Que signifie la Gestion Intégrée des Ressourcesen Eau (GIRE/IWRM)?C’est un processus impliquant plusieursinfluences dont l...
La Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau(GIRE/IWRM) prend en compte les mécanismesnaturels et les implantations humainesi...
GIRE/IWRM: Approche intersectorielleLa GIRE/IWRM comporte:• Le fonctionnement/processus (les étapes successives, les insti...
Principes de Base de la GIRE• La Gouvernance est le plus important des principes d’application dela GIRE.• L’Adhésion et l...
Planification de la GIRE: Le mécanismecycliqueAdoption des statuts Engagement en faveur des réformesAnalyser les déficienc...
1. Ecosystems and their services2. Principles of ecosystem management3. Ecosystem management in practice4. Key messages5. ...
• The MA observed that the availability of water and other ecosystem services have been affected andthat aquatic ecosystem...
The MA also describes ecosystem services as,• Freshwater• Food• Energy• Fiber• Genetic resources and biochemicals,…provisi...
WAZA-LOGONE,Cameroonpasture, fisheries, grassand reeds, forestproducts, tourism$10 million a year$250/householdLAO WETLAND...
Water (and IWRM) in EcosystemapproachEcosystem approach, defined as a strategy for theintegrated management of land, water...
Aims at managing ecosystems for resilience to maintain theirlong term ability to provide a range of ecosystem servicescrit...
Principles of Ecosystem ManagementAbility of ecosystems to provide services•Humans are an inherent part of the ecosystem•R...
Vital steps…• Reach consensus on priority ecosystem serviceso Who decides what is important? How is a decision and the cas...
Valuation is not done in a vacuum• Selecting priority ecosystem services: What is an ecosystem contributing to economicact...
Examples: Costs of degraded ecosystems?Waza Logone,CameroonIrrigation schemecurtails and poverty$2.4 million a yearNakivub...
Of course, economic valuation is not a panacea, but:• Economic valuation is one way to measure value and assign priorities...
• IWRM with an ecosystem perspective is about managing ecosystems for resilience tomaintain their long term ability to pro...
Implications for building capacity:• Various types of roles, various target audiences• Many ways to learn: emphasize learn...
Example of EBMprinciples and keysteps to gettingstarted to nationalplanners and decision-makersNational and provincialgove...
Key strategic messages, with a focus on EBM:• EBM includes people and promotes equity• EBM concerns all sectors, not envir...
EBM can evolve along a spectrum…No or low EBM Incremental EBM Comprehensive EBMIndividual speciesSingle sector managementR...
In a Nutshell, MOVING TOWARDS EBM/IWRM:Visioning Phase: Establish a Foundation for EBMPlanning Phase: Chart the EBM Proces...
Ecosystem Based Management/IWRM is abalancing act!Thank you for your attention
Ecosystem approach and iwrm by s. diop
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Ecosystem approach and iwrm by s. diop

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Ecosystem approach and iwrm by s. diop

  1. 1. Que signifie la Gestion Intégrée des Ressourcesen Eau (GIRE/IWRM)?C’est un processus impliquant plusieursinfluences dont l’ambition est de promouvoirl’exploitation et la gestion coordonnées ducadre naturel (l’eau, les sols et les ressourcesconnexes), en prenant en compte les différentespopulations et les influences changeantes àterme, en vue de tirer le maximum d’avantageséconomiques et sociaux qui en résultent demanière équitable sans porter atteinte à lapérennité des écosystèmes indispensables.
  2. 2. La Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau(GIRE/IWRM) prend en compte les mécanismesnaturels et les implantations humainesinfrastructureimpactsdemandslaws,regulations,managementnatural systeminstitutionalsystemsocio-economicsystemintegratedwater resourcesmanagement
  3. 3. GIRE/IWRM: Approche intersectorielleLa GIRE/IWRM comporte:• Le fonctionnement/processus (les étapes successives, les institutions, lescontacts fructueux avec les partenaires)• L’équilibrage des avantages /la compensation• La détermination des choix (par rapport aux mesures politiques et auxpopulations)• Des applications au niveau des bassins fluviaux.L’eaupour lespopulationsL’eaupourl’alimentationL’eaupour lanatureeWaterforotherusesIntégration intersectorielle• Environnement favorable• Institutions• Mécanismesde gestion
  4. 4. Principes de Base de la GIRE• La Gouvernance est le plus important des principes d’application dela GIRE.• L’Adhésion et la détermination des politiques.• Le Financement …• La Communication. La réussite du processus découleraessentiellement du mécanisme de communication intense avec lespartenaires concernés.• Le Facteur temps. La GIRE est un mécanisme cyclique, elle doitdonner en permanence reproduire sa propre image, et prendre encompte les différents points de vue de ses partenaires. Le processusnécessite beaucoup de temps.• La Décentralisation de certaines responsabilités en matière degestion des ressources en eau tendra à renforcer le sentimentd’appartenance de l’initiative au niveau des localités et réduira lespressions logistiques.• Le cycle de la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau (GIRE) ne doitpas se préoccuper en permanence de l’ensemble des bassins fluviaux.L’orientation du problème est également justifié dans certains cas.
