Dams and Development - Case of Pakistan, by Pervaiz Amir
Dams and Development-Case of Pakistan Pervaiz Amir Presented at GWP-IWMI Workshop on Water, Food Security and Climate Change, Colombo Sri Lanka 24-25 February, 2011
• Dams in Pakistan’ history, contribution to agriculture, industrial and economic growth-part of Indus Package• Tarbela Dam WCD case- actual benefits exceed predicted.• Dam Justification irrigation but hydropower crucial output• Dams neutralize flood impacts? Do they? 2010 US $ 10 billion originally stated as US $ 43 billion• Climate Change, environmental flows, salvaging dead rivers• Dams and Food Security• Dams mega investments, delays even costlier• Dams regulate water and symbolize development- monuments of human endeavor• Great plans but slow or no implementation
Actual vs. Predicted Benefits of Tarbela Dam (1998/M$) Hydropower Irrigation 30002500 2400 1500 1750 22.0 M 19.6 M 1500 Pedicted Actual
Challenge #1 Water Security• Amount 145 MAF available to Manage• Water Security only 30 days or less• Population 2010 (180 million ) 2035 (350 million)• Global Warming and Glacier melt (80% melting)• Transboundary conflicts- Avg vs. Actual flows• Pakistan 12.35 MAF out of 145 MAF• India 245 MAF out of 750 MAF• Climate Change- Treaties under threat--Realities
Challenge #2 Energy Security• Pakistan faces short fall of 5000 MW• Energy Mix Hydro Nuclear Oil• Hydropower potential is 60,000 MW- alternatives yes but no demonstrated contribution• Price Rs. 0.28/watt alternate Rs 15 per watt• Losing 5+% GDP annually due to shortfalls• Discontent, political turmoil and social disharmony
Challenge # 3 Food Security• IFPRI predicts 44-50% decline in wheat and rice yields due to CC• Pakistan facing acute water shortages, rising temperatures and uneven rainfall distribution• Food insecurity leads to rising poverty, marginalization and extremism• Dams can help stabilize food production, increase crop intensity and diversify agriculture• Better to simultaneously invest in agriculture and water development-no use giving first class costly water to third class traditional agriculture
Water Flows on the Indus Indus river Total Inflows at Tarbela Rim Station Table Indus River Kharif Inflows at Tarbela Rim (1922-2009). Station (1922-2009) 80,0095,00 70,0085,0075,00 60,0065,00 50,00(MAF) (MAF)55,00 40,0045,00 30,0035,0025,00 20,0015,00 10,00 5,00 0,00 61-62 63-64 65-66 67-68 69-70 71-72 73-74 75-76 77-78 79-80 81-82 83-84 85-86 87-88 89-90 91-92 93-94 95-96 97-98 99-00 2001-02 2003-04 2005-06 2007-08 61-62 63-64 65-66 67-68 69-70 71-72 73-74 75-76 77-78 79-80 81-82 83-84 85-86 87-88 89-90 91-92 93-94 95-96 97-98 99-00 2001-02 2003-04 2005-06 2007-08 Kharif + rabi Tarbela Kharif Tarbela Linéaire (Kharif Tarbela) Linéaire (Kharif + rabi Tarbela)
Challenge # 4 Buffering Climate Change• Glacier Melt saved in dams or in dangerous GLOF– hydraulic challenges• Why dams-- if flows projected to decline• Living with half empty glasses• Dams during floods and droughts• Dams as instruments of Planned Adaptation• What if no climate change takes place?? Are investments in dams worthwhile
Challenge# 5 Stabilizing Economic Growth/welfare/Equity/Distribution• Its my dam too and so is my road!• Gainers compensating losers• Upfront investments in technology, agriculture, planning and human capital• Role of markets in allocating water and electricity• National Engagement- the US I-40 experience• Kinks from Climate Change e.g. flood aberrations• Dams as breeding grounds for Malaria/Dengue• New avenues and area development –beyond status quo
50 B Question!• For Pakistan Climate Change is a matter of Developing Water Security. The costs are US $ 1.85/MAF and 25 MAF water development is mere replacement works.• The New financiers are in search of markets and South Asia provides the population center of the World• Debt Servicing/write-off to address climate change adaptation
New Breed of Water Managers who address Questions of Public Policy• How much debate on dams is desirable and when does decision making process set in to finalize decisions on dams that are backed by the constitution or in the case of India (the legislature)?• In each and every circumstance there is the upper lower riparian issue since water is a flow which after dam building gets converted into a stock?• Benefit Sharing is an emerging area of economics –are governments willing to part with the historical power play including reforms in historical rights and entitlements when water changes its historical free flow course?• In Pakistan’s the rural vs. urban divide increases—where do dams fit in? when they can eat up budgets in tune of almost 8-10% GDP of a country like Pakistan. Balancing such an undertaking requires consensus building often becoming difficult due to political polarization.
Lessons Learned from Dams in• Indecision is costly Pakistan• Have served Pakistan’s interests well• New Dams require extensive benefit sharing-especially those that are contentious• Environmental concerns only given “lip service”• Mismanagement, governance and corruption are very serious issues in the water sector-is it only Pakistan specific?• Climate change is forcing response in water sector-it has to be both demand and supply side driven• Platforms that bridge the intellectual gap (post WCD) and guide the process of achieving water security can play important role• Capacity Building of Policy Institutions and Water Managers• Way forward is in implementation, evaluating , adjusting and again implementing hard choices with minimum time lag
Let us not have to tell our grand children this is the way we left it for you !Thanks and may God bless you !