1
Regulatory Framework for Carbon
Dioxide Sub-seabed Storage - Safety
and Potential Environmental Impact
Office of Marine ...
2
Contents
Carbon dioxide sub-seabed storage:
1. The regulatory framework of CO2 sub-seabed storage
under the London Proto...
1. The regulatory framework of
CO2 sub-seabed storage under the London
Protocol
3
4
The 1996 London Protocol
Parties of The 1996 London Protocol
Angola
Australia
Barbados
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
Chi...
Structure of the London Protocol
Purpose:
Prevention of marine pollution by dumping of
wastes from land-based sources
Prin...
6
The regulation of CCS at the London Protocol
Annex I
“Carbon dioxide streams from carbon dioxide capture processes
for s...
2. The regulatory framework of
CO2 sub-seabed storage under
the Marine Pollution Prevention Law
Amendment of LP Annex I
Im...
Objective of Marine Pollution Prevention Law
Objective (Article 1)
●The OPRC convention
・ Removing any discharged oil, ha...
The regulation of disposal under seabed
1.wastes or other matter related to the exploration of
seabed mineral resources
2....
The permission flow under the Law ①
10
1. Submission of Application documents
2. Judgment on permission
3. Disposal and st...
The necessary documents for permission ①
11
1. Information of a representative
2. Plans of disposal of CO2
 disposing sch...
The necessary documents for permission ②
12
2. Plans of disposal of CO2
 disposal point and range of CO2
 The procedure ...
The necessary documents for permission ③
13
3. Plans of monitoring for marine environment
A) Normal monitoring (Not leakag...
Monitoring plan ①
14
Monitoring Items Target Frequency
Normal
Monitoring
Stored CO2
Quantity stored at the project
more th...
Monitoring plan ②
15
Monitoring Items Target Frequency
Precautionary
Monitoring for
leakage of CO2
Stored CO2
Temporal cha...
Monitoring plan ③
16
Monitoring Items Target Frequency
Emergency
monitoring at
leakage of CO2
Stored CO2
Temporal change o...
Necessary documents for application
17
1. Application documents for permission
2. Potential environmental assessment docum...
Potential environmental assessment ①
18Permission
Yes
Possible influence to marine environment
No
The hypothesis of CO2 le...
Potential environmental assessment ②
19
Target Item
Streaming CO2
Temperature, Pressure, Viscosity and
Density etc.
Stored...
Potential environmental assessment ③
20
Potential environmental assessment
Classification Target Item
Environment of sea
w...
Other documents
21
Documents of site selection
Viewpoints Item
Geological
Little records of big earthquakes changing geolo...
The permission flow under the Law ①
22
1. Submission of Application documents
 Application documents of disposal CO2 unde...
The permission flow under the Law ②
23
3. Disposal CO2 and Monitoring
 Monitoring disposal CO2 about
quantity, place, tem...
3. Project of Ministry of Environment about CCS
(2008~)
24
25
環境省 海洋環境室
Manuals of inspection and permission
The detail framework of inspection and permission
(2008 ~)
26
MATSUSHIMA
OFFSHORE
AMAKUSA
OFFSHORE
OKINAWA
OFFSHORE
OOSAKA BAY
ISE BAY
TOKYO BAY
AGA
OFFSHORE
AKITA
OFFSHORE
NORTH- K...
27
Database on biological impact by CO2 exposure
Target species
NOEC/
LOEC/
EC50
⊿pCO2
(ppm)
Effect Endpoint Notes Referen...
28
Thank you for your attention !!
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Regulatory Framework for Carbon Dioxide Sub-seabed Storage - Safety and Potential Environmental Impact

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Presentation delivered to a Global CCS Institute symposium on Policy and Regulatory Frameworks for CCS in Tokyo on 3 September 2013.
Presentation by Office of Marine Environment, Water Environment Division, Environmental Management Bureau, Ministry of Environment Japan.

