Droughts - Water rationing in 1961, and again for almost 8 months from May 1963 to Jan 1964 Another problem – floods! Govt also had to tackle floods in low lying areas (30% of Sg was less than 5m above sea level) 1969 – serious flood, 29 areas with some roads under 2m of water Since then spent more than S$2b on drainage infrastructure
Since 1979, access to clean water has been 100% despite water demand has grown 5x to 380mgd between 1960 and 2010 Since 1973, spent more than S$2b on drainage infrastructure. Flood prone areas reduced from 3000 hectares in 1970s to 127 hectares in 2007. By 2011, reach 48 hectares. TO fight floods, going from “pathway” solutions to “source” and “receptor” solutions.
Strong Leadership since independence For 31 years that LKY was PM, singapore’s water policy was coordinated out of his office Water planning unit was set up in 1971 in PMO to complement PUB, which was set up in 1963 First water masterplan in 1972
PUB transferred out of MTI in 2001 Combined with sewerage and drainage from ENV Became operational node of entire water loop Single agency manages trade-offs, decides on the compromises
Water Loop basis for sustainable supply Water Loop works with limitations and opportunities of Singapore’s situation – limited land, little ground water, separate rainwater and used water system, abundant rainfall and abundant seawater
Collecting Every Drop – PUB expanded Seletar and Pierce capacities in 1969 and 1975 respectively. Expanded domestic sources in 1975 – damming up Kranji, Pandan, Murai, Poyan, Sarimbun and Tengah Pig farms phased out Sg River cleaned up so that it could function as water catchment 90% of land area to be converted into catchment by 2060 Reservoir Integration Scheme completed in 2007, S$18m
Collecting Every Used Drop 1971 – only 57% of Sg had modern sanitation system
Using Every Drop more than Once NEWater experimented in 1974, closed after a year. Doubts on reliability of technology. 1990s, cost of membranes fell 50% 1998, revisited idea -> feasible. Demo plant started operations in May 2000. 2 years of trial, 20,000 tests on 150 parameters. Better than WHO and USEPA guidelines. Independent panel set up to verify safety of NEWater.
Water is not a public good in Singapore Principle is to charge to recover cost of production From 1970s, use policy (pricing, incentives, regulation) to manage consumption Pricing Principle Tiered pricing introduced in 1973 WCT introduced in 1991 to discourage execessive consumption Water saving devices (constant flow regulators, self closing taps) introduced in 1983 Water conservation incentives for non-domestic sector 1997 review – marginal cost pricing introduced. MC price was the cost of producing the next drop of clean water after all the rainwater and runoff had been collected; PM said at SIWW that only such a pricing policy would truly reflect the scarcity value of water. “Next Drop” benchmarked to desalination in 1997. NEWater has since replaced desal water as proxy for marginal cost Reducing UFW 5% since 1996
Beyond survival, water plays a social role ABC launched in 2007 New philosophy of bringing public closer to water ABC was a tool for ensuring long-term sustainability of Sg’s water sources; public need to understand why they should keep drains clean 100 projects over 10-15 years S$1.2b funding from MOF
So in the last three years, the Singapore government has decided to encourage the growth of the water industry as a strong knowledge based sector that will be a key strategic growth engine for the Singapore economy, taking advantage of what has been built up, and the opportunities in the world market. The global water sector has also exponentially over the past decade. According to Global Water Intelligence, during the 11 years to January 2009, a total of $1.12 billion of venture capital was invested in developing new water technologies. The Asian Development Bank Water Financing Program 2006-2010 seeks to double investments in rural and urban water services and basin water management to well over $2 billion annually. In 2006, a council chaired by the Prime Minister identified the water sector as one of three new economic growth engines for Singapore. A sum of S$330M was committed by the National Research Foundation, under a Clean Water Programme over five years, to grow the water industry through research and development (R&D). The goal is to triple value-added contribution to S$1.7B and double the number of jobs to 11,000 by 2015. In tandem with this, the Environment and Water Industry Development Council (or EWI) was set up to drive Singapore’s goal to be a hub for environment and water for business, investment, research and technology. Through funding promising research projects, the EWI aims to foster leading-edge technologies and create a thriving and vibrant research community in Singapore.
Technology has enabled Sg to close the water loop, form a self-sustaining water supply system But still room to further finetune – for instance to reduce energy use in desalination and used water treatment PUB has S$20m R&D budget
The global water industry continues to be strong. Singapore uses water as another pillar of economic growth. Developing a water industry to create jobs and increase GDP. Many other countries are also trying to grow their water industry and export their water expertise e.g. Korea. Riding on the growth in the global and Singapore water industry, we have SIWW, a global platform to share and co-create innovative solutions and business opportunities. Our host IWA is a strategic partner of the event. SIWW has gained traction; SIWW 2012 welcomed 19,000 participations from 104 countries/regions, together with 750 participating companies in 2012. Total amount of announcements made was S$13.6 billion.
