An achievement of humanity is the ability to produce enough food globally for a growing population. But there is a problem of distribution, and malnourishment and poverty lingers, especially in South Asia and Sub-saharan Africa.
2020 Vision:The Future of Water, The challenge for GWP by Margaret Catley-Carlson
2020 Vision: The Future of Water sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, The Challenge for GWP.Margaret Catley-CarlsonGWP 2nd annual lectureStockholm, August 2012 1
Water will still be there…• Different weather events • Flood and drought risk changes• New sea level and saline risks sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• More threats to water sources• Groundwater –major focus area• Per person availability……• Situation will be MUCH tougher 2
Water use patterns will shift a little• Much more emphasis on water saving techniques • Energy installations • New agriculture techniques sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• Water Re-Use • Urban, agricultural, industrial• More policy attention. •Implementation? 5
CONTINUING PROGRESS ON POLICY SIDE>>>>>IMPLEMENTATION??? sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, 6
Progress more likely for DCs than LDCsNational/Federal IntegratedWater Resources ManagementPlan(s) or Equivalent: Thecurrent status of the main plansthat include integratedapproaches to water resources sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, 7
We will still be managing waterbadly• Pollution vs development• Undercharging• Degrading municipal systems sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • 3x cost of reaching MDG to maintain capacity to do so: OECD• Over abstraction and deltas• Fragmented accountability 8
AND …… MORE PLAYERS ARE WORRIED.USA Intelligence Community Assessment sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, 9
Clearly this is a problem with local and global impact: Does this mean Impetus for Global solutions?• from Rio+20? – not encouaging.• “World’s longest suicide note.” sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• Did reaffirm 2002 JPI • …”the development of integrated water resource management and water efficiency plans, ensuring sustainable water use”, with countries committing to “significantly improve the implementation of integrated water resource management at all levels” (Ref.paragraph 120 of the Rio+20 declaration). • End of an era? 10
End of an era? • Mega Conference, mega resolutions • Still essential to set policy umbrella • not all that successful on action sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • BRICs – big multilateralists? • Rio - Like Copenhagen – • bit of fizzle • Durban……Cancun – local focus • Big opportunity for GWP 11
New Impetus? • GWP – knows a lot • Knows local policy • Knows local players sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • Knows and documents global best practice • Knows partnership potentials 12
GWP - Looking at the rightareas• Water and climate change• Integrated urban water management sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• Water and food security• Water and energy security• Water financing• Transboundary water management 13
Inside two of these issue areas…..• Water and food and energy – the so called Nexus • Recall s IWRM – push for integration sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • Not all of the IWRM elements as seen by GWP 14
A VERY LOCAL ISSUE WATER FOR FOOD,WATER FOR ENERGY, WATER FOR HUMANSETTLEMENTS. sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, 15
Rising food security concernsIt takes a litre of water toMargaret Catley-Carlson, calorie, on average produce every sTOCKHOLM, 2012 16
How much more water forcereals? sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,Food demand doubles over the next 50 because of diet and population 17 Water Needs (ET) will double – without water productivity gains
ANSWERS don’t always improve things…. Biofuels: India: and in2030 (WaterSim analysis : IWMI). Green solution with blue impacts Water for biofuels* Water for food and feed today Future water for food, CA scenario Approaching No water scarcity Water scarce water scarcity 0% 60% 75% 100% % of potentially utilizable waterMargaret Catley-Carlson, withdrawn for human purposes 18 sTOCKHOLM, 2012 *Assumes that 10% of gasoline demand is met by biofuels by 2030
ANSWERS don’t always improve things…. Biofuels: India: andin 2030 (WaterSim analysis : IWMI). Green solution with blueimpacts sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, 19
The other energy dilemma• 3bn people using traditional biomass for cooking and heating, and the 1.4bn who lack electricity, “green”, “sustainable”, “eco” and “clean”• In Asia – brown cloud of smog sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • Major health and mortality threat• A vivid example of why we cannot dismiss the need of poor• We need Green Growth – 22
Water for People….. Margaret Catley-Carlson,23 sTOCKHOLM, 2012
