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SR-IOV: The Key Enabling Technology for Fully Virtualized HPC Clusters

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How well does InfiniBand virtualized with SR-IOV really perform? SDSC carried out some initial application benchmarking studies and compared to the best-available commercial alternative to determine whether or not SR-IOV was a viable technology for closing the performance gap of virtualized HPC. The results were promising, and this technology will be used in Comet, SDSC's two-petaflop supercomputer being deployed in 2015.

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SR-IOV: The Key Enabling Technology for Fully Virtualized HPC Clusters

  1. 1. SR-IOV: The Key Enabling Technology for Fully Virtualized HPC Clusters! Glenn K. Lockwood! Christopher Irving! Philip M. Papadopoulos! Mahidhar Tatineni! Rick Wagner! SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER
  2. 2. Single Root I/O Virtualization in HPC! •  Problem: complex workflows demand increasing flexibility from HPC platforms" •  Virtualization = flexibility" •  Virtualization = IO performance loss (e.g., excessive DMA interrupts)" •  Solution: SR-IOV and Mellanox ConnectX-3 InfiniBand HCAs " •  One physical function (PF) à multiple virtual functions (VF), each with own DMA streams, memory space, interrupts" •  Allows DMA to bypass hypervisor to VMs! SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER
  3. 3. High-Performance Virtualization on Comet ! •  Mellanox FDR InfiniBand HCAs with SR-IOV" •  Rocks and OpenStack Nova to manage VMs" •  Flexibility to support complex science gateways and web-based workflow engines" •  custom compute appliances and virtual clusters developed with FutureGrid and their existing expertise" •  backed by virtualized Lustre running over virtualized InfiniBand" SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER
  4. 4. Hardware/Software Configuration of Test Cluster ! Native, SR-IOV! Amazon EC2! Platform" •  Rocks 6.1 (EL6)" •  Virtualization via kvm   •  Amazon Linux 2013.03 (EL6)" •  cc2.8xlarge Instances" CPUs" •  2x Xeon E5-2660 (2.2GHz)" •  16 cores per node" •  2x Xeon E5-2670 (2.6GHz)" •  16 cores per node" RAM" •  64 GB DDR3 DRAM" •  60.5 DDR3 DRAM" Interconnect" •  QDR4X InfiniBand" •  10 GbE" •  Mellanox ConnectX-3 (MT27500)" •  common placement group" •  Intel VT-d, SR-IOV enabled in firmware, kernel, drivers" •  mlx4_core  1.1" •  Mellanox OFED 2.0" •  HCA firmware 2.11.1192" SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER
  5. 5. 50x less latency than Amazon EC2! •  SR-IOV! •  < 30% overhead for M < 128 bytes" •  < 10% overhead for eager send/recv" •  Overhead à 0% for bandwidth-limited regime" •  Amazon EC2! •  > 5000% worse latency" •  Time dependent (noisy)" 5 SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER OSU Microbenchmarks (3.9, osu_latency)"
  6. 6. 10x more bandwidth than Amazon EC2! •  SR-IOV! •  < 2% bandwidth loss over entire range" •  > 95% peak bandwidth" •  Amazon EC2! •  < 35% peak bandwidth" •  900% to 2500% worse bandwidth than virtualized InfiniBand" 6 SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER OSU Microbenchmarks (3.9, osu_bw)"
  7. 7. Weather Modeling – 15% Overhead! •  96-core (6-node) calculation" •  Nearest-neighbor communication" •  Scalable algorithms" •  SR-IOV incurs modest (15%) performance hit" •  ...but still still 20% faster*** than Amazon" SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER WRF 3.4.1 – 3hr forecast" *** 20% faster despite SR-IOV cluster having 20% slower CPUs"
  8. 8. Quantum ESPRESSO: 5x Faster than EC2! •  48-core, 3 node calc" •  CG matrix inversion (irregular comm.)" •  3D FFT matrix transposes (All-to-all communication)" •  28% slower w/ SR-IOV" •  SR-IOV still > 500% faster*** than EC2" SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER Quantum Espresso 5.0.2 – DEISA AUSURF112 benchmark" *** 20% faster despite SR-IOV cluster having 20% slower CPUs"
  9. 9. Conclusions! •  SR-IOV: huge step forward in high-performance virtualization" •  Shows substantial improvement in latency over Amazon EC2, and it provides nearly 0 bandwidth overhead! •  Benchmark application performance confirms this: significant improvement over EC2" •  SR-IOV: lowers performance barrier to virtualizing the interconnect and makes fully virtualized HPC clusters viable! •  Comet will deliver virtualized HPC to new/non-traditional communities that need flexibility without major loss of performance! SAN DIEGO SUPERCOMPUTER CENTER

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