moej Toward Zero Carbon Emission Thermal Power Plants

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moej Toward Zero Carbon Emission Thermal Power Plants

  1. 1. Toward Zero Carbon Emission Thermal Power Plants Kentaro Doi Director Low-carbon Society Promotion Office Global Environment Bureau Ministry of the Environment, Japan Global CCS Institute Japan Regional Members’ Meeting 2014 June 19, 2014 1
  2. 2. Japan’s GHG reduction goal in 2050 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 温室効果ガス排出量(億トンCO2) エネルギー起源CO2排出量(米国エネルギー省 オークリッジ国立研究所) エネルギー起源CO2排出量(国際エネルギー機関) エネルギー起源CO2排出量(環境省) 温室効果ガス排出量(環境省) (100歳) (80歳) (60歳) (40歳) (20歳) (0歳) ( )内の年齢は、各年に生まれた人が2050年を迎えたときの年齢。 高度成長期 バブル景気 第一次オイルショック リーマンショック第二次オイルショック +温暖化対策 ▲80%(90年比) 人口減少のみ考慮 ▲21%(90年比) 日本の温室効果ガス排出量と長期目標 ○Japan will pursue the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emission by 2050 in order to fulfill the responsibility as an industrialized country, as is stated in the forth Basic Environmental Plan (revised in April 2012) ○To achieve the 80% reduction goal, global warming measures including innovative energy efficiency and maximum use of renewable energy will be important Japan’s GHG emission trends and the long term goal 200 600 800 400 1000 1200 1400 GHGemission(milliontCO2) Energy originated CO2 emissions (US DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Energy originated CO2 emissions (IEA) Energy originated CO2 emissions (Ministry of the Environment Japan) GHG emissions (Ministry of the Environment Japan) (100) (80) (60) (40) (20) (0) The number in the parentheses ( ) represents the age of the person in 2050 who born in the year above High growth period Bubble economy Global Financial Crisis The first Oil crisis The second Oil crisis 2
  3. 3. Global Environment Committee under the Central Environment Council presented the picture of 80% GHG reduction in 2050 as follows: • In the end-use sector, large-scale energy saving and electrification would be realized particularly in Building and Transportation sectors, which leads to approx. 40% reduction in final energy consumption. • Energy would be decarbonized, which leads to renewable energy deployment accounting for approx. half of primary energy supply. • 200 Mt-CO2 would be captured and stored per year. How 80% GHG reduction in 2050 would look like Cited from: “Report on Policies and Measures beyond 2013” by Global Environment Committee under the Central Environment Council (June 2012) GHG Emissions 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1990 2010 2050 温室効果ガス排出量(百万トンCO2) 非エネルギー起源 エネルギー転換 運輸貨物部門 運輸旅客部門 業務部門 家庭部門 産業部門 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1990 2010 2050 温室効果ガス排出量(百万トンCO2) CCS 非エネ ガス 石油 石炭 Capture and Storage of CO2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1990 2010 2050 最終エネルギー消費量(百万石油換算トン) 貨物輸送 旅客輸送 業務 家庭 産業 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1990 2010 2050 最終エネルギー消費量(百万石油換算トン) 水素 熱 電力 太陽熱 バイオマス ガス 石油 石炭 ▲40% Innovative Energy Saving Final Energy Consumption Primary Energy Supply 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1990 2010 2050 一次エネルギー供給量(百万石油換算トン) 地熱 海洋エネルギー 風力 太陽光 太陽熱 水力 廃棄物・廃熱 バイオマス 原子力 ガス 石油 石炭 Thorough Deployment of Renewable Energy FinalEnergyConsumption (Mtoe) GHGEmissions(MtCO2eq) Fleet Transport ation Passeng er Transport ation Commercial Buildings Housings Industries PrimaryEnergySupply(Mtoe) Geothermal Ocean Energy Wind Energy PV Solar Thermal Hydropower Waste/Waste Heat Biomass Nuclear Gas Oil Coal Non- Energy CCS Gas Oil Coal 3
  4. 4. Conclusion of Director-general level meeting on thermal power plant bidding by TEPCO (April 2013) Since effective actions consistent with national plans and targets, are needed in the power sector, promote the development of a sector-wide framework in which; ・The goals are consistent with national plans ・Main business operators including PPSs are participating ・Responsible body is clearly defined (focusing on retail stage) (2)Consistency with national targets and plans ①In relation to mid-term target:If the business operator takes actions under the sector-wide framework or plans to take measures including mitigation in abroad to offset the net increase emission over a natural gas power plant, it is judged as consistent with national targets and plans. ②In relation to 2050 target:The government will accelerate development of the technologies which is targeted to be commercialized by around 2020, conduct survey on potential CO2 storage sites as a prerequisite for CCS, identify requirements for CCS Ready plants, and request business operators to study continuously including technological development in order to put carbon capture facilitations towards commercialization. *Apart from above, Development of “Guidelines for Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions in energy conversion sector” Evaluate from a stand point below where necessary and reasonable (1)Adoption of BATs (Best Available Technologies) ・The government will identify and publish “Development and commercialization status of cutting-edge power generation technologies” by size and by fuel types, as s reference for business operators’ consideration and will request business operators to adopt BATs ○Coal power plant may be awarded a contract if the Thermal power plant bidding is done by TEPCO ○Coal power plant has strength in stable operation and economic efficiency but weakness in environmental aspects 1.Effective global environmental countermeasures in the power industry 2. Treatment of CO2 within environmental assessment 4
  5. 5. ・ In order to achieve Japan’s long term target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, zero carbon power plants are absolutely necessary. ・Especially, coal fired power plants, etc., continue to release large amounts of CO2 during its long lifetime, are recommended to implement CCS for reducing CO2 emission. ~Toward Zero Carbon Emission Thermal Power Plants~ Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) 1. Investigation of potential CO2 storage site (A joint project with METI) ・Identify potential CO2 storage sites in waters surrounding Japan, including deep sea areas. 2. Feasibility Study for the introduction of environmentally friendly CCS technology ・Study an integrated transportation and storage system based on shuttle shipping. ・Assess environmental impact of CO2 absorbent. New Project by Ministry of the Environment, Japan (Budget for FY2014 : 1,243 Million Yen) Introduction and Promotion of CCS Equipped Zero Carbon Emission Power Plants 5*CCS: Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage
  6. 6. <Background> Zero-carbon power plants, as well as drastic energy-saving and maximum use of renewable energy, are essential to reduce GHG emissions by 80% by 2050. Major emission sources that keep releasing large amounts of CO2 during their long-lifetime, especially coal-fired power plants, etc., are recommended to implement CCS. To introduce CCS, environmental conservation should be considered by taking Japan-specific factors into account, --- for example, major emission sources spreading throughout Japan, highly- developed coastal areas, etc. <Purpose> Examining the components and whole system of shuttle ship transportation and injection concept, which is seen as a feasible technology to efficiently transport CO2 between onshore emission sources and offshore storage sites. Examining environmental impacts of amine solutions that are used to separate and capture CO2. Investigating the effective introduction of CCS (public acceptance, economic evaluation, etc.) <Goal> Integrated CCS demonstration project consisting of CO2 separation and capture at emission sources such as coal-fired power plants, CO2 transportation via shuttle ship, injection from the ship under the seabed and monitoring. Feasibility study for the introduction of environmentally friendly CCS technology 6
  7. 7. Task 2. Study of Shuttle Ship Transportation and Injection System •Study of shipping models and schedules •Preliminary design of a vessel and its components •Technical studies of components and whole system of transportation and injection, etc. Task 3. Investigation of an Effective Introduction • Summarization of advantages and challenges of an environmentally friendly CCS • Feasibility study and business incentive evaluation • Strategic examination to enhance public acceptance and consensus building • Exploration of overseas deployment, etc. Injection wellImpermeable layer Saline aquifer Flexible riser pipe CO2 shuttle-ship Coal-fired power plant, etc. CO2 Capture plant Offshore area (deep water) Task 4. Investigation for deploying demonstration projects •Review of sites appropriate for integrated CCS demonstration •Study of monitoring methods for deep-water sea area •Plan of integrated CCS demonstration project based on Task1-Task3, etc. 7 Task 1. Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts in the CO2 Capture Process • Evaluation of amine emissions • Investigation on methods to mitigate amine emissions • Risk assessment methodology and guidelines, etc. Outline of the Project
