Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Centre


Published on

Presentation by Paul Fennell, Imperial College London at COP 18 side event Global Update on CCS and Regional Project Perspectives

  • Be the first to comment

Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Centre

  1. 1. Grantham Institute for Climate Change Carbon Capture and Storage – The Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre Paul Fennell Department of Chemical Engineering Imperial College London Director, Imperial College Centre for CCSQatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre
  2. 2. Carbon capture and storage
  3. 3. Some numbers...• Current emissions are around 30 Gt CO2 per year (8.5 Gt carbon).• Say inject at 10 MPa and 40oC – density is 600-700 kgm-3.• This is about 108 m3/day or around 700 million barrels per day. Current oil production is around 85 million barrels per day.• Huge volumes – so not likely to be the whole story but could contribute 1-3 Gt carbon/yr… or ~ 10 Gt CO2 pa• Costs: 2-3 cents/kWh for electricity for capture and storage; $40-100 per tonne CO2 removed – Shackley and Gough, 2006
  4. 4. Why CCS?• CCS offers a vital role to balance grid demand when renewables are not generating.• Without CCS, costs to halve emissions by 2050 rise by 70% in the electricity sector (IEA CCS technology roadmap 2009)• Industries such as Cement, and Iron and Steel production intrinsically produce CO2. 5 ICCT August 2010
  5. 5. Status of Technology• Technology overall – In good shape – Ready for widespread deployment• Capture processes relatively mature and commercial – 60-70% of overall cost – Quite energy intensive (CO2 regeneration) – Compression costs high• New, improved capture processes in development
  6. 6. Status of Technology• CO2 Transport Pipelines not very extensive – Project specific – Some talk/studies of ‘grids’ but still some way off• Storage – Site selection – Injection design and implementation – Long-term monitoring All well developed in principle, based on long experience of oil and gas production and reservoir management, including gas injection – DNV CO2Qualstore Industry Guidelines for selection and management of storage sites
  7. 7. Status of Technology• But... – No really commercial CCS field operations – Actual experience and refinement through very limited number of field demonstrators: • 8-10 Large Scale Integrated Projects • ~40 Small-Medium Projects – Experience in Sandstones > Carbonates• Overall – 1st generation processes and methodologies robust and being refined in field demonstrators – Much 2nd generation technology in the pipeline • To improve efficiency and security of containment • To reduce costs
  8. 8. CO2 Capture Challenges• Lower Capex and Opex costs• Higher pressure processes – lower compression costs• Sorbents with high sorption and low regeneration energy• Smaller and more efficient contacters• Low cost air separation (oxyfuel)• Exploit membranes – lower energy separation 9
  9. 9. Likely technology adoption trajectory after Figueroa et al (2008)P Fennell and N Florin, Grantham Institute, Imperial College London
  10. 10. Key Storage Issues• Site Selection – Capacity, injectivity, containment, EOR?...• Safe injection design – Maximizing CO2 access to available storage capacity – Ensuring secure long term containment – Avoiding damage to reservoir eg fracturing• Long-term monitoring for containment assurance
  11. 11. In Salah project, Algeria 10% CO2 is produced with natural gas CO2 cannot be put in commercial pipeline Injected into deep saline formation in Krechba reservoir, at a depth of 2km One million tonnes of CO2 stored each year Operational since 2004 Surface has been uplifted by increased pressure
  12. 12. Opportunities in CCS for GCC• Already active demonstration activity in region (In Salah, Masdar...)• When accompanied by EOR, EGR  improved recoveries of valuable local resource• Economic drivers – CCS as part of CDM  carbon credits – Potential for GCC regional CO2 mitigation targets and trading system?• After energy efficiency, cheapest and quickest route to ‘green electricity’ and reducing GHG 13 emissions...and only way if using fossil fuels
  13. 13. Opportunities in CCS for GCC• CO2 capture costs often already in place – Coproduction from gas wells with CH4 – Gas-to-Liquids GTL• CCS for gas – ~50% less CO2 per kW  lower % efficiency penalty, lower CCS cost per kW• Widespread experience in region of gas injection• Many available reservoirs/aquifers – huge storage potential in carbonate reservoirs• CCS as an industry in its own right is a major potential economic, technology 14
  14. 14. Opportunities in CCS for GCC• CCS powered by renewable energy?– no efficiency penalty for power plant or additional emissions for industrial processes – Use solar energy for carbon capture (solvent regeneration) – Good fit – can use low temperature heat• Potential in future to be ultimate green oil and gas producers...combine production and CCS – in situ pre-combustion and processing 15
