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Running head: MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL
IN RAP 1
MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP
15
Music and Gender: Wom...
victimizing and even exploiting women. Moreover, the rap
songs are observed in defaming women through using innuendos
and ...
adhering to Muslim and Christian teachings. By the early 1990s,
this era ushered in rappers the likes of 2pac who presente...
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Running head: MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP 1
MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP 15










Music and Gender: Women Portrayal in Rap Music
Student’s Name:
Course:

Music and Gender: Women Portrayal in Rap Music
The introduction of rap music in the 1980s was welcomed with a lot positivity. However, this genre of music has on many occasions been considered as being controversial. Rap music has been accused of advancing messages and themes that deal with sexism, violence, gender stereotyping and materialism. Previous studies on rap music have indicated the content found in rap music promotes negative behavior. Moreover, research has shown that rap music videos generally differ in their portrayals of men and women in music videos. Males are often cast in positive light compared to females who are depicted in positions that portray them as a submissive gender to males.
The scope of this research narrows down on rap music produced from the years 2016 to 2018.The songs selected for this research are songs with lyrics that have misogynistic themes on women. Rap songs are observed in normalizing, objectifying, glorifying, victimizing and even exploiting women. Moreover, the rap songs are observed in defaming women through using innuendos and stereotypical language which portray misogynistic and sexist perspectives. The main area of focus for this paper is on the kind of nouns that are used in rap music to refer to the concept of woman and ways in which these nouns depict women. It is critical for this project to investigate the lyrics and its representations, as rap music has in the past years been under criticism for increasingly presenting a negative and controversial image of women in the society. A theological perspective on these issues is undertaken at understanding and criticizing the misogynistic and sexist culture of rap music generally.
Men in rap music have a higher probability of perpetuating violence on women. A review done on the common rap images found out that women were more likely to be dressed in images which portrayed them in provocative ways, especially in videos that had sexual content. Research has suggested that the perpetuation of gender in the media is a theme which has been occurring for eons of time[footnoteRef:1]. Specifically, music and gender and the portrayal of women in rap music has not been extensively studied previously. It is essential to consider the differences of gender in rap music and the portrayal of women in this genre of music. [1: Ronald Weitzer and Charis E Kubrin, “Articles Misogyny in Rap Music A Content Analysis of Prevalence and Meanings,” accessed October 23, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X08327696.]

Although scholars have attempted examining the interactions between rap music and religion, there has been a gap in regard to how artists frame religious messages within their lyrics. However, this lack of sufficient research does not reflect on the continued .

Running head: MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP 1
MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP 15










Music and Gender: Women Portrayal in Rap Music
Student’s Name:
Course:

Music and Gender: Women Portrayal in Rap Music
The introduction of rap music in the 1980s was welcomed with a lot positivity. However, this genre of music has on many occasions been considered as being controversial. Rap music has been accused of advancing messages and themes that deal with sexism, violence, gender stereotyping and materialism. Previous studies on rap music have indicated the content found in rap music promotes negative behavior. Moreover, research has shown that rap music videos generally differ in their portrayals of men and women in music videos. Males are often cast in positive light compared to females who are depicted in positions that portray them as a submissive gender to males.
The scope of this research narrows down on rap music produced from the years 2016 to 2018.The songs selected for this research are songs with lyrics that have misogynistic themes on women. Rap songs are observed in normalizing, objectifying, glorifying, victimizing and even exploiting women. Moreover, the rap songs are observed in defaming women through using innuendos and stereotypical language which portray misogynistic and sexist perspectives. The main area of focus for this paper is on the kind of nouns that are used in rap music to refer to the concept of woman and ways in which these nouns depict women. It is critical for this project to investigate the lyrics and its representations, as rap music has in the past years been under criticism for increasingly presenting a negative and controversial image of women in the society. A theological perspective on these issues is undertaken at understanding and criticizing the misogynistic and sexist culture of rap music generally.
Men in rap music have a higher probability of perpetuating violence on women. A review done on the common rap images found out that women were more likely to be dressed in images which portrayed them in provocative ways, especially in videos that had sexual content. Research has suggested that the perpetuation of gender in the media is a theme which has been occurring for eons of time[footnoteRef:1]. Specifically, music and gender and the portrayal of women in rap music has not been extensively studied previously. It is essential to consider the differences of gender in rap music and the portrayal of women in this genre of music. [1: Ronald Weitzer and Charis E Kubrin, “Articles Misogyny in Rap Music A Content Analysis of Prevalence and Meanings,” accessed October 23, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X08327696.]