  8. 8. Project leader Dr. Makoto Akai (AIST) Ministry of the Environment contract Advisory Committee for introducing environmentally friendly CCS Subcommittee for shuttle-ship transportation and injection technologies Subcommittee for environmental impact of CO2 separation and capture absorbent Advice Report Consortium Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc. (organizer) National Institute of Advanced Industrial science and Technology Toshiba Corporation Chiyoda Corporation JGC Corporation Quintessa Japan Quintessa CO2 capture process (emission test and design of plant etc.) Plan of integrated CCS demonstration project Examination of public acceptance Shuttle Ship transportation and injection system, Demonstration site Summarization of advantages and challenges of environmentally friendly CCS, Study of monitoring methods Risk assessment of CO2 capture process, Investigation of an effective introduction, consortium secretariat Actor Network of the Project 8
  9. 9. <Details> ① Understanding environmental load of CO2 capture process Understanding the actual status of environmental effects of amine solutions during the use phase and the disposal phase is required. ② Evaluation of amine emissions Quantitative analysis of amine compounds in emission tests under continuous operation of Mikawa Post Combustion Capture Pilot Plant will be carried out. ③ Assessing environmental risk Taking into account the results of ①,② and ④, we will determine the chemical substances subject to risk assessment, define the scope of the assessment, and conduct risk assessments. ④ Investigation of methods to mitigate amine emissions Using the newly constructed system which enables control of amine emission to a low level, optimum operation parameters will be investigated and mitigation of the amines emissions will be confirmed to study emission reduction methods. ⑤ Drafting guidelines To minimize environmental impacts of CO2 capture process, and to encourage plant owners to construct and install the equipment appropriately, we will draft guidelines, which include guideline values for environmental risk assessment. ⑥ Front-end design for CO2 capture demonstration project In order to construct and execute the demonstration facility after FY2016, front-end design of CO2 capture facility, with the capacity to capture around 1000 tons of CO2 per day or more, will be designed. <Background and goals>  CO2 absorbents (amine solutions) may affect the environment when released in the atmosphere.  Nitrosamine, a group of some amine derivatives, may have risks to human health.  To draft guidelines for risk assessment, which include guideline values, by grasping the environmental load through the assessment of risks of CO2 capture process.  To study the impact of emissions from amine solutions on environment and flue gas composition, and the emission reduction technologies. Toshiba Mikawa Post Combustion Capture Pilot Plant (at Omuta, Fukuoka Prefecture) Task 1. Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts in the CO2 Capture Process 9
  10. 10. <Background and goals> Why we need offshore CO2 storage  Major CO2 sources exist along the coasts.  Japanese coastal waters are actively used. Key Benefits of CO2 shuttle ship transportation system 1. Mitigation of source-sink matching 2. Easy to early start-up and project expansion (flexible about changes in plan, etc.) Objectives  Clarifying the requirements for the whole system and its components  Preliminary designing of the whole system  Planning the system operational verification test (SOVT) for onboard FRP pickup and coupling CO2 Carrier Satellite Communication buoy Pickup buoy Pickup float Coupler + Winch Riser end fitting Bend stiffener Flexible riser pipe + Umbilical cable Pipe protector Anchor Bend restrictor Christmas tree Signal & Battery charging wire Mooring wire Battery Pickup rope Pickup wire CO2 Shuttle Ship Transportation & Onboard Injection System Task 2. Study of Shuttle Ship Transportation and Injection System 10
  11. 11. Sub-tasks Details 1. Research of cases on Ship Transportation of CO2 • Research of cases on ship transportation of CO2 • Identifying the appropriate cases for CO2 shuttle ship transportation system 2. Study of the requirements for CO2 transportation and injection • Extraction of requirements for transportation and injection and planning the preliminary master plan / shipping plan for the shuttle ship transportation system that meets the requirements 3. Technical study of the system components and the whole system • Study of the design conditions of the system components and equipments based on the requirements (given by Sub- task 2) • Technical study of the whole system (See right) 4. Preliminary design of the key components • Preliminary design of the key components for onboard direct injection of CO2 5. Preliminary design of the shuttle ship • Preliminary design of the shuttle ship including the key onboard equipments • Preliminary logic design of DPS* • Identifying the technical challenges 6. Study of the contingency plan • Identifying the emergency situations • Contingency planning 7. Planning the System Operational Verification Test (SOVT) • Planning the SOVT for onboard FRP* pickup and coupling • Liquefied CO2 flow test • Research of subsea equipments Task 2. Study of Shuttle Ship Transportation and Injection System Buffer Tank CO2 Capture Liquefaction Loading Shuttle ship Cargo Tanks Injection Pump FRP Pickup Equipments FRP* Pickup Buoy Wellhead Injection Wells Sink Christmas Tree Communication Buoy Equipments FRP Coupler OnboardCO2Injection Umbilical Cables Compression Drying CO2Liquefaction&Loading ScopeoftheCO2shuttleshiptransportationsystem *DPS: dynamic positioning system *FRP: flexible riser pipe CO2 Shuttle Ship Transportation System 11