  15. 15. CCS as a driver for increased energy efficiency • The real cost of energy from fossil fuels = generation costs + CO2 mitigation costs • Pass CCS (and fossil fuel production) costs to consumer  rise in power costs  driver for increased energy efficiencies and savings  lower consumption and preservation of valuable national resource • Hence achieve three things – Reduced CO2 emissions from power generation and industrial processes (by CCS) – Reduced CO2 emissions from reduced power consumption (by cost- driven efficiency improvements) – Reduced depletion of valuable non-renewable resources • In GCC energy requirements likely to rise rapidly over next few benefits of CCS even greater proportionately than in e.g. Europe 16
  16. 16. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre • A 10 year, $70m programme to provide the science and engineering underpinning the cost-effective, safe, permanent storage of CO2 in carbonate reservoirs • Also addresses CO2 EOR • Sponsored by – Qatar Petroleum – Shell – Qatar Science and Technology Park 17
  17. 17. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre One Grand Challenge... • QCCSRC builds on the Shell Grand Challenge Programme on Clean Fossil Fuels • 5 year, £3m programme 2007-2011 International Oil & Gas Expertise World-leading ResearchCoal Seams + ECBM Sandstone Reservoirs  CO2 Storage and EOR  CO2/Hydrocarbons/Water Properties at Reservoir Temperatures and Pressures
  18. 18. Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre ...Leads to Another... Carbonate Reservoirs Qatar Reservoir Expertise QP Carbon Capture and Storage Improved Oil/Gas World-leading Research Recovery International Oil & Imperial Shell Gas Expertise Building on the understanding and methodology emergingCoal Seams + ECBM from existing Shell-Imperial collaborations on thermophysical / petrophysical properties, imaging and Sandstone Reservoirs related modelling concerning EOR and CCS  CO2 Storage and EOR (Sandstones)  CO2/Hydrocarbons/Water Properties and modelling at Reservoir Temperatures and Pressures Shell-Imperial Grand Challenge – Clean Fossil Fuels 19
  19. 19. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre QCCSRC is born in 2008...
  20. 20. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre ...and grows year on year... Currently there are • 17 Academic Staff • 3 QCCSRC Lecturers • 10 Postdoctoral Researchers • 34 PhD Students • 5 Technical Support Staff working within the Centre
  21. 21. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre What’s different about Carbonate Reservoirs? • Structure • Broader pore size distribution • Natural fractures • Chemical reaction • Reactive flow changes pore space • Dissolution-Precipitation
  22. 22. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre QCCSRC Overall Objectives • Provide the underpinning science and engineering, state-of-the art methodologies and simulators for CO2 storage in carbonate reservoirs • Enable sustainable optimization of production and recovery from Qatar carbonate reservoirs, including CO2 EOR • Support the design and execution of CCS field demonstration project(s) to convert this improved understanding into practical value • Educate Qatari PhD students to provide the technology leaders of the future for Qatar • Transfer equipment, techniques, methodologies and expertise to Qatar to create world-leading facilities in CCS and hydrocarbon recovery from carbonate reservoirs • Build on and leverage the Shell-Imperial Grand Challenge on Clean Fossil Fuels
  23. 23. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre The second most important event in London in 2012 24
  24. 24. Qatar Carbonates and Carbon The most important eventStorage Research Centre in London in 2012
  25. 25. Qatar Carbonates and Carbon The most important eventStorage Research Centre in London in 2012 September 2012...Official Opening of the QCCSRC Laboratory Suite
  26. 26. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre Inspiring a Generation in London in 2012 – the five projects of QCCSRC Validation, Carbonate Support for CCS integration and Reservoir Field upscaling of new physics, Characterisation Demonstration models and Project simulators Pore-fracture Advanced scale Physics Integrated and Simulator for Carbonate Chemistry Reservoirs 27
  27. 27. Qatar Carbonates and CarbonStorage Research Centre The QCCSRC Laboratory Suite Qatar Qatar Clumped Qatar Multiscale Thermophysical Isotope Imaging Properties Laboratory Laboratory Laboratory Qatar Qatar Complex Multiscale Fluids Modelling Laboratory Facility 28
  28. 28. Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre QCCSRC Roadmap Field ScaleSupport for Support for design Field Laboratory -Field and evaluation validation of modelsDemonstrator Installation of Core ScaleMultiscale imaging facilities Multicomponent Multicomponent MulticomponentIntegration and construction of non-reactive flow reactive flow reactive flow - fracturesfor Qatari HPHT rel perm rigconditions Pore ScaleAdvanced Develop adaptive meshing; validation on Link to pore scale models. Apply to Qatari reservoirs forReservoir outcrop model (Project 1); test scenarios CO2 storage design and optimisationSimulationPore-scalePhysics and Model fluids and pure minerals; flow in generic Effects of fluid and rock impurities; models and experimentsChemistry carbonates for Qatari fluids and rocksReservoir Studies on outcrops, Oman; Clumped Isotope Wider outcrop studies; applications to sub-surface;Geology development Clumped Isotope deployment Phase 1: Develop underpinning science, mainly on Phase 2: Integrate Phase 1 components, upscale and model and simplified systems apply to Qatari rocks, fluids and conditions 2008 2012 2018 29