Delivering climate compatible development by Sam Bickersteth


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Presentation made by Sam Bickersteth,CDKN Chief Executive, GWP Consulting Partners Meeting, 26. August 2012, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • What of water & CCD? Pictures from Ethiopia illustrate some of the opportunities and challenges aheadFrom (1) reducing dependence on vulnerable, unhealthy water sources, to (2) increasing irrigation and soil/water conservation (reducing dependence on increasingly volatile, rainfed agric), and (3) investing in multipurpose infrastructure for green energy, irrigation and flood control – dams get the headlines, but water storage to buffer rainfall variability can work at many scales. Note: obvious point - dams are contentious. The point here is that there is now a pretty widespread consensus that SSA needs to invest in its hydraulic infrastructure of storage and conveyance – see next slide. And develop – carefully – its groundwater resources which offer a ‘natural’ buffer against climate variability and change. Improving water security is essential for development and poverty reduction.Extreme climate events increase the cost and ease of improving water security, making it increasingly important to integrate water security and climate resilience into development planning.Importance of integrated planning processes for water, energy and food security that take account of climate change
  • WATER – NB assuming constant hazard
  • Built storage (reservoirs). Makes an important point re vulnerability to climate variability & change, though misses the natural storage provided by groundwater.
  • All TA projects need to align to this. And this is what success looks like – how do we measure these?
  • In a little more detail, our current understanding of opportunities and threats:Why water & sanitation? Because extending and sustaining water & sanitation services is a precondition for tacking poverty. And because tackling poverty is central to both development and building resilience to CC. The good news: the international development target for halving the number of people without access to safe water (MDG 7) has been met, 5 years before the 2015 deadline. The bad news (threats): the global figures are skewed by rapid progress in India and China; SSA continues to lag, and financing to sustain existing services and extend access is insufficient (UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme, 2012; UN Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water, 2012). In SSA – the most vulnerable to CC – we know that investment in water storage and conveyance is a priority. Why? Because countries like Ethiopia (previous slide) have water, but the water is distributed unevenly in space and time. Unmitigated hydrological variability is estimated to cost Ethiopia roughly one-third of its growth potential (World Bank, 2006). Building a hydraulic platform is essential…and we know that Africa harnesses only around 5-7% of its hydropower potential (green energy), and less on irrigation. But, we also know that ‘green’ in a carbon sense is not necessarily ‘inclusive’, ‘pro-poor’ or sustainable in the roundHence the need to invest in an equivalent institutional platform of water resources management to ensure that tradeoffs and risks are accounted for, and to ensure that new infrastructure simultaneously delivers improved livelihoods, equity and environmental sustainability. Investment in water resources management is long overdue, and depends on much better information on resource conditions and trends. Note the need to avoid the mistakes of higher and middle income countries (HICs, MICs) and their ‘capture and control’ approach to water resources development….climate resilience at huge environmental and social cost
  • CDKN supported GWP and AMCOW to develop the Framework for Water Security and Climate Resilient DevelopmentStrategic Framework: Launched at Africa Water Week in MayTechnical Background Document: Launched tomorrow at WWW5 Policy BriefsCapacity Development StrategyFramework will be presented by Alex in more detail, but at a high level it recommends activities at different stages of planning and investment cycles, for different decision-makers (central ministries, line ministries, local government, transboundary bodies, civil society), to develop no/low regrets investment decisions to achieve water security and climate resilience. Highlight that CDKN is a “happy donor”, we benefit from GWPs wide networks across Africa, their engagement style, the technical expertise they bring and we have great working relationships at an operational level
  • Plethora of tools existEssential that they are embedded in long term planning approaches. Integration in government decision making processesThe Framework fits into the wider WACDEP programme, which is a crucial factor to its useAndrew will introduce WACDEP in full, but briefly, it aims to:integrate water security and climate resilience in development planning processes, using the Framework as the underlying tool to do sodevelop partnerships and capacity of institutions and stakeholders to build resilience to climate change through better water managementdevelop “no regret” financing and investment strategies for water security and climate change adaptation CDKN are very pleased to be providing on going support to the programme, and in particular in the capacity building work package. This work is currently under procurement and will commence in October Aims to strengthen the institutional capacity of African planning departments in ministries, local government and broader to apply the Framework to their real life programmes and projects. The output will be enhanced institutional capacity to develop water-related development decisions, plans and investment strategies that are no/low regrets
