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GWP Technical Committee member Mike Muller about Climate Change and IWRM


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GWP Technical Committee member Mike Muller about Climate Change and IWRM

  1. 1. PREPARING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE IWRM as a Practical Approach to Climate Change Adaptation Convenors: Cap-Net, UNDP, WMO/APFM, UNESCO-IHE, REDICA, Rhama and GWP Stockholm 2009
  2. 2. <ul><li>Water Management, Water Security </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change Adaptation: </li></ul><ul><li>Early Impacts and Essential Responses </li></ul><ul><li>TEC BACKGROUND PAPER NO. 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Published by the Global Water Partnership </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key message : <ul><li>Water is the primary medium through which climate change will impact people, ecosystems and economies </li></ul><ul><li>Water resources management should therefore be an early focus for adaptation to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>It does not hold all of the answers to adaptation; a broad range of responses will be needed </li></ul><ul><li>But water is both part of the problem and an important part of the solution </li></ul><ul><li>It is a good place to start </li></ul>
  4. 4. Outline: <ul><li>Water and adaptation: framing the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change challenges for water management </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change adaptation through better water management </li></ul><ul><li>Financing issues for adaptive water resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Framing the issue <ul><li>Actions to implement robust water management are adaption actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen resilience to current climate challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Builds capacity to adapt to future climate change. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Framing the issue <ul><li>Overall impacts of climate change on freshwater resources expected to be negative </li></ul><ul><li>But much that is not yet well understood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond increased temperatures rainfall changes to effects on river flows and groundwater recharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific challenges of snow and glacier melt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts on water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding required of the dynamics of current variability and future climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced capacity to respond to these dynamics enables better water resources management. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Projected changes in runoff by 2080 for Mexico and Central America
  8. 8. Framing the issue <ul><li>Achieving and sustaining water security, </li></ul><ul><li>“ ... harnessing water’s productive potential and limiting its destructive potential” </li></ul><ul><li>a focus for adaptation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>a framework for action </li></ul><ul><li>CC will make it harder to achieve, sustain water security </li></ul>
  9. 9. Percentage changes in annual extreme precipitation
  10. 10. Climate change challenges for water management <ul><li>Understanding the physical science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraged effects on runoff and streamflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature, evaporation and aridity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on groundwater recharge and storage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics of glacier and snow melt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More frequent “extremes” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring hydrological change – the data gap </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethiopia: Rainfall, GDP and Agricultural GDP
  12. 12. Climate change challenges for water management <ul><li>Social and economic dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variability and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry, trade and competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food and agriculture, the critical challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investing in reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydropower opportunities and threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem sacrifices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall challenge : water driven structural changes </li></ul>
  13. 13. World potential and current hydropower production, 2004
  14. 14. Climate change challenges for water management <ul><li>Compounding factors, other drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development and consumption change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanisation and land use change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate mitigation strategies! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty and timing a major issue </li></ul>
  15. 15. Climate change adaptation through better water management <ul><li>Water security, a first objective but also a framework for adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Water security through integrated water resources management </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalising adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Investment, hard and soft </li></ul><ul><li>Balance and sequence – the art of adaptation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Balancing and sequencing infrastructure and management
  17. 17. Financing adaptive water resource management <ul><li>‘ Financing Water for All’ :- </li></ul><ul><li>“ The creation of IWRM data, plans and coordination capacity itself needs proper funding. Some of the above mentioned functions are easier to finance than others, and for certain of them (e.g. provision of ‘public goods’ such as flood control and data collection) public funding will be necessary. “ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Financing adaptive water resource management <ul><li>Consistent message: </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated management and development of water resources is an important activity; </li></ul><ul><li>However, its funding needs and financial strategies to meet them not yet adequately addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Historical neglect of financing strategies for water resources management due in large part to focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short-term poverty priorities, basic water and sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ bankable’ activities, hydropower and industrial water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing longer-term “public good” focus </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Financing adaptive water resource management <ul><li>Core funding for water management is core funding for adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Many “public good” and “merit good” functions </li></ul><ul><li>Aid effectiveness principles should guide adaptation funding </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fragmentation and reduce transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>Build long term capacity to cope with emerging challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Funding of trans-boundary interventions a special case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may merit specific instruments </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>The long time horizons and great uncertainties associated with climate change call for adaptation responses that can deliver immediate benefits, while building robust, adaptive institutions designed to ensure enduring resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Investments in water resources management provide just this; they are, by nature, investments in adaption </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions <ul><li>A focus on achieving and sustaining water security provides immediate benefits, particularly for underserved and vulnerable poor populations, as well as greater capacity to manage future risks </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s investments in water security should be seen as an explicit part of a coherent longer-term strategy for adaptation that will build a more resilient world in the future. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Support needed for core water resources management information systems, institutions and investments </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fragmented initiatives that weaken core </li></ul><ul><li>Align with aid effectiveness principles </li></ul><ul><li>Offers a durable and efficient framework for water security and mainstreaming adaptation efforts into national development plans. </li></ul>