Although scholars have attempted examining the interactions between rap music and religion, there has been a gap in regard to how artists frame religious messages within their lyrics. However, this lack of sufficient research does not reflect on the continued .

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Running head MUSIC AND GENDER WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP 1.docx

  1. 1. Running head: MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP 1 MUSIC AND GENDER: WOMEN PORTRAYAL IN RAP 15 Music and Gender: Women Portrayal in Rap Music Student’s Name: Course: Music and Gender: Women Portrayal in Rap Music The introduction of rap music in the 1980s was welcomed with a lot positivity. However, this genre of music has on many occasions been considered as being controversial. Rap music has been accused of advancing messages and themes that deal with sexism, violence, gender stereotyping and materialism. Previous studies on rap music have indicated the content found in rap music promotes negative behavior. Moreover, research has shown that rap music videos generally differ in their portrayals of men and women in music videos. Males are often cast in positive light compared to females who are depicted in positions that portray them as a submissive gender to males. The scope of this research narrows down on rap music produced from the years 2016 to 2018.The songs selected for this research are songs with lyrics that have misogynistic themes on women. Rap songs are observed in normalizing, objectifying, glorifying,
  2. 2. victimizing and even exploiting women. Moreover, the rap songs are observed in defaming women through using innuendos and stereotypical language which portray misogynistic and sexist perspectives. The main area of focus for this paper is on the kind of nouns that are used in rap music to refer to the concept of woman and ways in which these nouns depict women. It is critical for this project to investigate the lyrics and its representations, as rap music has in the past years been under criticism for increasingly presenting a negative and controversial image of women in the society. A theological perspective on these issues is undertaken at understanding and criticizing the misogynistic and sexist culture of rap music generally. Men in rap music have a higher probability of perpetuating violence on women. A review done on the common rap images found out that women were more likely to be dressed in images which portrayed them in provocative ways, especially in videos that had sexual content. Research has suggested that the perpetuation of gender in the media is a theme which has been occurring for eons of time[footnoteRef:1]. Specifically, music and gender and the portrayal of women in rap music has not been extensively studied previously. It is essential to consider the differences of gender in rap music and the portrayal of women in this genre of music. [1: Ronald Weitzer and Charis E Kubrin, “Articles Misogyny in Rap Music A Content Analysis of Prevalence and Meanings,” accessed October 23, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X08327696.] Although scholars have attempted examining the interactions between rap music and religion, there has been a gap in regard to how artists frame religious messages within their lyrics. However, this lack of sufficient research does not reflect on the continued fascination of rap music with religion. The roots of rappers attempting to integrate rap music into Christianity can be traced down to rappers from the 1980s such as Rakim and KRS One. These rappers rhymed occasionally on the need of
  3. 3. adhering to Muslim and Christian teachings. By the early 1990s, this era ushered in rappers the likes of 2pac who presented lyrics which conflicted religion and the concept of higher power that had never been occasioned in rap music. Before his death, the rapper 2pac would be considered as a catalyst who played a critical role in the manner in which rappers and artists allied to rap music addressed religion. Even though little research has been done on analyzing how the lyrical content of rap music has changed from the time 2pac become an established rapper, the influence played by succeeding rappers on matters of religion and spirituality can be observed as one that has waned off significantly. Undertaking a critical evaluation of the current rap music images would enable in filling the gap within literature that had overlooked positive and negative portrayals of women in rap music. The manner in which the structure of lyrics and words of a song are composed plays an impact in regards to how the themes sang are perceived. Interpretation and appearance of songs depends on the images and choice of words that have been used by the artist[footnoteRef:2]. Song writers are often affected by the cultural circumstances that surround them, hence when writing or composing songs, the genres are affected by the cultures. The genre of rap music is considered