  5. 5. Planification de la GIRE: Le mécanismecycliqueAdoption des statuts Engagement en faveur des réformesAnalyser les déficiencesElaborer une stratégieEngagement en faveur des mesures concrètesAppliquer les grandes orientationsSurveiller l’évolution
  6. 6. 1. Ecosystems and their services2. Principles of ecosystem management3. Ecosystem management in practice4. Key messages5. Example of EMB applied to coastal marine environment
  7. 7. • The MA observed that the availability of water and other ecosystem services have been affected andthat aquatic ecosystems were the most impacted, resulting in affected livelihoods mainly due to:o declined ecosystem function and resilienceo deterioration of water quality and availability• Water allocation to ecosystems is critical for continuous provision of services essential forsustaining livelihoods and development (critical for poverty reduction and attainment of MDG’s)
  8. 8. The MA also describes ecosystem services as,• Freshwater• Food• Energy• Fiber• Genetic resources and biochemicals,…provisioning• Water regulation• Purification and waste management• Natural hazard regulation• Climate regulation• Air quality, pests & disease regulation,...• Inspiration• Recreation and ecotourism• Spiritual and religious values• Knowledge systems• Aesthetic values,…regulatingCultural Services• Nutrient cycling• Water cycling• Primary production and biomass prod.• Soil formation and retention• Habitat provision,…supporting
  9. 9. WAZA-LOGONE,Cameroonpasture, fisheries, grassand reeds, forestproducts, tourism$10 million a year$250/householdLAO WETLANDS, MekongBasinfish, frogs, snails$117 million a year$136/householdTANA FLOODPLAIN, Kenyamarine & freshwaterfisheries, forest products,pasture, flood-recessionagriculture, transport$3 million a year$25-350/household• Often the contribution of ecosystems is undervalued, because products are mainly not traded, andproducts benefit marginal populations which are not taken into consideration in development decisions.• These economic benefits are also not well understood by water managers, users, and policy-makers.
  10. 10. Water (and IWRM) in EcosystemapproachEcosystem approach, defined as a strategy for theintegrated management of land, water and livingresources that promotes conservation and sustainableuse in an equitable way; it is considered one of themost important principles of sustainableenvironmental management.
  11. 11. Aims at managing ecosystems for resilience to maintain theirlong term ability to provide a range of ecosystem servicescritical to human well-being, and ensure benefits from theseservices are shared equitably.Resilience depends on the ecosystem’s ability to functionproperlyIn turn, ecosystem functioning depends on:• Basic chemical elements of life (CHNOPS)- which affectbiogeochemical cycles• Biodiversity: genes, species and attributes (composition,structure, function) (natural variety and variability)
  12. 12. Principles of Ecosystem ManagementAbility of ecosystems to provide services•Humans are an inherent part of the ecosystem•Recognizes ecological boundaries & variability•Considers cumulative impacts and necessary trade-offs•Holistic policies and integrated management•Consultative and informed by sound information•Precautionary under uncertainty•Adaptive to change
  13. 13. Vital steps…• Reach consensus on priority ecosystem serviceso Who decides what is important? How is a decision and the case made for?o Identify interaction between ecosystemso Identify trade-offs between ecosystem services• Selecting ecosystem services will determine the scale of intervention• Identify trends and drivers of change (direct and indirect)• Understand intervention necessary to protect ecosystem services and put in place• Monitor and adapt• Provide policies/incentives• Develop or strengthen appropriate institutions
  14. 14. Valuation is not done in a vacuum• Selecting priority ecosystem services: What is an ecosystem contributing to economicactivity or society, e.g. on average forests benefits in the Med region amount to about 1%of GDP. Indirect use value such as watershed protection contributes about 35% of totalestimated value.• Making the case and selecting management options and scenarios: What are the benefitsand costs of an intervention that alters the ecosystem (conservation investment,development project, regulation or incentive)? Economic valuation makes ecosystemservices comparable to other investments.• Ensuring equity and sustainability: How are costs and benefits of a change in ecosystem oran intervention distributed?• Designing economic instruments, esp. Incentives. How much topay/reward/compensate/tax?