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Regulatory Framework for Carbon Dioxide Sub-seabed Storage - Safety and Potential Environmental Impact

  1. 1. 1 Regulatory Framework for Carbon Dioxide Sub-seabed Storage - Safety and Potential Environmental Impact Office of Marine Environment Water Environment Division Environmental Management Bureau Ministry of Environment September 3, 2013
  2. 2. 2 Contents Carbon dioxide sub-seabed storage: 1. The regulatory framework of CO2 sub-seabed storage under the London Protocol 2. The regulatory framework of CO2 sub-seabed storage under the Marine Pollution Prevention Law 3. Project of Ministry of Environment about CCS (2008~)
  3. 3. 1. The regulatory framework of CO2 sub-seabed storage under the London Protocol 3
  4. 4. 4 The 1996 London Protocol Parties of The 1996 London Protocol Angola Australia Barbados Belgium Bulgaria Canada Chile China Denmark Egypt France Georgia Germany Ghana Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Kenya Luxembourg Marshall Islands Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Norway Philippines Republic of Korea Saint Kitts and Nevis Saudi Arabia Sierra Leone Slovenia South Africa Spain Suriname Sweden Switzerland Tonga Trinidad & Tobago United Kingdom Vanuatu Yemen 42 Countries Afghanistan Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Australia Azerbaijan Barbados Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Canada Cape Verde Chile China Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Dem. Rep. of the Congo Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt Equatorial Guinea Finland France Gabon Germany Greece Guatemala Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland Iran (Islamic Republic of) Ireland Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Kiribati Libya Luxembourg Malta Mexico Monaco Montenegro Morocco Nauru Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Republic of Korea Russian Federation Saint Lucia St. Vincent & Grenadines Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Suriname Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tonga Tunisia Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Rep. of Tanzania United States Vanuatu Hong Kong, China Macao, China Faroe Islands Parties of The London Convention 90 Countries
  5. 5. Structure of the London Protocol Purpose: Prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes from land-based sources Principle: ・ Prohibit the dumping of any wastes or other matter with the exception of those listed in Annex I. ・ Permit is required for dumping in accordance with provisions of Annex II. Annex I Waste or other matter that may be considered for dumping (Reverse List) Annex II Assessment of wastes or other matter that may be considered for dumping Generic WAG Guidelines for assessment of wastes that may be considered for dumping WAG: Waste Assessment Guidelines Specific WAG Waste-specific guidelines .8 CO2 for sub-seabed sequestration(2006) .1 dredged material .2 sewage sludge .3 fish waste .4 vessels and platforms .5 inert, inorganic geological material .6 organic material of natural origin .7 bulky items from small islands 5
  6. 6. 6 The regulation of CCS at the London Protocol Annex I “Carbon dioxide streams from carbon dioxide capture processes for sequestration” may only be considered for dumping, if (1) disposal is into a sub-seabed geological formations (2) wastes consist overwhelmingly of CO2 (may contain incidental associated substances derived from the source material, and the capture and sequestration processes used) (3) no wastes or other matter are added for the purpose of disposing of those wastes or other matter. Background 1. CCS has the potential risk for marine environment. (Ex: death, slow growth and hindrances to incubation) 2. This regulation is not out of the scope of the London Protocol.
  7. 7. 2. The regulatory framework of CO2 sub-seabed storage under the Marine Pollution Prevention Law Amendment of LP Annex I Implementation of LP within country (2006~) Amendment of Marine Pollution Prevention Law 7
  8. 8. Objective of Marine Pollution Prevention Law Objective (Article 1) ●The OPRC convention ・ Removing any discharged oil, hazardous liquid substances, waste and others ・ Taking measures to prevent hazard to vessel traffics caused by offshore fire and others. ●The Marpol Convention ・ Regulating discharge of oil, hazardous liquid substances and waste from vessels, platforms and aircrafts into ocean ・ Regulating emission of exhaust gas from vessels into air ●The London Convention/Protocol ・ Regulating disposal of oil, hazardous liquid substances and waste under seabed Protection of marine environment Protection of people’s lives, bodies and property Control, treatment, prevention, measures 8
  9. 9. The regulation of disposal under seabed 1.wastes or other matter related to the exploration of seabed mineral resources 2.Gases consist overwhelmingly of carbon dioxide. 9 Oil Hazardous liquid substances Wastes Prohibited disposal and storage under seabed Except for Permission of the Minister of Environment is necessary.