as one of the four building blocks in the music culture of hip hop. [2: Kalmar. Vaxjo, “The Depiction of Women in Rap and Pop Lyrics,” n.d.] The beliefs and customs of a society are generally reflected in music. In a patriarchal society, music generated from this epoch may have effects on the subcultures existing in this culture, which may in turn lead to inequalities distortions of identities of individuals. Any kind of music that asserts the above points may be regarded as being sexist and as such, it would potentially lead into making the listeners supporting sexist ideologies. A particular study found out that young black women who were exposed to nonviolent sexist music tended to accept violence that was directed towards them, then were their
  4. 4. counterparts who were never exposed to such kind of rap music[footnoteRef:3]. [3: Teresa A Treat et al., “Influence of Sexually Degrading Music on Men’s Perceptions of Women’s Dating-Relevant Cues; Influence of Sexually Degrading Music on Men’s Perceptions of Women’s Dating-Relevant Cues,” 2014, https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3084.] In yet another study, it found out that men who listened to gangster rap music tended to view relationships with women as being adversarial unlike men who did not listen to gangster rap music. From a theological standpoint, the above perspectives are due to the society alienating itself from morals which had in the past served as the yardstick in guiding the societies into living harmoniously. Rap music does not borrow any form of theological perspectives in its subculture and this points out why this genre of music employs a lot of foul language towards women in its lyrics. Most rap songs are identified as having subtle themes of sexism in their lyrics. Sexism should in the context of rap music should be understood as being beyond the typical dislike of women. Instead, it is regarded as taking three main subtypes, ambivalent sexism, hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. Hostile sexism entails dominative paternalism and it is thought that men are supposed to have more power than women. Hostile sexism comprises hostile attitudes and actions towards the women. Moreover, in this subcategory, men are seen exerting their powers over women mostly in sexual relationships. This kind power that is exerted by men towards women often makes the men view women as sexual objects and may even use violence against them[footnoteRef:4]. Benevolent sexism is on the other hand considered as a subtype which entails protective paternalism and that it is thought out that there are periods in time when men depend on women to a certain extent[footnoteRef:5]. Although the gestures of providing and protecting women may be observed as being nice, it is considered as being sexist due to it portraying women as
  5. 5. needing protection from men. This implies that women must depend on men as their protectors and providers. Hostile sexism and benevolent sexism are both viewed as leading the perception of women being ready to accept the dominance of men instead of challenging this dominance. Hence, women are observed as challenging the dominance of men, they are punished with hostile sexism while women who are observed as complying into the conventional gender rules they are rewarded with the benevolent sexism. [4: William T. Hoston, “We All Came from a Woman: Rap Music and Misogyny,” in Black Masculinity in the Obama Era (New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2014), 41–65, https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137430472_3.] [5: Ellen S Nikodym, “The Effects of Objectifying Hip-Hop Lyrics on Female Listeners,” 2013, http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/psychology_honorshttp:// digitalcommons.macalester.edu/psychology_honors/31.] The above assertions on sexism from various literature reviews reinforce the idea that sexist lyrics such as those that are composed in rap music affect their listeners adversely. Some researchers suggest that the lyrical content found in a song is equally significant as the responses the song receives due to the lyrics may indirectly and directly affect the response. Hence, the there is a high likelihood of the potential lyrical impact becoming an issue when factors such as stereotyping priming and spreading activation are considered. Stereotyping priming is regarded to occur whenever a stimulus leads into information of a group or category being activated in the memory. Spreading activation does add the idea that bits of information are interconnected in the memory, and as such, depending on the relatedness of bits of information to another, an activation of one bit of information in the memory would lead into the activation of related bits of information in the memory. This process is replicated in the activation of sexism. Studies have suggested that lyrics of songs do not necessarily have to have sexist theme to expose individuals into sexism[footnoteRef:6].
