, where the focus will be on managing 'used water' as an essential element in overall water management . </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Areas for potential engagement <ul><li>How to incorporate urban water management within the scope of the entire river basin? </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of urban development on the natural water cycle be changed through the development of an urban water cycle </li></ul><ul><li>How policy development and planning can be directed towards addressing global change pressures, and to achieving sustainable urban water systems? </li></ul><ul><li>How can neutral platforms enable stakeholders to contribute to achieving IUWM? </li></ul>