  10. 10. The permission flow under the Law ① 10 1. Submission of Application documents 2. Judgment on permission 3. Disposal and storage CO2, and Monitoring 4. Renewal of permission (every 5 years)
  11. 11. The necessary documents for permission ① 11 1. Information of a representative 2. Plans of disposal of CO2  disposing schedule and storage period (under 5 years).  The characteristics of disposal CO2  The quantity of disposal CO2 Necessary items on an application form • The source of CO2 • The procedure of capturing CO2 (only by using amine). • The component of disposal gases. → CO2 must be over 99%. The measurement 1. gas chromatography : target for hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and other impurities. 2. alkali absorption method : target for carbon dioxide.
  12. 12. The necessary documents for permission ② 12 2. Plans of disposal of CO2  disposal point and range of CO2  The procedure of disposal CO2  The action plan in troubles to marine environment Necessary items on an application form • Latitude and longitude • The depth of water and disposal CO2 under seabed • The arrangement of institutions • The range of spreading disposal CO2 • Facilities of transporting and storage • The condition of pressure, velocity and temperature etc. • The method of maintenance and closure of the injection well • Moments when the pressure at the injection well is high enough to influence marine environment. • The measures to the much leakage of CO2 to sea
  13. 13. The necessary documents for permission ③ 13 3. Plans of monitoring for marine environment A) Normal monitoring (Not leakage) B) Precautionary Monitoring for leakage of CO2 C) Emergency monitoring at leakage of CO2 Necessary items at an application form • Annual report to the Minster of the Environment • Unexpected value • Report to the Minster of the Environment, based on this monitoring • Suspicious leakage of CO2 • Continuous monitoring during Influence on marine environment Action to remove the obstacles to marine environment
  14. 14. Monitoring plan ① 14 Monitoring Items Target Frequency Normal Monitoring Stored CO2 Quantity stored at the project more than once a year Cumulative straged quantity at the site Concentration of streamig gases Temporal change of pressure, velosity and temperature while streaming Circumstances of the site Georogical characteristics more than once a year The point and the range of the stored CO2 twice during the project Chemical characteristics of sea water basically more than once a year Marine lives and ecosystems at the site more than once during the project Social characteristics (ex. Fishing grounds)
  15. 15. Monitoring plan ② 15 Monitoring Items Target Frequency Precautionary Monitoring for leakage of CO2 Stored CO2 Temporal change of pressure while streaming as soon as possible after events of possible leakage happen Circumstances of the site Georogical characteristics The point and the range of the stored CO2 Chemical characteristics of sea water • Annual report to the Minster of the Environment • Unexpected value • Report to the Minster of the Environment, based on this monitoring • Suspicious leakage of CO2
  16. 16. Monitoring plan ③ 16 Monitoring Items Target Frequency Emergency monitoring at leakage of CO2 Stored CO2 Temporal change of pressure while streaming as soon as possible after recognizing marine environment is influenced by leaked CO2 Detailed conditions of stored CO2 Circumstances of the site Georogical characteristics Chemical characteristics of sea water Living things and ecosystems at the site Social characteristics (ex. Fishing grounds) • Continuous monitoring during Influence on marine environment Action to remove the obstacles to marine environment
  17. 17. Necessary documents for application 17 1. Application documents for permission 2. Potential environmental assessment documents prior to the project 3. Documents of site selection 4. Documents explaining that there are no ways other than disposing CO2 under seabed. 5. Financial and technical capacities to proceed the project and the monitoring. 6. The outline of the project
  18. 18. Potential environmental assessment ① 18Permission Yes Possible influence to marine environment No The hypothesis of CO2 leakage Leakage simulation Potential environmental assessment ・Prediction increase CO2 concentration in the leakage from seabed. ・Decision to watched species Assumption of leakage volume Stream direction Stream velocity Information about marine environment The field survey Rejected Characteristics of Stored CO2 (including over 99% CO2) Yes Rejected No