  6. 6. However, if the genre of music is strongly related into having themes of sexism, then it is apparent that issues pertaining to sexism would be activated in the minds of the listeners. [6: Sandra C Zichermann, “The Effects of Hip-Hop and Rap on Young Women in Academia,” 2013, https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/36081/1/Zicher mann_Sandra_C_201306_EDD_thesis.pdf.] The priming paradigm may elaborate on the misogynous messages that are found in rap music. The perspective on priming argues out that the musical themes of rap music are actually structured around social constructs which are schematically represented in the memory. During viewing and listening to rap music, the social schemas which are primed in the memory are observed being activated the more and the thoughts created are subsequently used in consequent interactions and judgements. This explains why the misogynous themes that are prevalent in rap music often find themselves being presented in the minds of artists and would be artists because of the exposure to early rap songs. This in turn leads into the listeners likely being positively oriented into forming aggressive thoughts as well as anti-women attitudes which are subsequently manifested in various rap music The nouns that are employed in rap songs have misogynistic and sexist themes. An interpretation of the context in which the nouns in these songs has been used requires to undertake presumptions of what the general interpretation of these songs means. The most common nouns that are employed in several selected rap songs are bitch/bitches, babe, girl/girls, baby girl, baby hoe and whore. The singular and plural form of these nouns are observed in a number of songs. However, in most songs the plural form of the derogatory nouns about women are seen recurring. For instance, the noun bitches is markedly more frequent in most rap songs. The song by Drake Kiki Do You Love me is for instance observed using the noun bitch referring to a woman. His lyrics mention that two bad women who go
  7. 7. kissing each other. The other noun that is often used in rap music to denote women is the noun baby. This noun can be used positively or negatively towards denoting women. There are other times when this noun is ambiguous and drawing the line between being negative or positive becomes challenging[footnoteRef:7]. The song by Drake, Kiki Do You Love Me the lyrics are as below. [7: Vincent C Bates, Brent C Talbot, and Evan S Tobias, “A Refereed Journal of the Action for Change in Music Education Flipping the Misogynist Script: Gender, Agency,Hip Hop and Music Education,” Criticism & Theory for Music Education I S S N 1, vol. 5, 2014, http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Tobias13_2.pdf.] Two bad bitches and we kissin' in the Wraith Kissin'-kissin' in the Wraith, kiss-kissin' in the Wraith I need that black card and the code to the safe It is evident that this song, the usage of the noun bitches denotes two women The artist is seen degrading the women he refers in the song by indicating that he can go on two have two women whom he can kiss with no feelings of infidelity. Critiquing this from a theological perspective, it is evident that rap music advances the notion that men can have as many concubines or women with no repercussions from the society. This is contrary to several theological beliefs which teach on relationships between the opposite gender being limited between one partner only. This may mean that using vulgar words in rap songs may necessarily not be used in determining the context of the songs as being either positive or negative whenever referring to women. For instance, in the lyrics below by Sheck Wes on Mo Bamba, the artist sings that I got hoes calling a young n---a phone Where's Ali with the motherfucking dope? (bitch, bitch) I be ballin' like a mo'fuckin' pro The instance above depicts the artist using sexist and misogynistic terms towards portraying women in his songs[footnoteRef:8]. Furthermore, the artist in this song
  8. 8. clearly raps about hitting on women with no potential consequences that would befall him. The lyric above is further sexual and vulgar and it portrays women as being somehow light-footed women. [8: Kate Conrad, Travis Dixon, and Yuanyuan. Zhang, “Controversial Rap Themes, Gender Portrayals and Skin Tone Distortion: A Content Analysis of Rap Music Videos. Media.,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 2009.] In a review of most rap songs, it was observed that most females in the rap videos were dressed provocatively, especially during sexual scenes. Additionally, it was found out that women in these rap videos were more than likely to be associated with themes of misogyny. This is evident in the rap song Bounce Out With That by YBN Nahmir. In this song, the artist clearly downgrades women by referring them to bitch and mentions that he will take her to his clique. In the preceding lines, he highlights that he has no time for bitches. Take a nigga bitch and then I pass her to the clique (grra, pow, pow, pow) I say, see me, I don't got no time for no bitch (time for no bitch) Fuck a bitch and then I put it in a bitch throat (bitch throat) Never give a bitch yo' phone, that's a no no (hell nah) This is because previous research pointed out that the themes that are found in rap music encouraged an acceptance of degrading actions towards the women. It can be argued out that the prominence of misogyny as theme in rap music maybe as well be related to the expressions of the viewers harboring similar attitudes in their own lives, this may include objectifying the women. In yet other most viewed rap songs in YouTube in 2018, the theme of misogyny is still palpable. For instance, the top rap song Keke by 6ix9ine, the lyrics of the song are: Bitches sucking dick, giving top, on the regular Catch me water whipping straight drop, on the regular On the other hand, female rappers are also observed continuing
