ICID response to water and food security and climage change challenges, by M Gopalakrishnan


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ICID response to water and food security and climage change challenges, by M Gopalakrishnan

  1. 1. M. Gopalakrishnan Secretary General ICID GWP Regional Workshop onClimate Change, Food and Water SecurityColombo, Sri Lanka, 24-25 February 2011
  2. 2.  Introducing International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage Informing what ICID does for “Water for Agriculture” Touch upon ICID‟s Working Groups (thematic /Generic and Regional) ICID‟s Asian Regional Working Group and ICID‟s possible role in the “Platform for South Asia” to address Water ,Food Security & MDGs
  3. 3. Managing Water for Sustainable Agriculture — Water for Food and Rural Development
  4. 4.  The Commission is dedicated to enhancing the worldwide supply of food and fibre for all people by improving water and land management and the productivity of irrigated and drained lands. The Mission of ICID is to stimulate and promote the development and application of the arts, sciences and techniques in allied disciplines in managing water and land resources for achieving sustainable irrigated agriculture. ICID Managing Water for Sustainable Agriculture — Water for Food and Rural Development
  5. 5. Global coverage of membership networkContinent Members Developing countries 68Africa 27 Developed Countries 22Americas 18 Least Developed 20Asia and Oceania 36 Countries (LDCs)Europe 29Total 110 40 35Active Countries (65) 30Developing countries 47 25 Member 20Developed countries 18 15 10 5 0 Africa Americas Europe Oceania Asia &
  6. 6. 90 78 80 70 66 65 63 63 60 Asia : 34 50 43 40 30 20 11 10 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Starting with 11 founding member countries in 1950, 110 countries have so far joined ICID to pool their efforts.  Best Performing National Committee Award : Instituted in 2002 and presented at every triennial Congress. The performance of a National Committee is judged on the basis of various facets demonstrated by the participating National Committees between two successive ICID Congresses (over a three year period).  [1st Award – Korean National Committee (2002),  2nd Award – Egyptian National Committee (2005),  3rd Award – Iranian National Committee (2008)]
  7. 7.  ICID’s strength lies in its networking and ensuring its dynamic functionality, on members’ democratic choices & preferences Activities of the Commission are carried out through technical and other workbodies. National Committees nominate experts to these workbodies. There are over 30 workbodies, presently. Over 289 World-renowned experts occupy 412 membership slots on ICID workbodies and contribute.
  8. 8.  Activities of the Commission are carried out through technical workbodiescovering e.g., “on- farm” , “system” and “Basin” issues. Apart from the development and management of appropriate systems, inter-basin water transfer, socio- economic impacts of irrigated agriculture, livelihood & poverty alleviation, climate change, etc. are some areas being looked into. Regional water related issues are addressed by special working groups covering Africa, Europe, Asia, Americas, Lake Chad Basin and the Aral Sea Basin. Currently, there are over 30 such work groups.  Best Performing Workbody Award  This is meant to acknowledge the Best Groups’ Contributions triennially once in every congress..
  9. 9. 1.1080.480 (2010)(2008)
  10. 10. ASIAWhy Asia is important for ICID ? • 60 % of world For all the good reasons … population. • 24% of world lands. •34% of world arable lands. •72% of world Irrigated lands. •34% of world drained lands. •20% of total world precipitation. •62% of the world hungry people.
  11. 11. TheDistribution of theWorld Hunger
  12. 12. WWDR , 2009
  13. 13.  Out of the world‟s 50 Least Developed Countries (LDCs), 15 are located in Asia
  14. 14. ICID Position is reflected best in its latest contribution to World Water Forum in Istanbul when as the topic Coordinators, ICID, together with a consortium of 56 Global Institutions and Consulting Organisations, pondered and dealt with Water for Food, Poverty Alleviation and Rural Livelihood.Inter-alia, the desirable approach in a vastly varied settings in the globe emerged during discussions on Water Governance as well as Sectoral Allocation Needs. (Topic 2.3 –WWF 5)
  15. 15.  How to bridge between agric and water policies? How can water management improvements contribute to the required increase in food production? What types of investments are necessary? How can rainfed agriculture contribute more effectively to enhance food security and improve livelihoods in rural areas? What policies/actions may ensure sustainability of water resources and river basin services that underpin increases in agricultural productivity?
