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CCS within the UNFCCC - Luke Warren, CCSA


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This is a presentation delivered by Luke Warren of the CCSA at the Institute’s COP 17 side event, held on November 30. The presentation reviews the history of CCS discussions under the UNFCCC and proposes a path forward.

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CCS within the UNFCCC - Luke Warren, CCSA

  1. 1. CCS within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Dr Luke Warren Global CCS Institute Side Event 30th November 2011
  2. 2. Is CCS recognised under the UNFCCC?Kyoto Protocol;• Article 2.1 (a)(iv): Recognises “Carbon dioxide sequestration technologies” as a mitigation technology that promotes sustainable developmentCOP6;• Annex I & II Parties cooperate in the development, diffusion and transfer of CCS, encourage their wider use and facilitate the participation of LDCs and other non-Annex I Parties
  3. 3. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories• Parties have a number of obligations under UNFCCC & KP to report national GHG inventories – Utilise IPCC National GHG inventories• Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), New Delhi, 2002, invited IPCC to revise 1996 Guidelines – Process: 3 years; 250 Experts; >14,000 comments; adopted at IPCC-25, April 2006 – Includes new chapter on CCS (Volume 2, Chapter 5)• IPCC considers the guidelines to: – “provide best, widely applicable default methodologies” – Suitable for national GHG inventories and project-based estimates• Provide the international framework for managing the selection and MRV of CO2 storage sites
  4. 4. CCS in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines• Utilises a Tier 3 plant-level reporting methodology• Tier 1 or 2 approach (emission factors) inappropriate – Geological formations highly heterogeneous – Empirical data from monitored storage sites limitedIPCC approach to estimate and report emissions from storage sites: Site Assess Monitoring Reporting Characterisation Leakage Risk IPCC Conclusion “Tier 3 Methodology can be implemented so as to support not only zero emission estimates but also to detect leakage, even at low levels, if it occurs”• Consistent with 2005 IPCC Special Report on CCS• Basis for other international and regional CCS regulatory frameworks• Norway reports emissions from Sleipner and Snøhvit CCS projects using 2006 IPCC Guidelines
  5. 5. CCS and developing countries• CCS must be rapidly deployed in developing countries• Limited funding for CCS to date: <0.001 % climate finance to CCS• International effort primarily on inclusion of CCS in CDM
  6. 6. CCS as CDM Project Activities• Importance CCS CDM; – Legitimises CCS as valid technology for developing countries • CCS also requires support from other mechanisms (i.e. NAMAs) – Create incentives / signal for CCS in developing countries • Stimulate development of national regulations and capacity • Could support low-cost CCS opportunities (i.e. gas processing) • Part of the solution for power and higher cost industrial applications – Establish precedence-setting regulatory framework for CCS can be utilised under other international funding mechanisms
  7. 7. CCS CDM timeline
  8. 8. CCS CDM next steps• Draft CCS CDM Modalities & Procedures released – negotiated at COP17/CMP7, Durban• Utilise existing CDM M&Ps as far as possible, plus – CCS specific additions; participation requirements, validation and verification requirements – Technical criteria established for site selection, risk assessment & monitoring – Financial provisions: including 5% CER reserve fund – Liability: • Addresses local & climate liability • Buyer or Host Party options for climate liability• CCS CDM M&Ps appear to provide a workable framework for the private sector to invest in CCS• Will Parties find them acceptable?
  9. 9. Summary• UNFCCC process has long-recognised the role of CCS in combating climate change• IPCC 2006 Guidelines recognises the emission reductions from CCS project activities• The adoption of CCS CDM M&Ps here in Durban would be a material positive development – Create incentive for CCS in developing countries – Establish international regulatory framework