  19. 19. Potential environmental assessment ② 19 Target Item Streaming CO2 Temperature, Pressure, Viscosity and Density etc. Stored CO2 Temperature, Pressure, Viscosity and Density etc. Consentration of CO2 Conformity to the standard Mainly impurities Some kinds of impurities and percentage Reaction of CO2 stored under seabed Reaction of minerals and stored CO2 Characteristics of CO2 The hypothesis of CO2 leakage The scenario of CO2 leakage, based on geological information and circumstances of sea  The point of CO2 leakage  The range of spreading CO2  The quantity of CO2 leakage (Examples) (Examples)
  20. 20. Potential environmental assessment ③ 20 Potential environmental assessment Classification Target Item Environment of sea water and seabed Water quality Concentration of TCO2, Hydrogen ions and toxic substances Bottom sediment Concentration of TCO2 and toxic substances Marine lives Planktons Primary productivity, zoo plankton and phytoplankton species and quantity of planktons with calciums Fish Fishing grounds and fields of spawning Seaweeds and coral Distribution of seaweeds and coral Benthos Benthos with calciums Ecosystems Vulnerability and importande of ecosystems Kelp coasts, tidelands and coral coasts, and distribution of rare living things Ecocystem around hot springs Distribution of hot springs Social Characteristics Recreation Distribution of these things Parks Fishing grounds Ship routes Cables on seabeds Mineral exploration (Examples)
  21. 21. Other documents 21 Documents of site selection Viewpoints Item Geological Little records of big earthquakes changing geological features Little possibility of changing geological features Potential routes of CO2 movement and leakage Technical Technical possibility of moitoring Possible means of stopping leakage CO2 Natural No especial protective species Documents explaining that there are no ways other than disposing CO2 under seabed • Disposal under lands • Utilization for industrial purposes Financial and technical capacities to proceed the project and the monitoring. • balance sheets in the project term • Achievements of other projects (Examples)
  22. 22. The permission flow under the Law ① 22 1. Submission of Application documents  Application documents of disposal CO2 under seabed  Potential environmental assessment documents prior to the project  Documents of site selection  Documents about project, etc. 2. Judgment on permission  Disposal CO2 meets the Criteria  Environmental assessment prior to the project shows the leakage hypothesis and influence on environment is little.  The monitoring is planned in order to detect the leakage soon.
  23. 23. The permission flow under the Law ② 23 3. Disposal CO2 and Monitoring  Monitoring disposal CO2 about quantity, place, temperature and pressure, etc.  Monitoring disposal site about stratum, sea water and creatures, etc. Permission of the Minister of Environment Rejected Minister of Environment  The direction of improvement and stop  The revocation of permission 4. Renewal of permission (every 5 years)  Revising the project, based on the latest information and knowledge. (The notice shows permission under 5 years)
  24. 24. 3. Project of Ministry of Environment about CCS (2008~) 24
  25. 25. 25 環境省 海洋環境室 Manuals of inspection and permission The detail framework of inspection and permission (2008 ~)
  26. 26. 26 MATSUSHIMA OFFSHORE AMAKUSA OFFSHORE OKINAWA OFFSHORE OOSAKA BAY ISE BAY TOKYO BAY AGA OFFSHORE AKITA OFFSHORE NORTH- KYUSYUU OFFSHORE SOUMA~KASHIMA OFFSHORE TOMAKOMAI &MUKOGAWA OFFSHORE UCHIURA BAY BEPU BAY Marine ecosystem survey Marine ecosystem survey sea site:five site( ) & Offshore CCS Potential Survey sea site: ( ) * &CCS Demonstration Project site select survey site ( ) ** <References> * 「CO2 geological storage study report 005,2007」, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) ** Japan CCS Co., Ltd. (JCCS) Marine Survey for Offshore CCS Project(2011-2013) Marine Ecosystem Survey 1. Marine Organisms and Ecosystem Survey (Plankton, Shellfish, Benthos) 2. Seawater Chemical Survey (pH, pCO2, Temperature, Salinity, TOC etc.) Long Term Management Method Consideration of Long term management method for Offshore CCS in Japan (Survey about the management methods in foreign countries)
  27. 27. 27 Database on biological impact by CO2 exposure Target species NOEC/ LOEC/ EC50 ⊿pCO2 (ppm) Effect Endpoint Notes Reference Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (Japanese green sea urchin) LOEC 200 Reduced Survival rate ・Life stage: Juvenile ・Exposure period: 6 months ・Control pCO2: 360ppm Shirayama and Thornton, 2005LOEC Reduced Growth rate Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel) NOEC 1,535 None Regeneration (Tissues of a reproductive organ) ・Life stage: Adult ・Exposure period: 60 days ・Control pCO2: 340ppm Beesley et al., 2008 http://www.env.go.jp/water/kaiyo/ccs/eikyo_db/database.htm - Extracted from the Ministry of the Environment Japan - (2008 ~) (42 benthos and 36 other species)
  28. 28. 28 Thank you for your attention !!

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