Geological Assessment, CO2 storage in the
Baltic Sea Region
Webinar – 6 May 2014 , 1800 AEDT
Industry interest is the core driver behind BASTOR2
Apart from the future cost of emissions,
industry needs to know its lo...
Five work packages – Geology is key
Geology
Environmental impact
Societal aspects
Legal/fiscal aspects
Infrastructure
SLR ...
BASTOR 2 - work package schedule
201420132012
Geological assessment
Environmental impact
Infrastructure
Societal aspects
L...
Richard Vernon
Technical Director – Energy – SLR Consulting
2000-2014 During the last 14 years, Richard has worked as a
co...
Nick O’Neill
Director – SLR Consulting
1995-2014 – Director of SLR Consulting (Ireland) (previously
CSA Group) He is respo...
QUESTIONS
 We will collect questions during
the presentation.
 Your MC will pose these
question to the presenters after
...
PROSPECTIVE SITES FOR THE GEOLOGICAL
STORAGE OF CO2 IN THE SOUTHERN BALTIC SEA
Richard Vernon
Nick O’Neill
6th May 2014
OUTLINE
• CO2 storage capacity
• Static Modelling
• Seal Integrity
• Dynamic modelling
• Summary & Conclusions
THE CONTEXT
THE STUDY AREA
• The study area is defined as previously mapped Palaeozoic sedimentary
basins in the Baltic Sea Area
• Cam...
THE DATA BASE
REGIONAL MAP OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS
WITH CO2 STORAGE POTENTIAL
RANKING OF BALTIC SEA SUB BASINS FOR
CO2 STORAGE
• Four main sub basins identified and ranked
in order of suitability for ...
BASTOR 2 STORAGE CAPACITY
Following the ranking of the Baltic Sea sub-basins, storage
capacity calculations have been comp...
ONSHORE STORAGE CAPACITY
DISTRIBUTION OF STORAGE CAPACITY IN
DEFINED STRUCTURES BY COUNTRY
Estimated CO2 Storage Capacity
(106
tonnes)
Latvia Lithu...
TECHNO ECONOMIC RESOURCE PYRAMID
(CSLF 2007)
STATIC MODEL
SEAL INTEGRITY
CAPROCK INTEGRITY
• Three possible modes
of seal failure
– top seal failure,
– migration up the
bounding fault planes
– le...
WELL COMPLETION AND INTEGRITY
Well No. B-3 B-3A B-7 B-9 B-10 B-11 BO-12 BO-20
Rotary Table Elevation (m) 21.5 20.7 28.2 26...
DYNAMIC MODELING –RESULTS
• Approaches used
– Analytical and semi-analytical for pressure evolution,
estimation of the opt...
RESERVOIR PRESSURE BEHAVIOUR
• CO2 injection rates per well are
governed by reservoir thickness and
permeability;
• The ba...
MULTIWELL INJECTION SCENARIOS
MULTIWELL INJECTION SCENARIOS
• Example TOUGH2
simulation showing
overpressure build up
after 50 years of
injection
• 3 in...
CO2 PLUME SPREADING
• Plume thickness at the end of
50 years of injection (right)
• Plume migration at 3,000
years after i...
CONCLUSIONS
• There is large theoretical storage capacity in the Baltic Sea basin
beneath a 900 metre thick impermeable ca...
RECOMMENDATIONS
• Existing seismic line data should be calibrated to available well data
and reinterpreted to identify fau...
QUESTIONS / DISCUSSION
Please submit your questions in
English directly into the
GoToWebinar control panel.
The webinar wi...
Please submit any feedback to: webinar@globalccsinstitute.com
An assessment of the opportunities for geological storage of CO2 in the Baltic Sea region - A deep account and assessment
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An assessment of the opportunities for geological storage of CO2 in the Baltic Sea region - A deep account and assessment

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This webinar presented the findings of a study to assess the geological opportunities for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage under the Baltic Sea. The study is part of a two year project commissioned by Elforsk (Sweden) and has been conducted in close collaboration with the Finnish Carbon Capture and Storage program (CCSP). This project has provided a great opportunity to learn more about the geological conditions for storing large volumes of CO2 in the Cambrian Sandstone under the south eastern parts of the Baltic Sea. Read the study here.


This assessment of the opportunities for CO2 storage under the Baltic Sea was undertaken by SLR Environmental Consulting and researchers at Uppsala University. In this webinar we will share with you the methodology used and the key results, including: storage volume capacity estimations, injectivity, seal integrity and a proposed test injection methodology.

The webinar was hosted by the Global CCS Institute who together with the Swedish Energy Agency and a number of industrial partners funded the project. For this webinar, the report findings were presented by Richard Vernon and Nick O’Neill from SLR Environmental Consulting.