  9. 9. the theme of misogyny and sexism in their song lyrics. The artist Nicki Minaj in her song Chun-Li, she sings that: Dunked on 'em, now I'm swingin' off the rim Bitch ain't comin' off the bench The artist Cardi B, YG also lyrics in her song She Bad: Dat ass, dat ass, dat ass, dat ass She bad, she bad, she bad, she bad Damn daddy, you fine as hell I hope your wallet got condoms in it I'm up, she mad, I'm first, she's last (yeah From these representations, it is evident that the theme of misogyny is highly acceptable within the circles of rap culture. The objectification of women in both male and female rap songs is collectively done. The culture of rap music acceptance of degrading women in the rap songs and videos is premised occurring below consciousness. This in turn results in heightened accessibility of sexist and misogynistic constructs which are because of chronic activation of misogynistic rap themes over time. In as much various scholars have argued out against rap music as being highly misogynistic and sexist, a body of other scholars point out that this genre of music is portrayal of cultural experience that is deeply rooted in the African American culture. They point out that rap music is deeply rooted in the African American traditions like toasting, signifying and playing the dozens. It is also contented that rap music rose from the oppressive culture African Americans had underwent in the U.S. Accordingly, rap is seen as pointing out the fingers towards the oppressive structures and used it as a vehicle resisting unfair treatment. Media scholars who have examined the relationship between media consumption and African Americans found out that African Americans used a cultural lens that allowed them to identify with the media content as well as strengthen their collective self-esteem. In doing so, it allows their self-esteem being positively managed. Empirical research examining the role of collective self-esteem
  10. 10. and culture in relation to the production and consumption of rap music, has however indicated how this genre of music can be used in advancing violent and misogynistic themes. One of the strongest findings point out that violent and misogynistic themes in rap music can prime misogynistic and violent thoughts. An exposure towards rap music which is laden with sexual imagery gravitated towards creating unfavorable evaluations on black women. In a study, it was found out that misogynous music particularly facilitated sexually aggressive behaviors and supported relationships between sexual aggression and cognitive distortions. Studies have also suggested that women who viewed rap videos of women in sexually subordinate roles were shown to have greater acceptance than females who had not been exposed into these types of music. In other rap songs, such as the song by Kanye West &Lil Pump I Love It, the lyrics of the song are as follows; They had the fake orgasms and shit We can tell n---as today "hey, I wanna cum, mothafucka" You're such a fuckin' ho, I love it (I love it) You're such a fuckin' ho, I love Fucked that bitch up out in London (up out in) Then I fucked up on her cousin Or her sister, I don't know nothin' (uh-uh, woo) And my n---as gettin' ignorant Like a lighter, bitch, we ignant The artists Tyga featuring Offset in their song Taste they sing that: And my bitch want the Fenty, not the Maybelline I'm the black JB the way these bitches scream Make these bitches scream Pretty little thing The artist Juice WRLD in his song Lucid Dreams he sings that was tangled up in your drastic ways Who knew evil girls have the prettiest face You gave me a heart that was full of mistakes
  11. 11. I gave you my heart and you made heart break You made my heart break The artist Travis Scott in his song Sicko Mode, he sings that Told her "hop in, you comin' too" In the 305, bitches treat me like I'm Uncle Luke (Don't stop, pop that pussy!) From the above songs by Travis Scott, Juice WRLD, Tyga & Offset, Kanye West and Lil Pump, the artists use vulgar and derogatory nouns towards women. What is evident is the way the adjoining lyrics of their songs are very vulgar and sexual when portraying the women[footnoteRef:9]. The message used in these rap songs is one which attempts to portray women as being easy sexual objects who seem to be ready at accepting whatever sexual actions the artists would want to perform on them. Hence, the impression that is created from these songs and rap music generally is that women are supposed to be subordinate to what men say towards them. From the above songs, women are supposed not to raise any issues in regard to how they are portrayed by the male gender in rap music[footnoteRef:10]. [9: Gretchen Cundiff, “The Influence of Rap/Hip-Hop Music: A Mixed-Method Analysis by Gretchen Cundiff-71 The Influence of Rap/Hip-Hop Music: A Mixed- Method Analysis on Audience Perceptions of Misogynistic Lyrics and the Issue of Domestic Violence,” accessed October 23, 2018, https://www.elon.edu/u/academics/communications/journal/wp- content/uploads/sites/153/2017/06/02CundiffEJSpring13.pdf.] [10: Vaxjo, “The Depiction of Women in Rap and Pop Lyrics.”] Undertaking a theological perspective in evaluating the above rap songs, it is quite clear that the contemporary Christian churches have attempted challenging the cultural experience that is shared in the culture of rap music. Using the teachings of Christianity in this paper, it is understandable that this religion provides a diversity to its members. There are various Cristian churches that have various differing beliefs and practices. Most