Integrated urban water management singapore's experience and lessons learnt by maurice neo
Integrated Urban Water Management:Singapore’s Experience & Lessons Learnt Maurice Neo Director, Industry Development & Managing Director, Singapore International Water Week
Biodata of Singapore Small Island State High population 5.2M population / density 710 km2 land area High annual 2400 mm rainfall Average water 1.6 million m3/d demand (380 mgd)
Singapore in our early days Typical Developing Country with Myriad of Challenges“Singapore … at the 170th position among a list of 190countries in terms of freshwater availability.” - United Nations World Water Development Report Population Growth - Population from 1.65 million in 1960 to 5.2 million in 2011 Rapid Economic Growth – Per capital GDP from USD 428* in 1960 to USD 43,867 in 2010 Only 2 national taps - catchment (dependent on weather) and imported water from Malaysia Not all homes are sewered (bucket system) Street hawkers Unaccounted for water is high
Singapore TodayProsperity Through Hard Work 4 National Taps - Resilient supply of water Unaccounted for Water below 5 % – One of the lowest in the world Domestic water consumption per capita at 153 litres/day 100% of population served by potable water at the tap & 100% modern sanitation Integrated urban and water planning to enhance the quality of our living environment
Water is top of the Governments Agenda “ … This (water) dominated every other policy. Every other policy had to bend at the knees for water survival.” - Mr Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore (1965-1990), at the inaugural Singapore International Water Week 2008 Alignment and Consensus PM Lee Hsien Loong toasting UN Sec-Gen Ban Ki-moon with NEWater in 2012 Political Emeritus Senior Minister Operator Goh Chok Tong drinking (PUB) The public drinking NEWater in public in NEWater at National Industry 2002 Day Parade in 2002 Population Lesson #1: Water is an Issue of Survival
PUB, the National Water Agency To ensure a clean, sustainable environment and water supply for Singapore To achieve a liveable To ensure an efficient, and sustainable Singapore adequate and sustainable supply of water •Clean Land •Clean Air •Water Supply •Used Water •Public Health •DrainageLesson #2: Have One Water Agency to Holistically Manage the Water Loop
A Systems Approach to Water Management1. Better overall 2. Storing 3. Maintain discharge 4. Reusing used 5. Identify planning & rainwater for quality into drains and water instead of gaps for R&D budgeting water supply sewers discharging into sea sea treatment stormwater rain of management used water NEWater collection desalination collection of rainfall of used water in drains & in sewers reservoirs supply of treatment of water to the raw to potable population & water industriesLesson #3: Close the Water Loop; Used Water as a Resource
Increasing Supply and Managing Demand Water for All Conserve, Value and Enjoy• Collecting every drop Getting Singapore to build a relationship• Collecting every used drop with water•Use every drop more thanonce• Creating new drops ManagingIncreasing Water DemandWater Supply Lesson #4: Sustainable Water Management = Increasing Supply + Managing Demand
Collecting Every Drop Kranji Reservoir Punggol Protected Unprotected Catchment Urban Catchment Stormwater Collection System Bedok Stormwater Pond Legend Unprotected Water Catchment Protected Water Catchment Urbanized Water Catchmento Total of 17 reservoirs, including the largest Marina Catchment at 10,000 Marina Barrage hao Catchment area is now two-thirds of Singapore, to reach 90% of Singapore’s land area by 2060o Exploring underground caverns for water storage Lesson #4: Sustainable Water Management = Increasing Supply + Managing Demand
Collecting Every Used Drop • 100% sewered, 3400km of sewers • 48km Deep Tunnel Sewerage System, centralised reclamation of used water • Reclaimed water is an important feedstock for NEWater Ulu Pandan WRP – 46 ha Treatment capacity – 361,000 m3/day Changi WRP – 32 ha Treatment capacity – 800,000 m3/day Changi WRP Changi Outfall Link SewersDeep Tunnel Sewers Lesson #4: Sustainable Water Management = Increasing Supply + Managing Demand
Using Every Drop More Than Once NEWater to meet 50% of Singapore’s water demand by 2060 Microfiltration / Reverse UltravioletNEWater Treatment Osmosis Disinfection Ultrafiltration Kranji 12 mgd 17 mgd in 2003 in 2008 Bedok 6 mgd 18 mgd in 2003 in 2009 Legend NEWater pipeline NEWater Plant Ulu Pandan Sembcorp NEWater Plant – Service Reservoir NEWater Plant by Keppel DBOO Seghers- DBOO Lesson #4: Sustainable Water Management = Increasing Supply + Managing Demand
