Defining Literacy Literacy in Malaysia Literacy in the school curriculum Literacy practices in schools Pre-school Education Primary school Education Secondary school Education Tertiary school Education Challenges
National Literacy Policy One who has reading ability or can read One who has formal education and at least some form of informal education
Views from parents & teachers To be a literate is to be able to read, write, count, think and make simple decisions. It refers to the ability to understand the meanings of reading materials, sets of numbers and basic logistics, and communicate/convey those meanings to others in a coherent manner. Literacy is defined as the ability to read, write, count, think critically and make basic decisions. Literacy varies amongst countries based on socio-cultural influence, education level, nutrition status and governance.
The basis is manage to read, write and count. Literacy as the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society.
Become literate in one’s own language:Parent:I became literate in my own language firstly through communication and interaction with family members when I was young, and then through formal learning and communication/interaction with teachers and friends when I start formal education in schools.Teacher:Learn the language, read, write and use the language daily
Believe that reading the Quran or academic books, solving mathematical problems, playing musical instruments or any form of focused mental activity could stimulate the brain of an unborn child in the mother’s womb. Parents who encourage the 3Rs of reading, writing and arithmetic during a child’s budding years could facilitate their children’s literacy
The Education Act 1996Legislation that provides for pre-school education, primary school education, secondary school education, post-secondary education, teacher education, special education, religious teaching, private education, and technical education (but does not include education in foreign system schools i.e. expatriate schools or international schools).
Literacy and literate citizen play a critical in transforming Malaysia into a developed country status by 2020. To achieve this end, the Government of Malaysia has earmarked large investments in primary, secondary and tertiary education to produce knowledge workers to satisfy the demanding workplace environment of the future.
The concept of literacy changes over time to include the role of new technologies/ICT. Children constantly use handphones, personal computers, iPad, iPod and other electronic paraphernalia to communicate and interact with their counterparts at all times.
The Education Act 1996The Act stipulates the use of the national language (Bahasa Melayu) as a medium of instruction in all educational institutions in the national education system except national type schools or any other educational institutions
Specific organizations among the main Government agencies involved are: Ministry of Education, Ministry of Higher Education Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Human Resources, Ministry of Youth and Sports, and Ministry of Entrepreneurship.
National Policies on LiteracyMore than 96% of Malaysias people are literate.Literacy initiatives by government:• The Harmonious Family Education Program,• Religious Education Program, Skill Training Program,• Community Resource Center and Reading Program,• Functional Literacy Program,• Preschool Program,• Community Work Program and Community Activity Center.Through these programs, learners are able to gain knowledge and skills to enable them to be a literate productive citizen.
Literacy is embedded in all major subjects such as languages, mathematics, sciences, humanities (geography/history) and technical skills (domestic science/technical studies). Literacy is enhanced when students undertake these subjects in the curriculum.
Literacy is taught and practiced through various medium at local schools including interactive teaching and learning in classrooms, student project demonstrations, and extracurricular activities such as choir singing, debate, stage play, pantun performance, public speaking, slide presentation, etc.
Childcare centers & kindergartens: education of very young children (generally five years of age and younger). Prepare young children before enrolling to schools with formal education Generally teach early social skills including interpersonal interaction, being a part of a group of peers, and classroom skills such as following the instructions of a teacher. Some formal education such as early reading or language skills. Some nursery schools have adopted specialized methods of teaching, such as Montessori, Kumon, Smart Reader and various other pedagogy.
Basically, the principles of the pre-schoolcurriculum are:(a) the understanding of children’s characteristics (they are active, curious and they need love, attention and security);(b) the aim is to expose children to a rich and stimulating environment;(c) the programme provides a variety of support materials, such as concrete, printed, multi-sensory, interactive and userfriendly materials.
The basic skills taught: communication, social and other skills (3Rs)To enable the children to: develop love for their country; be well mannered and practice moral values; respect the national language; master the basics of the English language; appreciate physical activities as a basis for good health; develop physically and practice good health and safety measures; develop critical thinking skills through enquiry and the use of all the senses
Primary education (a period of 6 years) Mandatory for all children aged 7 to 12 The syllabus for primary school aims to equip learners with basic skills and knowledge of the subjects so as to enable them to communicate, both orally and in writing, in and out of school.
To master basic, thinking and social skills To acquire new knowledge To inculcate moral value To develop +ve attitude, creativity and hidden talent To instill patriotism and nationalism To love and appreciate nature To realize the importance of Health, Science and Technology
Awareness towards human and environment Expanding talent and creativity(arts) Mastering the scientific and technical skills Actively participate in cultural events better understanding Aware the importance of health and self-fitness
Malaysian Secondary Schools IntegratedCurriculum (KBSM) covers three main areas:Application of virtuous values in teachingLearning and teaching styleUsage of Malay Language across curriculum
i. Lifelong education.ii. Developing the potential of man (spirit, mind and body) including cognitive, affective and vocational education.iii. Performing two functions, i.e., as a servant and caliph of God.iv. Integration and perfection of faith and charity.v. Accomplishing happiness of the life and hereafter
Creation that includes Aspects of human potential, mind, knowledge, values and skills. The curriculum balances the demands of harmony between the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical elements in man, manifested Through human relationships with other humans, humans and nature and human with God
Upon completion of secondary education, students can opt to pursue 1 to 2 years of post-secondary education. This is the university entrance preparatory course. In total, the 12 years of school education serves as the basic entry requirement into Year One of a bachelor’s degree programme in public and private higher educational institutions.
Awards of certificate, diploma, first degree and higherdegree qualifications (at academic and professionalfields).Duration for bachelor degree programme 3 -4 yearsProvided by public and private education sectors,attracting many international students (publicuniversities, polytechnics, community colleges andteacher training institutes)
Emphasis will be made on science and technology, the use of ICT, and the mastery of the Malay language and other languages.Aims: Produce students of excellence and Quality, further develop students character, encourage research and development (R&D) of international standards, Inculcate a culture of quality in higher education, and promote lifelong learning.
Levels of education offered, ranging from pre- school to tertiary education. Private Educational Institutions (PEIs) which provide education at preschool, primary and secondary levels. They comprise private schools and foreign system schools. Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs) which provide tertiary education leading to the awarding of certificate, diploma and degree qualifications
Children are engaged in literacy practices through the medium of new technologies such as sms, mms, messenger, facebook, twitter, blog, chatroom, etc
Home and school literacy practices do intersect because children constantly interact and communicate with their peers and teachers to discuss homework, class projects, school competitions, school trips, etc.
ImplementationTeachersTeaching methodsStudentsPeersAccess to technologiesClassroomLanguages for Mathematics & Science