  12. 12. of the Christian teachings attempt to teach and emphasize on the need of respecting women in society. However, the themes that are found in most rap songs as evidenced the songs analyzed above portray a culture which continually leans towards degrading women. Secular rap music has a tremendous influence over the young generation, and the message that is imparted on the individuals listening to this genre of music is one which is skewed towards misogynistic and sexist leanings. It is a fact that nouns that have negative value are very much used within the circles of rap music, Hence, this likely corresponds to the believe that rap music expresses the central assumptions of the cultures they originate. It is no wonder that the lyrics mentioned above in this paper depict and portray the cultural message within the subculture of rap music. Most of the nouns that highlight women in the songs are observed as having negative value, these characterizes the genre of rap music and carries the cultural message of misogyny and the degradation of women as being an acceptable practice within the rap culture. The culture in rap music is one which the artists tend to portray themselves as being tough and powerful through super- ordaining themselves towards women. Majority of the rap artists use vulgar and expletive words such as hoe and bitch, a clear indication of their super ordination. This means that the artists perceive themselves as being superior to the women they are rapping about. The rap culture and music are one which tends to create the image of men as being the ruling gender and the tendency is one in which the men artists subordinate women to maintain tough and powerful image. Interactions between both genders are ubiquitous with the male gender often manifesting its powerful image[footnoteRef:11]. Men generally tend to portray an image of being the ruling gender, in the presence of media this tend to escalate into the men portraying women around them being stupid. The rap subculture in most cases manifests these characters in the media through the song lyrics the male gender sing. [11: Weitzer and Kubrin, “Articles Misogyny in Rap Music A Content Analysis of Prevalence and
  13. 13. Meanings.”] The construction of the social self is created when human beings interact with each other. The perspective created depends on the language and gender that is in play. The origins of hip- hop culture, in which rap music is a prominent subculture is considered as being from Bronx. The language that was being used in this region during this time spread and had influence on the music of this region. Hence, in consideration of the hip hop culture and its subculture of rap music it is evident that a significant part of these songs has employed foul language as being a natural feature in the song lyrics[footnoteRef:12]. It is argued out that individuals in this culture, the usage of vulgar language in rap songs and in normal conversations may be regarded as being a norm and is not seriously considered as being offensive as when other individuals who do not belong to this culture perceive it. [12: Sarah Neff, “Sexism Across Musical Genres: A Comparison,” 2014, http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/honors_theses.] In summary, it is evident from the above arguments that the usage of misogynistic, degrading and sexist language in rap music towards women is a feature which has been practiced for long. Rap music subculture falls under the culture of hip-hop and it is observed that the usual intonation of language used by male artistes whenever addressing women in their lyrical is heavily concentrated with language which is foul and derogatory towards women. From a theological viewpoint, the patriarchal nature that is observed in most of teachings and readings is extended into the secular culture and is worsened off when subcultures within the main cultures employ the usage of misogynistic and sexist language when communicating or interacting with the female gender. Rap music generally leans towards a subculture where women are addressed through names and noun which are vulgar and sexist.
  14. 14. Bibliography Bates, Vincent C, Brent C Talbot, and Evan S Tobias. “A Refereed Journal of the Action for Change in Music Education Flipping the Misogynist Script: Gender, Agency,Hip Hop and Music Education.” Criticism & Theory for Music Education I S S N 1. Vol. 5, 2014. http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Tobias13_2.pdf. Conrad, Kate, Travis Dixon, and Yuanyuan. Zhang. “Controversial Rap Themes, Gender Portrayals and Skin Tone Distortion: A Content Analysis of Rap Music Videos. Media.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 2009. Cundiff, Gretchen. “The Influence of Rap/Hip-Hop Music: A Mixed-Method Analysis by Gretchen Cundiff-71 The Influence of Rap/Hip-Hop Music: A Mixed-Method Analysis on Audience Perceptions of Misogynistic Lyrics and the Issue of Domestic Violence.” Accessed October 23, 2018. https://www.elon.edu/u/academics/communications/journal/wp- content/uploads/sites/153/2017/06/02CundiffEJSpring13.pdf. Hoston, William T. “We All Came from a Woman: Rap Music and Misogyny.” In Black Masculinity in the Obama Era, 41–65. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137430472_3. Neff, Sarah. “Sexism Across Musical Genres: A Comparison,” 2014. http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/honors_theses. Nikodym, Ellen S. “The Effects of Objectifying Hip-Hop Lyrics on Female Listeners,” 2013. http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/psychology_honorshttp:// digitalcommons.macalester.edu/psychology_honors/31. Treat, Teresa A, Coreen A Farris, Richard J Viken, and Jodi R Smith. “Influence of Sexually Degrading Music on Men’s Perceptions of Women’s Dating-Relevant Cues; Influence of Sexually Degrading Music on Men’s Perceptions of Women’s
