In March 2007 the Government of Peru enacted the Law of Equal Opportunities between men and women, to address governance andgender relations in the country as a whole. This law expressly requires the promotion of full participation of women and men in the consolidation ofthe democratic system, and the inclusion of equal opportunities for men and women in citizen surveillance mechanisms. In Peru, WSP, together with partners, implemented the ‘small town pilot project’ in 2006, to foster gender responsive governance in localities ofbetween 2,000 and 30,000 inhabitants, in three diverse parts of the country. Local governments had been running these services, characterized bydeteriorating infrastructure, weak management and poor communication with stakeholders, in particular with women.The project created a public-private partnership through an alliance between the municipality, a private operator and an overseeing neighborhoodcommunity board. By creating the neighborhood community board, a permanent mechanism for citizen oversight in the management of servicesby the new operator was put in place, with members appointed through a transparent election process. A gender component assessed anddeployed appropriate communication channels between males, females, the operator and the municipality. It also established a quota of 50% men and 50% women on the neighborhood community boards, institutionalized by a municipal order, and facilitated tariff setting through separate male and female consultations, arriving at a social agreement with the municipality and reconciling differing priorities. Services in these small town projects have improved markedly since these reforms, demonstrating how investing in communication and participatory approaches can facilitate gender mainstreaming and improve service delivery.Key lessons: enabling environment comprises good policies, and participation of women and civic groups
The Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program (ISSDP) has developed an approach to promote gender and social equality in the planning, decisionmaking and implementing of urban sanitation at city and community level. Awareness campaigns targeting the official working group on sanitation, city sub-district officials, and community groups, have ensured that women’svoices are heard as part of the city sanitation strategy process. Separate sessions for women, men and mixed groups were considered to havecomplementary inputs. The awareness campaigns and feedback sessions changed the perspectives of participants with regard to gender and socialequity, by reaching a common understanding on the complementary responsibilities of men and women when creating a safe sanitationenvironment. This was closely linked to dissemination of technical options and cost information, as well as hygiene promotion and education strategies.
In Senegal, women play a central role in caring for the family, and their hygiene habits are strongly correlated to reducing or transmitting fecal contamination within the household. However, as heads of household, men allocate financial resources for household items such as soap or a hand washing station. Thus, while WSP’s global scaling up hand washing project initially focused on women in Senegal, a lesson emerged through field observations and discussion: the project team would also need to consider men as a target audience. Involving Men in Hand Washing Behavior Change Interventions in Senegal (Koita, 2010), a WSP Learning Note discusses the steps taken by the project team to target both women and men. It shows that, as heads of households, Senegalese men play several key roles as gatekeepers, protectors, and role models. In these roles, men can allow or deny access to new information and necessary resources (such as soap or a hand washing station). They can enable, reinforce, and sustain behavior change. It was also learnt that when men are engaged early on in the discussion they are more likely to take an active role in getting their families to adopt hand washing behaviors.
Based on the Government of Uganda National Gender Policy, the water and sanitation sector in Uganda developed its first water sector genderstrategy (WSSGS, 2003–2008). A second water and sanitation sub- sector gender strategy (2009–2014) (WSSGS II) was prepared after an analysisof progress against the first strategy. The stated goal of the WSSGS II is to empower women, men, and vulnerable groups through ensuring equity inaccess and control of resources in the water and sanitation sector, leading to poverty reduction. The strategy in turn has defined a budget of an estimatedUgandan shillings 525,000,000 (US$ 233,230) over the five year period 2010–2015 of its implementation. In 2003 the Ministry responsible for water in Uganda conducted an institutional review. As an output of the review, a new Water Liaison Division was created, headed by an Assistant Commissioner responsible for the coordination of all sub sectors of the Ministry of Water and Environment. In the same period the Ministry commissioned its first Water Sector Gender Strategy (WSG I). One of the gender Strategy recommendations was that the institutional review of the Ministry be used as an opportunity to appoint staff with gender mainstreaming competencies. Acting on this recommendation, the Ministry incorporated the responsibility to oversee implementation of the WSG I in the job description of the new Assistant Commissioner for the Water Liaison Division. The Ministry further recruited to the Liaison Division a principal sociologist and senior sociologist to spearhead gender strategy implementation on a day to day basis. Several years later additional staff with gender mainstreaming expertise were assigned to each sub sector department to fulfill the sector social and gender mainstreaming targets, whose activities were coordinated under the Water Liaison Division. The review in the end served the dual purpose of building the Ministry’s capacity to mainstream gender, and increasing representation of women at management level. Before the institutional review there were no women in the management team of the Ministry of Water and Environment and staff competencies concentrated around skills for infrastructure development. Currently a more diverse professional complement is in place equipped to address gender issues, and an 18% women’s representation at management level has been achieved. In spite of this still more needs to be done to improve these ratios and increase capacity to mainstream and resource gender activities throughout the Ministry.
WASH Gender Indicators by Rosemary Rop
WASH Gender IndicatorsRosemary RopWater and Sanitation Specialist, WSP AfStockholm Water Week 2012
Purpose of Presentation To describe key indicators for gender in WASH in reference to AMCOWs Gender Management Framework
Presentation Outline• Indicators for enabling environment, processes /action plans, mechanisms, and institutions• Opportunities moving forward
Enabling Environment IndicatorsContext Law of equal Opportunity, 2007Peru, Towns of 2,000 – 30,000 Partnership between municipality, PO and community boardLocal governments, weak watermanagement , deteriorating 50: 50 gender balanced communityinfrastructure, and poor oversight board; transparentcommunication with stakeholders elections, responsive communication Competitively appointed Private Operator Tariff setting through separate male – female consultation and consensus Water for multiple uses
Processes and MechanismsContextIndonesia, Urban sanitation at cityand community levelsSanitation sector developmentprogram Indicators Targeted stakeholder gender training Separate male female planning sessions on strategy, technical options, costs Cooperation and equal participation in planning and implementation
Processes and mechanismsContext IndicatorsSenegal, rural hand washing with Field Monitoring and discussion onsoap initiative strategies for scaling upTraditional practice, focus on Understood that men allocatewomen and they were employed resources and play role as modelsas hygiene relays Lesson on importance of engaging men at the start of behavior initiative Project now incorporates men as target audience; improved impacts
Institutions and Human ResourcesContext IndicatorsUganda, Ministry of Water and 2003 MWE Institutional reviewEnvironment (MWE) considered gender strategy goalsWater Sector Gender Strategy I & II Assistant Commissioner appointedbased on National gender policy overall gender focal point (GFP), part of ToRGoal to empower men, women andvulnerable groups for equity in Staff with gender competencies hiredaccess and control of water into each sub sector departmentresources Review also resulted in increased womens rep to 18% in senior management compared to before review
Gender Management System for WSS Enabling Environment: policies, Enabling Environment resources, inclusion of women and civic groups Institutions Processes: develop and implementProcesses gender action plans and Human resources Mechanisms: awareness levers (training, M&E), incentive and Mechanisms boundary levers (performance contracting, accountability) Institutions and HR: Lead agency, working groups, gender focal points
What are the opportunities?• Regional M&E framework to facilitate awareness of indicators and focus to gender targets• South – South exchange and benchmarking of AMCOW 7 point strategy• Research to provide evidence based responses• Gender working groups and virtual community of practice;