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An assessment of the opportunities for geological storage of CO2 in the Baltic Sea region - A deep account and assessment

  1. 1. Geological Assessment, CO2 storage in the Baltic Sea Region Webinar – 6 May 2014 , 1800 AEDT
  2. 2. Industry interest is the core driver behind BASTOR2 Apart from the future cost of emissions, industry needs to know its long term operating conditions: • If CCS is deemed feasible for the industry, which are the storage options? • What are the political and public perceptions? • How could the legal and financial conditions for CCS be described? • How could transport infrastructure be organized and what would it cost?
  3. 3. Five work packages – Geology is key Geology Environmental impact Societal aspects Legal/fiscal aspects Infrastructure SLR Consulting Uppsala University OPAB Yggdrasil Environment Stockholm University IVL, Linköping University The WP1 report is available to download now: www.globalccsinstitute.com/publications/final-report-prospective-sites-geological-storage-co2-southern-baltic-sea
  4. 4. BASTOR 2 - work package schedule 201420132012 Geological assessment Environmental impact Infrastructure Societal aspects Legal and fiscal aspects January JanuaryNovember September September Closing Report & Plan Phase 3
  5. 5. Richard Vernon Technical Director – Energy – SLR Consulting 2000-2014 During the last 14 years, Richard has worked as a consultant, an interim manager and project manager on a wide range of energy related assignments in Ireland, the UK and elsewhere. For a number of years he was an Associate Consultant to SLR Consulting and then joined the company mid 2008. He is now Technical Director, with particular responsibilities in the energy sector. 1989-2000 – Phillips Petroleum Company UK Director of External Affairs for Phillips Petroleum Company, US multinational oil and gas company. 1979-1989 – Petroleum Economics Limited Senior Consultant with for all aspects of the international oil and gas industry.
  6. 6. Nick O’Neill Director – SLR Consulting 1995-2014 – Director of SLR Consulting (Ireland) (previously CSA Group) He is responsible within SLR Ireland for generating new business in the Energy sector and is currently Project Manager for the Irish Petroleum Infrastructure Programme (www.pip.ie) that funds research to enhance Ireland’s hydrocarbon prospectivity. 1987-1995 – Operations Geologist with Shell and later BP based in London, Aberdeen, Glasgow and Dublin. Independent Operations Geologist working internationally for a number of oil exploration companies in the Middle East, West Africa and the North Sea. 1977-1987 – Junior Geologist, Drilling Engineer and later Base Manager for Geoservices in Abu Dhabi and Cairo.
  7. 7. QUESTIONS  We will collect questions during the presentation.  Your MC will pose these question to the presenters after the presentation.  Please submit your questions directly into the GoToWebinar control panel. The webinar will start shortly.
  8. 8. PROSPECTIVE SITES FOR THE GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2 IN THE SOUTHERN BALTIC SEA Richard Vernon Nick O’Neill 6th May 2014
  9. 9. OUTLINE • CO2 storage capacity • Static Modelling • Seal Integrity • Dynamic modelling • Summary & Conclusions
  10. 10. THE CONTEXT
  11. 11. THE STUDY AREA • The study area is defined as previously mapped Palaeozoic sedimentary basins in the Baltic Sea Area • Cambrian reservoirs deeper than 800m below seabed are the best storage sites • Some potential in depleted oil and gas fields • Saline aquifers in border monoclines have significant storage capacity Source: after Sliaupa S., 2009
  12. 12. THE DATA BASE
  13. 13. REGIONAL MAP OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS WITH CO2 STORAGE POTENTIAL
  14. 14. RANKING OF BALTIC SEA SUB BASINS FOR CO2 STORAGE • Four main sub basins identified and ranked in order of suitability for CO2 storage • The border zones have potential storage capacity in saline aquifers • Existing oil and gas fields have some storage capacity (e.g. Lotos refinery in Gdansk and B3 Field offshore Poland) Rank Basin Characteristics Score 1 Slupsk Border Zone Proven reservoir/seal pair, moderate size structures, offshore, large saline aquifer, limited faulting, good accessibility, <500kms to strategic CO2 sources 0.76 2 Gdansk-Kura Depression Existing oil and gas production infrastructure, moderate sized structures, offshore, fair accessibility, >500kms to some strategic CO2 sources 0.75 3 Liepaja Saldus Ridge Proven reservoir/seal pair, moderate size structures, offshore, fair accessibility, <500kms to strategic CO2 sources 0.75 4 Latvian Estonian Lithuanian Border Zone Proven reservoir/seal pairs, small structures, potential saline aquifer, only small area sufficiently deep for CO2 storage, accessible, 250kms to strategic CO2 sources 0.71
  15. 15. BASTOR 2 STORAGE CAPACITY Following the ranking of the Baltic Sea sub-basins, storage capacity calculations have been completed using the GeoCapacity (2009) methodology.
  16. 16. ONSHORE STORAGE CAPACITY
  17. 17. DISTRIBUTION OF STORAGE CAPACITY IN DEFINED STRUCTURES BY COUNTRY Estimated CO2 Storage Capacity (106 tonnes) Latvia Lithuania Poland Kaliningrad Hydrocarbon - Generic Storage Potential 28.87 3.28 54.33 Hydrocarbon - Field Storage Potential 1.86 2.62 Saline Aquifer - Field Storage Potential 633.46 18.99 TOTAL 633.46 30.72 5.90 73.32 Total 743.4