  15. 15. Dating-Relevant Cues,” 2014. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3084. Vaxjo, Kalmar. “The Depiction of Women in Rap and Pop Lyrics,” n.d. Weitzer, Ronald, and Charis E Kubrin. “Articles Misogyny in Rap Music A Content Analysis of Prevalence and Meanings.” Accessed October 23, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X08327696. Zichermann, Sandra C. “The Effects of Hip-Hop and Rap on Young Women in Academia,” 2013. https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/36081/1/Zicher mann_Sandra_C_201306_EDD_thesis.pdf. Introduction Misogyny and degradation of women in music have become a common phenomenon in the world today. Rap music is often the most implicated music genre. The research essay proposal This proposal outlines the main areas of focus for the research essay as well as the main parameters for the paper. The research essay aims at investigating previous studies on the topic as well as song lyrics within rap music from a theological perspective, focusing on how women are portrayed in this type of music. The
  16. 16. scope of this study will cover rap music that toped the billboard charts for the highest number of days for the past 4 years. Also, it will include 5 most viewed rap videos ever on YouTube The main area of focus for this investigation is on the kind of nouns that are used in rap music to refer to the concept of WOMAN and ways in which these nouns depict women. Focus will also be placed on the images of rap music videos, as this can also indicate how women are portrayed. It is critical for this project to investigate the lyrics and its representations, as rap music has in the past years been under criticism for increasingly presenting a negative and controversial image of women in the society. The following activities will be crucial in writing the research essay: · Identify previous works of research relevant to this study and present a literature review. · Research and collect visual and audio texts relevant to the study. This will also involve analyzing lyrics from several rap songs. · Analyze the findings of the research essay from a theological perspective to support or refute existing literature from previous studies regarding the research topic. · Create a conclusion on the portrayal of women in rap music based on the findings of the research. Topic: Music & Gender · Portrayal of women in rap music -A half-page essay/project topic proposal should be submitted to the instructors in advance. The proposal should briefly describe the nature of the essay or project and its parameters. ( Attached the proposal too)
  17. 17. -Length: 2700-3000 words (research essay) Topics may be developed in the form of a research essay or they may take the form of a project that may include field research, visual or audio components, scrapbook, collages, murals, etc. The project or essay may be done either individually or in a group depending on the nature of the project or essay. While many of the themes listed are “secular” in nature, all projects and essays should include some theological reflection or interaction with the subject matter (for example, a Biblical perspective on the subject matter). A good essay/project is one that is well-focused. Essays must conform to university standards for academic writing. All students must read the introductory guide “Guidelines for Essay Writing” that is posted below. Various academic writing manuals that provide more details. Recommended: A Pocket Style Manual, by Diana Hacker, (Bedford Books) (web-site supports: http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/hacker/pocket/). In this course instructors prefer that documentation be provided according to the University of Chicago Style (Turabian). If documentation/referencing is not included, the essay/projects will be returned unmarked.
  18. 18. Some Guidelines for Essay Writing Listed below are a number of guidelines to help you as students in the writing of your essays, so that you will be able to communicate your ideas in a clear, concise, convincing, and pleasing manner. Each of the points is a direct response to problems that occur frequently. Because this handout is distributed to a variety of classes, not all the individual guidelines may be relevant to every essay assignment., A Pocket Style Manual (6th edition; Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012). 1. If you are choosing your own topic, be careful to define the topic clearly. Be specific. Do not choose a topic so vague, or general, or broad that it is difficult to get handles on it or make any significant points about it. 2. Follow all the assignment instructions carefully. This guideline seems so obvious, but is frequently neglected. 3. Before you start writing the essay review your research notes and decide exactly what you wish to accomplish, or demonstrate, or communicate in your essay. How you organize the essay and what information you include and exclude, should be determined by the basic purpose of the essay. 4. Start the essay with a brief introductory paragraph that clearly outlines the purpose, focus, or thesis of the essay. 5. Conclude the essay with a paragraph or section that sums things up in some way or brings the essay to a meaningful close. 6. Pay attention to paragraphing. Stick to onemajor idea per paragraph. A change in topic is generally reason for starting a new paragraph. Usually paragraphs should not be longer than about half a page. Avoid short paragraphs of only one or two