What Has To Happen? 3 Ways of looking at a single answer# 1 – Integrate Water Energy and Agriculture Mgmt. sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, 25
Agricultu Industry _ Municipa Supply Cost ofIndia, Below (for additional National river linking project (NRLP) Pre-harvest treatment water Municipal dams availability in 2030 Deep groundwater 0.80 USD/m3 Gap in 2030 = 755,800 million m3 Ag rainwater harvesting Cost to close gap = USD 5.9 billion Aquifer recharge small 0.10 Infrastructure rehabilitation Large infrastructure Shallow groundwater 0.08 Rainfed germplasm Wastewater reuse 0.06 Irrigated IPM Irrigated germplasm 0.04 Drip irrigation Increm sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, 0.02 ental 0 availabi lity -0.02 250 500 750 1,000 1,250 Billion -0.04 Desalination m3 -0.06 Increase fertilizer use (thermal) Desalination Industrial levers Reduce losses (reverse Sprinkler irrigation Rainfed drainage Irrigated drainage Artificial recharge osmosis) canal On-farm Rainfed fertilizer balance System of rice Small infrastructure lining intensification Genetic crop development – rainfed Post-harvest (SRI) Irrigated fertilizer balance Rainfed integrated pest management (IPM) treatment Rainwater harvest Municipal26 Reduced over-irrigation Last mile infrastructure harves No-till Genetic crop development - irrigated farming leakage SOURCE: 2030 Water Resources Group
#3 Manage from General Principles broad but useful• 1. Reduce demand for water and energy through increased water-energy efficiency, better agricultural water and rationalized municipal use• 2. Invest in research and development into water, sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, energy, agricultural technologies• 3. Develop and implement practical sustainability tools and standards• 4. Take an integrated approach to policy-making, planning and management in the water and energy sectors – where possible, agriculture• 5. Policies promoting efficient use of resources and sustainable practice need to be complemented by 27 integrated incentive and regulatory structures
Back to GWP• Right ingredients for high relevancy.• Good policy sense• Looking at the right issues.• Looking at the right part of the problem?• The big challenges sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • Getting excellent at partnerships • Issue focused, short term, mutual interests • Acquiring real expertise in implementation • How to make it happen, partners and pressure pts • Study SUCCESSS - talk about it, make it the central focus. What made it happen? 28 • Solve Problems – not just policies and frameworks.
‘Stories of thingsthat are working – sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,now 29
Australia-”nothing like a nt drought”. nitiat ive im p leme I al W ater ed g bas rural and n in an Nationner d plann ces for u stralilined ma ulatory anr resour the A discip g et, reroundwa te sf r om s i n a ark tractreformEx r le, m ce and g ements; g; tib rfa t enefi s; pa l cb wate ally-com ging su cess entit er plannin her publi practice n a c t t t •natiom of mant water a based wa tal and onagemen overused syste n use tha tatutory- vironmenental ma cated or ction; f sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, u rba n t, s or en ironm r-a llo f extra en ing o spare rovision f ved env ently ove levels o and deep •Tran ory p ro rr le g ut , and imp n of all cu ustainab roadenin •Stat mes ur y -s rb ou tco e ret nmentall e th viro in wate eeds of et de n o m p l s t o en •C m rs to tra mation in ys te of b arrie of risk he infor ation s t t ov oval market •Rem ater sig nmen e to meet an d i nn t he as ch is abl fici ency the w around g whi u se ef •C larity ccountin te w ater er a water •Wat rent facilita 30 w h i ch ; diffe settings l areas y a •Policn and rur urba
Cambodia – Phnom Penh Authoritytransformed 1993-2009• Connections X 7;• NRW fell 73% to 6%,• collection efficiency- 8% to 99.9%, sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• total revenues 300,000 to $25 million, with an $8 million operating surplus• utility is now self-financing. • Virtuous circle: Tariffs increased now held constant combination of service expansion, reduced water losses and high collection rates has guaranteed a 31 sufficient cash flow for debt repayment as well as capital expenditure.
Philippines• Balibago Waterworks Systems, • serves around 70,000 customers in a rural area of the Philippines. • Panlilio’s grows his business by going out to adjacent sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, towns and villages and asking whether they would like a piped water supply. • They are shown the regulator’s schedule of tariffs, and then if they want piped water and are prepared to pay for it, they get it. • It is an attractive proposition for communities which might previously have relied on hand pumps and wells, and it makes good money for Balibago’s 32 investors.