  15. 15. Examples: Costs of degraded ecosystems?Waza Logone,CameroonIrrigation schemecurtails and poverty$2.4 million a yearNakivubo Swamp,UgandaLand reclamation red$2 million a yearIndus Delta, PakistanLow flows cause saltwaterintrusion, mangrove die-offand reduced livelihoodsUp to $95 million a yearMuthurajawela Marsh, SriLankaIndustrial expansionimpacts$8 million a year
  16. 16. Of course, economic valuation is not a panacea, but:• Economic valuation is one way to measure value and assign priorities between ecosystemservices• Valuation has to integrate non monetary values (e.g. ranking)• Benefit-cost analysis has many methodological limitations. Other ways to decide onpriorities include multi-criteria analysis, political negotiation and activism• Who participates in the dialogue determines which ecosystem services will be consideredworth protecting• How to adapt valuation methods to countries’ capacity?• How to make the case using economic valuation?
  17. 17. • IWRM with an ecosystem perspective is about managing ecosystems for resilience tomaintain their long term ability to provide a range of ecosystem services critical tohuman well-being• This implies managing freshwater ecosystems, as well as ecosystems which impact or areimpacted by the management of freshwater ecosystems• There is no recipe to put EM into practice as EM is a dynamic and non-linear process• The boundary of an ecosystem depends on the issue at stake (multiscale)• A lot of the tools are not new, the context and the way in which they are applied is new• The issue at stake depends on who decides on priorities. A key element of EM is toempower people (at all scales) to participate in decision making• The effectiveness of the interventions will depend on their buy-in, hence the importance ofbottom-up approach• Nobody works at ecosystem level unless there is an institution or a mandate to do so.• We don’t manage ecosystems but people
  18. 18. Implications for building capacity:• Various types of roles, various target audiences• Many ways to learn: emphasize learning by doing, learning by sharing experiences andnetworking, learning through mentoring• Adapt old tools to new context with new examples• Focus on multidisciplinarity (communication, social, political, economic, natural sciences,communication)• Emphasize link between science and policy• There is no blueprint.
  19. 19. Example of EBMprinciples and keysteps to gettingstarted to nationalplanners and decision-makersNational and provincialgovernments acrosssectors: environment,fisheries, transport,agriculture, planning,financing, etc…
  20. 20. Key strategic messages, with a focus on EBM:• EBM includes people and promotes equity• EBM concerns all sectors, not environment alone• One size doesn’t fit all; in order for EBM to realize its full potential,capacity needs to be built for context-specific planning andgovernance.• There is no single ‘correct’ approach – there are many differentpaths toward EBM.• EBM can build on existing management structures and evolve frompresent approaches rather than reinventing them• ICZM, and in the case of marine environment MPAs, fisheriesmanagement are all part of EBM, (particularly when plannedcoherently)
  21. 21. EBM can evolve along a spectrum…No or low EBM Incremental EBM Comprehensive EBMIndividual speciesSingle sector managementRestricted scale— localonly, for exampleShort-term perspective:what do we need from theecosystem this year?Managing commoditiesManaging groups ofspeciesIntegrated management ofVarious sectors — e.g.fisheries & transportCoordinated managementat local and state levelsMedium-term perspective:what services do we needthe ecosystem to provide 5years from now?Managing activities withthose commodities in mindManaging wholeecosystemsIntegrating all sectors thatimpact, or are impacted by,the ecosystemCoordinated managementat all levels relevant toecosystemLong-term perspective:what will the ecosystemlook like in 20 years withclimate change?Managing activities withsystem functioning in mind
  22. 22. In a Nutshell, MOVING TOWARDS EBM/IWRM:Visioning Phase: Establish a Foundation for EBMPlanning Phase: Chart the EBM Process• Assess the ecosystem• Evaluate governance options, create cross-sectoralframeworks• Identify measurable management objectives• Prioritize threats, examine trade-offs• Chose management strategy – e.g. on Coasts andoceans; combinations of ICZM and ICAM, fisheriesmanagement, MPAs, etcImplementation Phase: Apply and Adapt EBM• Monitor, evaluate, adapt• Communicate & educate• Secure sustainable financing over time
  23. 23. Ecosystem Based Management/IWRM is abalancing act!Thank you for your attention

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