  19. 19. sentences. They lead to a choppy writing style lacking in continuity. 7. Avoid run-on sentences, i.e., long complex sentences that go on and on. Simply divide such sentences in two. 8. Organize your essay into sections. Use headings and/or sub- headings where appropriate. If you have difficulty organizing your material, then draw up an outline before beginning to write. When you are done writing ask if someone reading your paper for the first time could easily discern its outline, just by skimming over the essay again. This should be possible even if you have not written up an outline but only have one in your head. 9. Make sure that the flow of material in the essay is logical. Do the ideas of each sentence, paragraph, or section flow naturally from the ideas of the previous one? Do they lead logically into what follows? While writing always keep asking yourself if what you are writing is relevant to the topic. Should certain information be omitted, or would it fit better in another place? 10. Make sure to include enough information or discussion so that your important ideas and points are explained in enough detail. 11. Make sure that every pronoun has a clear antecedent, i.e., word or words that it refers back to. The lack of clear antecedents is one of the most common grammatical errors. Here is an example from an old assignment: “By the year 200 B.C.E. the books called the prophets had been edited and grouped together by anonymous Jewish scribes. Theyseemed to be important.” The last sentence is ambiguous because they could refer to books, or prophets, or scribes. 12. Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number, i.e.,
  20. 20. a singular noun takes a singular pronoun while a plural noun takes a plural pronoun. Here is an example from an old assignment: “Did a prophetspeak the thoughts of his own mind, or did theyspeak only messages from God?” To correct this error simply change they to he. 13. Generally, it is best to avoid contractions like, I’m, I’ll, don’t, can’t, won’t. Use the full forms, I am, I will, do not, cannot, will not. 14. Generally, the verb tense should not be changed within a paragraph. Here is an example from an old assignment: “In chapter seven Jeremiah is speaking to the people gathered at the Jerusalem temple. [several sentences later] Jeremiah condemnedhis listeners for their false worship.” The tense should not be changed from present to past, and so in the latter sentence condemned should be replaced by condemns. 15. Essays should always be double-spaced, with ca. 2.5 cm. margins on all sides of the page. 16. The essay should be as neat and attractive as possible. A sloppy essay is not pleasing to read and gives the impression that the thinking behind the essay is also sloppy. 17. Always number all pages except the title page. 18. Use non-sexist inclusive language at all times. If you are referring to human beings in general, use words like human, persons, people, etc., instead of man and men. The meanings of words change over time, and many people no longer feel that words like man and men refer to all persons but only to males. (Do men feel included when the term women is used?) Instead of, “Man’s quest for meaning,” write, “The human quest for meaning.”
  21. 21. 19. Important ideas, pieces of information, or quotations taken from other sources must be cited. There are several reasons for this. One is that borrowing important ideas or material without giving credit to the originator of these ideas is considered a form of theft called plagiarism. Another reason is that proper documentation allows the readers of your work to consult for themselves the important sources which you have utilized, and to check the accuracy with which you have quoted or used facts and opinions. Diana Hacker, A Pocket Style Manual (6th edition; Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012), provides a helpful outline of how to document your work properly. In the field of biblical studies most scholarly works use what is called the Chicago style of documentation, and so that is what you should use in your essay for this course. All the works which you have consulted in the writing of your essay, except such common works as dictionaries and the Bible, should be included in the bibliography. The bibliography should appear on a separate page at the end of the essay. Entries should be listed alphabetically according to the last name of the author. 20. When making important points about a biblical text, the argument should be supported with either a reference to the text or in some cases with a direct quotation. Biblical references should appear in the body of the essay not in a footnote. E.g.: On one occasion Jeremiah is instructed by God to proclaim a message at the temple (Jer. 7:1-2). This message opens with a plea for repentance, “Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, amend your ways and your doings, and I will let you dwell in this place” (Jer. 7:3). 21. After writing the first draft of your essay re-read and edit it. Revise and edit it again and again. Check grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. Ask if the material is organized in the most
  22. 22. logical way; ask if certain points are irrelevant and should be omitted; ask if certain points are unclear and need elaboration or need to be expressed differently. Editing may be tedious but it can make the difference between a mediocre and an excellent essay. 22. Always proof-read your essay carefully, especially after you have printed it, and make sure that the pages are in the correct order. 23. As you struggle to master the sometimes frustrating details of proper essay writing, remember that as you practice proper techniques they become easier and eventually become second nature. Also remember that you are not just striving to get a good mark on one specific assignment, but you are acquiring important writing skills that will be useful in a host of involvements and careers in our contemporary society. The ability to convey information and express ideas in a clear, convincing, and appealing manner, is a valuable skill in and of itself and is also highly sought after by many employers.

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