Extending Water Service to improve generalresource management. - meters• Smart meters –• radio transmitters in meters • real time data, even out demand, • early detection of leaks, calibrate the energy demand sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • flood indicators, groundwater quality • Malta is now totally smart metered, • iintegrating both water and power systems. • able to identify water leaks and electricity losses in the grid, • plan investments, set variable rates, reward customers • But the big issues: policies, acceptability, communication 33
Cities as Their Own Catchments• institutional, sector reforms, and improved water quality towards more efficient water uses and values • Policies recognizing inter-agency/multi- stakeholder cooperation and coordination; enforcement and management, sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• Move from traditional single objective spending • investing in runoff reduction and storm water management strategies • multiple benefits. • sewage and storm water and rainwater are valued as resources for irrigation and other uses, • reducing conventional water supply network• more water for environmental flows and ecosystem services.• Livelihood opportunities of the various (peri) urban communities 34
Queensland Australia – LuggagePoint • Treats wastewater to provide a reliable source of water for power production, and to augment drinking water supplies and to return water t environment sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • Incorporates innovative treatment technologies • Queensland Government Completed June 2011 CH2M HILL • The Luggage Point plant is a major component of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, undertaken to address acute water shortages and continued population growth. 35
MASDAR , A SUSTAINABLE CITY IN ABUDHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES • City will rely entirely on renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • $22 billion • water portfolio management principles to treat all parts of the water cycle as potential resources. This approach includes aggressive use of a variety of water sources, including groundwater, seawater, surface runoff, rainwater harvesting, dew/fog capture, grey water reuse, black water reuse, and resource recovery for urine 36 streams.
GIPPSLAND WATER, VICTORIA AUSTRALIA• New 35 ML/day Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment plant to treat effluent from Australian Paper municipal effluent from three communities industrial and municipal effluent disposal in the Latrobe Valley region• Provide high quality reclaimed water for use within Australian Paper’s Mary vale plant, enabling plant expansion sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• Upgrade of the Dutson Downs wastewater treatment facility to permit reuse of effluent• co generation and hydropower facilities to reduce the greenhouse gas impact of the project energy consumption• community awareness about water conservation and sustainable water 37 management
Atotonilco Wastewater TreatmentPlant• largest of its kind on the planet and one of the largest- ever Mexican works.• wastewater treatment for 10.5 million inhabitants.• Treated effluent will flow into irrigation channels for local farmers to use free of charge. • More than 90 percent of Mexico City’s wastewater is currently piped north to Hidalgo state to be used sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, untreated for alfalfa irrigation, which poses serious health and environmental problems.The Atotonilco WWTP will provide a safe, reliable supply of irrigation water, conserving freshwater resources 38
Alberta – watershedmonitoring•Two Alberta Watershed Councils (WPACs) • pursuing the transparency and management tools that online digital reporting enables. • State of the Watershed reporting is moving to sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, an online digital (monitoring data based) • Indicators/thresholds/targets are being developed • Talk of a common suite of indicators for monitoring and inclusion in systems for Alberta 39
COLORADO :MULTI-OBJECTIVE PERFORMANCE• Colorado River is managed for many objectives • agricultural, municipal, and industrial users, hydroelectric power, recreation, fish and wildlife, flood control, and water quality. • performance of various water management strategies will be evaluated against metrics sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, currently being developed for each of these objectives. • Diverse group of stakeholders consisting of federal, state, tribal, and local interests is being assembled to define standardized metrics to 40 evaluate risks to the various resources.
Colorado, continued • evaluate current and future demands in the basin. • evaluating and synthesizing demands • Basin, non-consumptive demands such as hydropower, recreation, instream flows, and cooling, • projections to reflect scenarios of future growth, land use, water use efficiency, and technology. • Unique to this study, demands are being indexed for future climate scenarios sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • current and future imbalances in water supply and demand in the Colorado River Basin and the adjacent areas of the Basin States that receive Colorado River water. • uncertainty in supply and demands over the next 50 years, adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve the imbalances. CH2M 41
Waste Water Treatment/Harvesting – Not New but more exciting• Namibia, early world leaders - Singapore, parts of China and even the USA, starting in San Diego• Rotterdam powers buses with waste water energy recapture. sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • Sweden and Germany - ambitious directives to recycle up to 60% of wastewater phosphorus, • ½ returned to farms • rest to pastures or forest plantations. • France – this year – break even point. 42
Pollution control – New Agric andNew Energy can solve water problems • Eutrophication -. The future can look different: • Urea Deep placement techniques • add as much as 25% to farmer income, • increase the percentage of nitrogen taken up by sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, plants, and • significantly reduce ‘normal’ nitrogen flow into water and soil – a main source of the environmental problem of blue green algae • Literally millions of waste-fuelled gas methane burners supply energy to rural areas. 43 • Maybe new partnerships???????