  • Delivering climate compatible development by Sam Bickersteth

    1. 1. Delivering Climate Compatible Development - Sam Bickersteth,CDKNGWP Consulting Partners Meeting.Stockholm August 2012
    2. 2. Climate Compatible Development Climate compatible development: Development that minimises the harm caused by climate impacts, while maximising the many human development opportunities presented by a low emissions, more resilient, futureClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 2
    3. 3. What’s the problem and why is it difficult to solve? and Development Knowledge Network | 3
    4. 4. Water and CCD Opportunities… and threatsClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 4
    5. 5. IPCC SREX: implications for water sector• A changing climate leads to changes in frequency, intensity, spatial extentand duration of weather and climate events• Extreme events such as floods and droughts will have a direct impact onwater resources now and in the future•Frequency of heavy rainfall events likely to increase 4 fold and extreme hotdays 10 fold by end of century.• Populations exposed to water-related hazards – e.g. flooding, coastalinundation – are already significant and likely to increase• Changes in the climate could seriously affect water management systems,such as water storage and treatment plants, and supply systems• Climate change adaptation and DRM likely to require transformationalchanges in processes and institutions• This will involve taking a more holistic approach – e.g. integrating watermanagement with urban planning and design, and into policies on land useClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 5
    6. 6. Slow onset economic transformationClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 6
    7. 7. Extreme events – global exposure to floods;av. physical exposure in 1000 capita/yearClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 7
    8. 8. Storage deficit or harnessed hydrology Country Reservoir storage (m3/cap) Ethiopia 38 India 262 South Africa 687 China 2486 North America 5961 Grey and Sadoff, 2006Climate and Development Knowledge Network | 8
    9. 9. How to structure a responce Changes in institutions and institutional capacity to respond to CCD needs and demands Changes in co- ordination, Changes in the collaboration andunderstanding and mobilisation amongst commitment of key CCD decision makers stakeholdersaround CCD issues Changes in the quality of life Changes in for people most Changes in thequality relevance challenged by ability of decision and usability of the effects of makers to leverage CCD evidence and channel CCD climate change resources base strategically Climate and Development Knowledge Network | 9
    10. 10. Integrating adaptation and DRMapproaches for a changing climateClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 10
    11. 11. What is needed to deliver CCD? National InternationalIncentive and • Climate Change Act • New post-Kyoto international targets • Independent Climate Change Commission • International cap and tradeRegulatory • Low carbon transmission plan or roadmap • International carbon taxFramework • National cap and trade • International standards for fuel efficiency • Carbon tax and emissions • Portfolio regulation of energy companies • Extend emissions targets to aviation and • Targeted tax incentives for private sector R&D shipping • Regulate emissions from vehicles • Regulate trade (e.g. in forest products) • Regulate other emissions • New international treaties on water • Strengthen forest law to reduce deforestation sharing • Strengthen planning laws on housing design and location • Decoupling utility profits from gross salesPublic • Increase R&D budget • Fund N-S technology transfer • AMCs for renewable technologies • Fund S-S cooperationExpenditure • Subsidise retro-fitting of buildings • Extend scope of CDM • Subsidise new technologies (e.g. CCS) • Regional risk facilities • Subsidise renewables at domestic level • Provide subsidies to offset fuel poverty • Extend social protection for vulnerable groups • Invest in strengthening critical infrastructure • Invest in new infrastructure • Subsidise insurance mechanisms • Cut traditional fuel subsidies • Improved extension and entrepreneurial education • Education and consumer benchmarkingClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 11
    12. 12. Water and CCDOpportunities Threats• Re-double efforts to extend and • The 1st line of defence against sustain water & sanitation climate variability and change, but services investment still lags• Invest in multipurpose storage • Green hydropower and irrigation, and conveyance – the hydraulic but for whom, and at what cost? platform• Invest in water resources • Start now, or repeat the mistakes assessment and management – of HICs and MICs the information and institutional platformClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 12