  18. 18. TECHNO ECONOMIC RESOURCE PYRAMID (CSLF 2007)
  19. 19. STATIC MODEL
  20. 20. SEAL INTEGRITY
  21. 21. CAPROCK INTEGRITY • Three possible modes of seal failure – top seal failure, – migration up the bounding fault planes – leakage across fault plane • Top seal failure potential is low. • Seal failure resulting in leakage across fault planes is more likely, however the risk of this is still low. • There is little or no risk of upward leakage of CO2 along fault planes. • Smaller scale cross cutting fault structures are likely to be open and these need to be considered as potential pathways for upward migration.
  22. 22. WELL COMPLETION AND INTEGRITY Well No. B-3 B-3A B-7 B-9 B-10 B-11 BO-12 BO-20 Rotary Table Elevation (m) 21.5 20.7 28.2 26.42 25.91 24.99 24.7 25 Date 1974 1973 1974 1974 1976 1976 1976 1976 Casing String (K55 Buttress) 30" 96 70 96.8 93 92.4 113.1 141.4 127 13 3/8" 290 292 330.5 501 90.8 111.4 193.3 125.3 9 5/8" 345.9 392.9 407.5 387.5 TD 1002 966.7 1037.5 1266 535.8 1036.9 818.2 689 Cement Plugs Top (m) 0 0 0 451 0 300 356 149 Bottom (m) 56 54 86 551 133 335 420 302 Top (m) 209 224 315 451 313 340 458 341 Bottom (m) 320 304 345 551 393* 457 533 438 Top (m) 662 681 - - 420 579 567 600 Bottom (m) 750 762 - - 480 920 630 690 Top (m) - - - - - - 700 - Bottom (m) - - - - - - 749 -
  23. 23. DYNAMIC MODELING –RESULTS • Approaches used – Analytical and semi-analytical for pressure evolution, estimation of the optimal number of wells in various conditions – Simulation of plume and pressure evolution using two approaches: TOUGH2/MP & Vertical Equilibrium Approach (Gasda et al., 2009) – Evaluation of plume tip advancement after completion of injection phase (TOUGH2 & Analytical solution)
  24. 24. RESERVOIR PRESSURE BEHAVIOUR • CO2 injection rates per well are governed by reservoir thickness and permeability; • The base case injection capacity is 2.5Mt per annum • Increasing the number of wells will increase the injection rate 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 x 10 7 Injection rate per well (Mt/yr) Pressure(Pa) Thickness 40 m Thickness 50 m Thickness 60 m 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 x 10 7 Injection rate per well (Mt/yr) Pressure(Pa) Permeability 20 mD Permeability 40 mD Permeability 80 mD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 x 10 7 Total injection rate (Mt/yr) Pressure(Pa) 3 wells 5 wells 7 wells
  25. 25. MULTIWELL INJECTION SCENARIOS
  26. 26. MULTIWELL INJECTION SCENARIOS • Example TOUGH2 simulation showing overpressure build up after 50 years of injection • 3 injection wells • 0.5 Mt/yr injection rate 50km Year 50 Over pressure %
  27. 27. CO2 PLUME SPREADING • Plume thickness at the end of 50 years of injection (right) • Plume migration at 3,000 years after injection (below) 6km Simulated CO2 saturation for the case of k-30mD, residual CO2 saturation 0.2 at 3000 years
  28. 28. CONCLUSIONS • There is large theoretical storage capacity in the Baltic Sea basin beneath a 900 metre thick impermeable caprock. • The maximum injection rate is sensitive to parameters such as formation thickness and permeability, and analyzing the effect of their local variability fully does require more detailed modelling than was possible in this preliminary study • The southern Swedish sector, where dynamic modelling was undertaken by Uppsala University, could be suitable as a storage site for CO2 captured from a limited number of industrial facilities • The reservoir quality in the presently modelled area is not suitable to high injection rates and therefore not sufficient for commercial CO2 storage at the scale of projected emissions around the Baltic Sea. • There are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there in ongoing hydrocarbon production. • Acquisition of further data will require much more regional cooperation
  29. 29. RECOMMENDATIONS • Existing seismic line data should be calibrated to available well data and reinterpreted to identify fault structures and map reservoir porosity and permeability variations • Improved estimates of seal fracture pressures based on well leak off test data and core sample analyses are needed • New seismic and well data is required, in particular in the north east of the Dalders Monocline, including offshore Latvia, where this study has indicated better reservoir qualities exist than in the current study area • Reservoir formation data from core samples and wire line logs should be obtained from any newly drilled wells to better understand porosity, permeability and formation pressures associated with reservoirs in different areas of the Baltic Sea • Additional reservoir data covering both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad should be obtained • In order to achieve better understanding of the potential to store captured CO2 in the region, Baltic Sea State cooperation is imperative.
  30. 30. QUESTIONS / DISCUSSION Please submit your questions in English directly into the GoToWebinar control panel. The webinar will start shortly.
  31. 31. Please submit any feedback to: webinar@globalccsinstitute.com

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