  16. 16.  Multi-functionality of agriculture/irrigation with attention to environmental impacts and services. Some increase in water withdrawals for irrigation and increase in crop yields are required to meet food production in least developed and emerging countries Ensure availability of other inputs: seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipments, extension services Optimization of farm holdings
  17. 17.  Focus on improvement of all irrigation schemes, long term O&M and better water productivity Organize small-holder farmers into socially cohesive bodies to operate as one big entrepreneur; Include and encourage farmers in agricultural water management initiatives Involve women in management and decision making . Development of local markets key to move farmers from survival mode to market oriented farming Ensure enabling governance and policies
  18. 18.  Reforms in respect to water management; consider Water for Food, People and Environment, Water pricing, Asset maintenance and enhanced investment for the operation and maintenance, Ownership and transfer of resources (PIM and WUAs) Capacity building Envisage a fresh programme to Invigorate Technology Research in Irrigation and Drainage; ICID National Committees to take a lead role and twinning efforts of NCs (A New IPTRID)
  19. 19.  Triennial World Irrigation and Drainage Congress (21st International Congress on Irrigation & Drainage, Oct. 2011, Tehran, Iran) Annual Conference [International Executive Council Meeting (IEC)] (62nd IEC, Oct. 2011, Tehran, Iran) Regional Conferences [African, Asian, European, American] (3rd African, Sept. 2011, Mali; 7th Asian, June 2012, Adelaide, Australia; 24th European, March 2011, Orleans, France; 25th European, May 2011, Groningen, The Netherlands) Micro Irrigation Congresses (8th International Micro Irrigation Congress, Oct. 2011, Tehran, Iran) International Drainage Workshop – IDW (11th IDW, Sep. 2012, Cairo, Egypt; 12th IDW, June 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia)
  20. 20. 1 September Seoul, 2001 South Korea2 March Echuca, Irrigation in the total catchment management 2004 Australia3 September Kuala Lumpur, Transforming irrigated agriculture into an 2006 Malaysia efficient engine of growth4 May 2007 Tehran, Participatory Irrigation Management Iran5 December New Delhi, Improvement in Efficiency of Irrigation 2009 India Projects through Technology Up-gradation and Better Operation & Maintenance6 October Yogyakarta, Improvement of irrigation and Drainage 2010 Indonesia efficiency under the small land holding condition7 June 2012 Adelaide Water Productivity towards Food Security Australia
  21. 21.  UN Water Systems- WMO, WHO and FAO WWAP & World Water Development Reports WWC and World Water Fora, 1 to 5 and …6 WWF 5 Istanbul  Theme 2 Topic 2.3 WWF 6 (Food Security by Optimal Use of Water) Comprehensive Assessment IWMI Country Policy Support Programme (ICID) Issues relating to Aral Sea Basin, Lake Chad …
  22. 22. Provides allinformation on ICID and its activities
  23. 23.  Are we rightly projecting to the society the notions on „efficiency‟ - especially of Surface Irrigation diversions? Its achievements or the lack of it? Are we right in concluding that large scale Surface Irrigation fail to deliver in a regional context? Does it favour of an enhanced reliance on the use of GW for irrigated agric food production? Are we justified in arguing that just by improvement in agricultural water management & attaining better efficiencies, future needs for doubling the production, an acknowledged need for SA is attainable? What does the “atomistic irrigation” teach us? Is it a panacea? What change t we attempt to suggest in improving developed Surface Irrigation Systems? Any Solutions to enhance PIM?
  24. 24. Water Rainfall included & Land The type of Resource Scarcity Food Security Rs. Or $$ needs Efficiency improvement, viewed in different perspectives can mean different things to different players.And experts in water sector will look for better water productivity…
  25. 25. Surface Irrigation (87%)Paddy (100 Mha) Other Crops (134 mha) Sprinkler Irrigation (11%) Micro Irrigation (2%) (6 Mha) (30 Mha) { World Irrigated Area : 270 Million Hectares}
  26. 26. India: Surface Irrgn. System Efficiencies Sources of losses Seepage Evaporation Total Main canal and Branches 13.6 3.4 17.0 Distributaries 6.4 1.6 8.0 Field and Water Courses 16.0 4.0 20.0 Field application losses 13.2 3.3 16.5 Total 49.2 12.3 61.5About 60% of the losses in Surface Irrigation are seen to be beyond themain canals & distributaries. These losses are recoverable byconjunctive use as it recharges ground water (or appear as return flows)
  27. 27.  Efficiency concept itself is ‘Scale dependant’ The interpretation could mean differently when one looks at „On farm‟, „System as a whole‟ & the „Basin‟ Relevance of WUE is high in water scarce basins (closed basins) with more (& more) emerging demands Depending on the individual situation, investment needs may have to be borne for more value usage or meeting nature sector needs What is of greater significance is to enhance the “beneficial uses” and minimise “non beneficial”
  28. 28. Water Use Indicators Beneficial Non Beneficial(consumed fraction) (Non consumed fraction) Reusable Non Reusable (Preserved Quality) (Degraded Quality) How can future actions avoid or reduce all non Beneficial components ? That can help better WM..
  29. 29. Revamping Surface Irrigation:China Reduces Irrigation Water Withdrawals by 25 %402 large irrigation schemes (LISs) coveringabout 25% of country’s total irrigated area of56 million ha.From 1998 to 2005, China has invested a totalof 18.9 billion RMB Yuan to modernize 255large irrig. Schemes.Post-evaluation of the program revealed that,0.65 million ha irrigated area was restored,3.31 million ha irrigated farmland wasimproved leading to an increase of 5.82 m.tonnes of food annually.The total agricultural output in the programarea increased by 46.1% and net per capitaincome increased by 43.8%.The staff deployed for management reducedby 25.7% i.e. from 5.68 persons to 4.12 personsper ten thousand ha of irrigated area.The irrigated area managed by water userassociations increased from 9.1% to 36.0% ofthe total irrigated area.The average annual losses due to natural India is also focusing on actionsdisaster reduced by 3.2 billion RMB Yuan on large SI schemes…
  30. 30.  Let us however be not complacent that actions on the „efficiency improvement‟ alone will suffice to achieve the regional food security in the future The importance of sufficient storage is all the more important, given the likely variations in climatic situation under „Climate Change‟ Scenario Additional External Drivers (oil price, global markets, financial crisis etc., add fuel to the fire