    13. 13. Kenya’s Climate Change ActionPlan• CDKN is supporting a cross government effort to coordinate and deliver a National Climate Change Action Plan. The plan is broken down into 8 components.• The Action Plan is gaining traction with enhanced visibility at a national level, with the National Social and Economic Research Council recognising its importance.• The process has fostered closer working between the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Planning. (1) Long term vision and direction of low carbon and climate-resilient growth pathway (9) Coordination of Action Plan delivery as a whole (2) Regulatory and policy framework (3) Adaptation planning and actions (4) Mitigation planning and actions (5) Technology (6) (7) Capacity Enablers transfer, Performance & building & (8) Finance research & benefit knowledge development measurements managementClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 13
    14. 14. Rwanda: FonerwaBuilding on the newly adopted Green Growth and Climate Resilience Strategy,CDKN has supported the Government of Rwanda to develop a national climatechange and environment fund.The purpose of the fund is to:• ensure sustainable financing is accessible to support environmental sustainability, resilience to climate change and green growth.• be the primary mechanism through which Rwanda accesses, programmes, disburses and monitors international and national extra- budgetary climate and environment finance.Funds will be distributed to Government, privatesector, civil society and communities to implementa range of projects.Climate and Development Knowledge Network | 14
    15. 15. Economic impact assessment of climate changein Nepal CDKN is working with the government of Nepal to address one of the key objectives of their National Climate Change Policy: assessment of losses and benefits from climate change in various geographical areas and development sectors by 2013.The project aims to provide:• estimates of the impacts and economic costs and benefits of climate change for the agricultural and water sectors followed by,• a ranking of climate compatible development policy options in these sectors, according to their economic efficiency, to help the Government to strategically consider options for climate compatible development pathways. and Development Knowledge Network | 15
    16. 16. Carbon and water footprinting in Andeancities CDKN are in the process of planning a project aimed at reducing the vulnerability to climate change of urban and peri-urban areas of three Andean capital cities (La Paz, Lima and Quito). Key objectives of the project will be to • Promote local government action on climate change mitigation and adaptation through the assessment of the carbon footprint and water footprint of local government operations. • Develop participative methodologies appropriate to local conditions and assess the carbon footprint and water footprint of the cities of La Paz, Quito and Lima. These assessments will form part of an action plan for adaptation and mitigation.Climate and Development Knowledge Network | 16
    17. 17. Developing ToolsFramework for Water Security and Climate Resilient DevelopmentClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 17
    18. 18. Integrating ToolsWater and Climate Development ProgrammeClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 18
    19. 19. CCD: what have we learnt?• Leaders putting CCD at the top of their agenda• Building resilience and response to disasters is an entry point.• Development benefits of “Low emissions” growth key to narrative• Integrating CCD into existing multi-stakeholder national development and poverty reduction planning processes critical• Donor coordination and sharing of learning to address knowledge gaps and build country ownership• Countries prioritising allocation of finance to fund implementation of CCD strategies• National CCD action is occurring without global agreement – but a global deal and Green Climate Fund will accelerate and scale actionClimate and Development Knowledge Network | 19
    20. 20. www.cdkn.orgThis document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) for thebenefit of developing countries. However, the views expressed and information contained in it are not necessarily thoseof or endorsed by DFID, which can accept no responsibility for such views or information or for any reliance placed onthem. This publication has been prepared for general guidance on matters of interest only, and does not constituteprofessional advice. You should not act upon the information contained in this publication without obtaining specificprofessional advice. No representation or warranty (express or implied) is given as to the accuracy or completeness ofthe information contained in this publication, and, to the extent permitted by law, the Climate and DevelopmentKnowledge Network’s members, the UK Department for International Development (‘DFID’), their advisors and theauthors and distributors of this publication do not accept or assume any liability, responsibility or duty of care for anyconsequences of you or anyone else acting, or refraining to act, in reliance on the information contained in thispublication or for any decision based on it.Copyright © 2010, Climate and Development Knowledge Network. All rights reserved.Climate and Development Knowledge Network | 20