  12. 12. <Background and goals>  Consensus building among all stakeholders including general public is important to effective start-up CCS projects.  To identify the issues of CCS consensus-building, we will summarize the advantages and challenges of environmentally friendly CCS, investigate and analyze the policies, economy and public acceptance that affect the consensus-building, and explore overseas deployment of CCS. Framework of Task 3 <Details> Summarization of advantages and challenges of environmentally friendly CCS  Definition of environmentally friendly CCS  Summarization of the advantages and challenges based on a long-term energy & electricity supply- demand analysis Economic evaluation  Evaluation of the whole business and life cycle CO2 emission focusing on CO2 storage with shuttle-ship transportation.  Evaluation of incentives for CCS operators. Examination of public acceptance  Establishment of a scheme for consensus building featuring public involvement and knowledge management.  Identification of stakeholders’ awareness and knowledge-gaps between experts and non-experts.  Design and development of required software and systems. Investigation of an effective introduction  Identifying of secondary effects of environmentally friendly CCS.  Summarization of possible challenges and communication methods. Exploration of overseas deployment  Exploration of how to deploy CCS under Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) in developing nations.  Establishment of stakeholder relationships. 12 Task 3. Investigation of an Effective Introduction Summarization of advantages and challenges of environmentally friendly CCS Economic evaluation Examination of public acceptance Investigation of an effective introduction Exploration of overseas deployment Stakeholders regarding CCS Domestic International General Public Project Developers Companies exceptProject Developers NGO Experts (Academic experts, etc.) Government Governments,Companies etc. Clarification of meaning and importance of environmentally friendly CCS Policies and impacts necessary for CCS deployment Establishment of scheme for enhancement of public acceptance Clarification of meaning of CCS in overseas deployment Subtasks Goals of Subtasks Media
  13. 13. Study on monitoring methods <Background and goals>  Shuttle-ship transportation distance, availability, monitoring methods, etc. depend on the location and properties of the demonstration site.  Preliminary assessment for potential environmental impacts and establishment of CO2 monitoring technologies in deep-water are required.  It is important to understand the basic properties of CO2 hydrate barrier layers in deep-water, which has potential to seal CO2 leakage routes.  For successful integrated CCS demonstration project, we have to plan it by examining each issue and optimizing the whole system. <Details> ① Review of demonstration sites  Review of demonstration sites appropriate for environmentally friendly CCS demonstration  Consideration of transportation distance from the capture site and marine-weather and - environment, etc. ② Study of monitoring methods  Development of pCO2-pH tandem sensors and anti-biofouling technologies optimum for deep sea monitoring  Development and validation of a simulator to estimate CO2 leakage point and its amount  Development and validation of a 3-phase (solid- liquid-gas) flow simulator based on lab measurement of bubbles leaking from geological layers into water  Evaluation of basic properties of CO2 hydrate barrier layers through lab tests and simulations ③ Plan of integrated CCS demonstration project  Review of issues and risks of each element and optimization of the whole system, targeting the integrated project ranging from CO2-separation and -capture at coal power plants, shuttle-ship transportation, storage, and monitoring 13 Autonomousunderwater vehicle (AUV)Multi-point anchoredstation pCO2-pH tandem sensor Dispersionin seawater Dispersionin geological formation CO2 hydrate barrierlayer Task 4. Investigation for Deploying Demonstration Projects
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention ! 14

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