Not all Mega scale…Remember the other Energy Crisis• Decentralized waste water treatment – energy capture• 38 Case Studies on Decentralized Wastewater Treatment sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• Now Available on the WaterWikiA • decentralized wastewater treatment solutions from sanitation projects in Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam and Philippines is now available on the WaterWiki.• . 44
Breweries, Prisons, Skyscrapers• October 2010 Adnans Brewery – UK biomethane from brewery and food waste delivered its biomethane to the gas grid.• Kenyan Prisons• Water used to transport the prisoners waste to the biogas plant is recycled and can be reused for agricultural purposes.• Substitution of firewood with biogas as fuel in the prison reduces deforestation• helping to reduce drought, which in turn helps to improve food sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, security.• Le Solaire – 20 River Terrace, NYC• 27 story, 293 units: now 35% less energy, reduces peak electricity demand by 65%, 50% less potable water• Rainwater collected for irrigation of green roof with water retention layer• 10,000 gallon storm water tank separates sediment, treats 45 water.• No uptake of city water for outdoor use.
Six Marseilles Commitments on Water-Energy Nexus link• TARGET 1 – WATER SHOULD SAVE ENERGY;• Create a typology of measures implemented by public authorities and water utilities in cities totaling 500 million inhabitants, aiming at a minimal improvement of 20% of energy efficiency of municipal water and wastewater systems by 2020 compared to 1990 level. sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• International Water Association –( IWA) Paul Reiter - Ger Bergkamp• firstname.lastname@example.org -Ger.Bergkamp@iwahq.org• Target 2 - – DESALINATION SHOULD BE ENERGY CHEAPER.• Energy Task Force, to develop a guide allowing 20% energy reduction in desalination by 2015• International Desalination Association (IDA) Leon Awerbuch• email@example.com 46
•T arg wa et 3 : t vol er nex off gri • E atility t to d is lect res their olated p.d ricien ilie re c esr oqu s Sa nt e siden omm es@ ns Fro nergy tial lo unitie •T la p n s c s arg ost tières ource ation will h for et 4 : e.n et (ESF) s , th a rou ve ac eva B Ph i c• E lua y 201 lipp gh affo ess to sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, DF tion 5, e eD Lau esr rda dlau ren ren and stab oqu ble rinkin t.be t Belle rep lish ort a co es and g llet t ing @e df.f of t ncept r he ual ene a rgy nd an imp alyt act ic s on a l f ra wa mew 47 ter ork
‘• Target 5: By 2015, with the aim to measure and guide sustainability performance • preparation, implementation and operation of hydropower facilities in at least 20 countries covering the world’s five major regions, • utilize a hydropower sustainability assessment tool, developed through a multistakeholder process, and covering economic, social and environmental dimensions.• International Hydropower Association (IHA) Richard Taylor• firstname.lastname@example.org; sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson,• TARGET 6 – A PLATFORM FOR OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES, THEIR PARTNERS AND CUSTOMERS TO DISC USS WATER SPIN OFFS& gas professionals from International Oil Companies, National companies • Oil Companies, Service Companies & International Trade • Associations to drive responsible water management in oil & • gas exploration and production is operational. This platform • will address water use, impact, opportunities, assessing • performance 48
Back to GWP• Right ingredients for high relevancy.• Good policy sense• Looking at the right issues.• Looking at the right part of the problem?• The big challenges sTOCKHOLM, 2012 Margaret Catley-Carlson, • Getting excellent at partnerships • Issue focused, short term, mutual interests • Acquiring real expertise in implementation • How to make it happen, partners and pressure pts • Study SUCCESSS - talk about it, make it the central focus. What made it happen? 49 • Solve Problems – not just policies and frameworks.