Creating New Drops Desalination to meet 30% of Singapore’s water demand by 2060• SingSpring Desal Plant (2005) - Produce 30 mgd for 20 years• Tuaspring Desalination Plant (2013), will add another 70 mgd for 25 years• Combined capacity 100mgd (current daily demand 380mgd)• Other Ideas under exploration: • Desalination on Barge Lesson #4: Sustainable Water Management = Increasing Supply + Managing Demand
Managing Demand Domestic Water Consumption / Capita (1999-2012) Pricing Reflect the strategic importance and scarcity value of water 1999 2012 Water Conservation Controlling Unaccounted for Strategy WaterVoluntary Mandatory •Network 3P approach Cut down on excessive • Water Efficiency ManagementPromote ownership •Leakage Control of water flow and wastage of water Labeling Scheme conservation •Strict Legislation •Accurate metering • Household visit programs • Dual Flush Cisterns Lesson #4: Sustainable Water Management = Increasing Supply + Managing Demand
Pricing as a Strategy “ … If you give it for free, no one will bother to put off the tap. Pricing is a very important part of managing the demand for water.” - Mr Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore at Singapore International Water Week 2011 Potable Water* Used Water Tariff Consumption block Tariff WCT1 Total WBF2 SAF3 *In Singapore, we category (m3 per mth) (¢/m3) (%) (¢/m3) (¢/m3 (¢/appliance) ) price it at the cost of Domestic 1 to 40 117 30 152 30 300 producing the next Above 40 140 45 203 30 300 alternative dropNon-domestic All units 117 30 152 60 300 Lesson #4: Sustainable Water Management = Increasing Supply + Managing Demand
Engaging the Community AfterA. ACTIVE New recreational spacesA. BEAUTIFUL Before Integration of waters with urban landscapesA. CLEAN After Improved water quality• Outreach programs to Before raise awareness• Incorporate water planning as part of urban planning • Improves liveability and creates a pleasant urban environment Lesson #5: Getting Buy-in by Bringing Onboard the Community
Government Growing a Water Industry Commitment to Grow the Water Sector• National Research Foundation set aside S$330mil over five years to grow the water industry; S$140 mil added in 2011• 2015 Targets: i. Increase value-add from S$0.5bn to S$1.7bn Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong ii. Double number of jobs to 11,000 Local Academic Institutions Local Water Companies Global Water Players & Utilities Overseas Institutions Lesson #6: Tapping on Industry to serve PUB’s needs
Invest in the Future Technically Feasible and Economically Viable Water Solutions • Over 100 Test-bedding • Almost S$800M worth projects conducted of projects awarded Increase Water with PUB annually Improve Decrease Resources • Funding schemes for • Design, Build, Own, and Protect Water R&D via technology Operate schemes Water Production Lower Quality Reduce Costs Minimize roadmap Chemical Energy Waste Usage Consumption Generation Public-Private Partnerships Co-creating innovative water solutionsKeppel Seghers Ulu Pandan Deep Tunnel Sewerage System Low-energy desalination (PUB-Siemens) Water Reclamation Plant (Consultant: CH2MHILL)Hyflux Singspring Desalination Sembcorp NEWater Plant Plant Fish Activity Monitoring System (PUB, I2R, ZWEEC) Lesson #7: Future-ready through Innovations and Technology
Co-creating Solutions Together Bringing the world together to share and co-create innovative water solutions• A global event: More than 19,000 delegates from 104 regions/countries in 2012• A solutions-oriented conference and exhibition• Attracts delegates across the entire water sector• Key focus areas: business, networking, R&D and technology SIWW Water Utilities Leaders Forum “Mapping Challenges & Solutions” • Date: 18 – 19 Sep 2013 • Location: Singapore • Target audience: Approx. 100 – 150 senior leaders to co-create innovative solutions for the water utilities sector CONTINUITY: Continue the CONTINUITY Continue the CONTINUITY: CONTINUITY OWNERSHIP: OWNERSHIP: EXCLUSIVE: EXCLUSIVE: dialogue with fellow water dialogue with fellow water Be part of the pioneer group to Be part of the pioneer group to High-level and by- High-level and by- leaders up to the next SIWW leaders up to the next SIWW co-create a “live” document co-create a “live” document invitation only invitation only that charts challenges and that charts challenges and solutions for water utilities solutions for water utilities Lesson #8: Sharing Our Experience and Learning from Others