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Visayans

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VISAYAN CULTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES

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Visayans

  1. 1. PAMPANGA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Magalang , Pampanga Institute of Graduate Studies DOCTORS of EDUCATION Educational Management PRESENTED TO: Dr. EPIFANIA S. GOSIOCO Compartive Studies on Philippine Culture Educ 313 PRESENTED BY : GLENDA NACPIL NAGUIT VISAYANS
  2. 2. The Visayans or Visayan people The Visayans or Visayan people (Visayan languages and Tagalog: mga Bisaya) are a Filipino ethnic group whose members share a great extent of cultural, historical and linguistic affinity stretching across islands within the Visayan Sea. The people are speakers of one or more Visayan languages, the most widely spoken being CEBUANO, HILIGAYNON, AND WARAY-WARAY. They live in the Visayan island group and in many parts of Mindanao.. The Visayans, as one ethnolinguistic umbrella and notwithstanding the population exclusive to that of Visayas, are the largest ethnic group in the country, numbering at around 33 million as of 2010.
  3. 3. KABISAY-AN refers both to the Visayan people collectively and the lands occupied by them. The Anglicized term Visayas (via Hispanized plural form of Bisaya) is commonly used to refer to the latter. Based on loose definitions, the unofficial boundaries of Visayas traditionally comprise the following provinces commonly known where Visayans or people with Visayan culture reside: Aklan, Iloilo, Antique, Guimaras, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Cebu, Siquijor, Bohol, Southern Leyte, Leyte, Biliran, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Samar, Romblon and Masbate.
  4. 4. According to H. Otley Beyer and other anthropologists, the term Visayan was first applied only to the people of PANAY and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros, and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas, while the people of Cebu, Bohol, and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to these other islands because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan "dialect" of Panay. The impression of these similarities was in fact carefully analyzed by David Zorc, who, while able to linguistically classify the Austronesian subfamily termed Visayan languages, noticed their overall connections as one dialect continuum. However, these must not be confused to dialects, since not all Visayan languages contain a unified set of features.
  5. 5. History Classical period The earliest settlements in the Visayan Islands were from valley-dwelling Austronesians and highland-dwelling Negrito dated around 30,000 BC. These early settlers were mostly Animist tribes. In the 12th century, Hindu-Buddhist descendants from the late empire of the Sri Vijaya, Majapahit and Brunei settled the islands. By the 14th century, Arab traders and their followers who ventured into Maritime Southeast Asia, converted some of these tribal groups to Islam. These groups practiced a mixture of Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist beliefs although there were also groups that were varied: some groups exclusively practiced Islam or Hinduism or Buddhism.
  6. 6. Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro known as the MARAGTAS attempts to retell the origins of the present-day Visayan people based on folklore revolving around ten datus of Borneo.It was said that they originated from an area occupied by the thalassocratic empire of Sri Vijaya during the early 13th century. In an attempt to escape the despotic rule of a Rajah Makatunaw and the subsequent fall of the empire, the chieftains, led by Datu Puti, fled eastwards to what is now the island of Panay. The island at that time was ruled by an Ati Chief Marikudo who was later given a golden sadok and a necklace for his wife, Maniwantiwan, in purchase of the Borneans of Panay for new settlement. It was said that the name for the inhabitants, Bisaya, was derived from their original land, Sri Vijaya.
  7. 7. ancient KADATUAN or tumao (noble class) Visayan couple of Panay
  8. 8. the PINTADOS ("The Tattooed"), another name for Visayans of Cebu and its surrounding islands
  9. 9. TUMAO (noble class) or timawa (warrior class)
  10. 10. ROYAL COUPLE OF THE VISAYANS OF PANAY.
  11. 11. VISAYAN IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES
  12. 12. Visayan Important Personalities There have been three from the Visayan region: Philippine Presidents : the Cebuano Sergio Osmeña, the Ilonggo Manuel Roxas and the Boholano Carlos P. García. In addition the Visayas has produced three Vice-Presidents, four Senate Presidents, eight Speakers of the House, six Chief Justices, and five Presidential Spouses including Imelda Marcos, a Waray. The then-president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo is also half Cebuano. In international diplomacy the Visayas has produced a United Nations Undersecretary general, the Negros Occidental native Rafael M. Salas who served as the Head of the UNFPA. In the lines of religion, there have been two Visayan Cardinals, namely Julio Rosales from Cebu and Jaime Sin from Aklan. The first Visayan and second Filipino that was canonized is Pedro Calungsod.
  13. 13. VISAYAN LITERATURE ,MUSIC and DANCES
  14. 14. LITERATURE Spanish Jesuit named Ignacio Francisco Alzina during had documented literary piece, among these literary pieces from ancient Eastern Visayas were candu, haya, ambahan, canogon, bical, balac, siday and awit which are predominantly in Waray. MUSIC Traditional Visayan folk music were known to many such as Dandansoy originally in Hiligaynon and is now commonly sang in other Visayan languages. A very popular Filipino Christmas carol Ang Pasko ay Sumapit translated by Levi Celerio to Tagalog was originally a Cebuano song entitled Kasadya Ning Taknaa popularized by Ruben Tagalog.
  15. 15. Tinikling, which presumably originated from the Samar- Leyte area in Eastern Visayas. Ethnic dances from the region are common in any traditional Filipino setting. CURACHA OR KURATSA (not to be confused with the Zamboangueño dish) is a popular Waray dance. Its Cebuano counterparts are KURADANG AND LA BERDE. There is the LIKI from Negros Occidental and the well-known TINIKLING of Leyte. Other Hiligaynon dances are the harito, balitaw, liay, lalong kalong, imbong, inay-inay and binanog.
  16. 16. VISAYAN CULTURE
  17. 17. Religion WESTERN VISAYAS Panay and Romblon CENTRAL VISAYAS Cebu, Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental and Bohol Eastern Visayas Leyte and Samar Roman Catholicism 86.53% Roman Catholicism 92% Roman Catholicism 93% Evangelicals (1.48%) Evangelicals (1%). Evangelical 1% Aglipayan (4.01%) Aglipayans (2%) Aglipayan 2% other religious affiliations. 7.71% (United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Iglesia ni Cristo, various Protestant denominations or other religions.) other religious affiliations. 5% (United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Iglesia ni Cristo, various Protestant denominations or other religions.) other religions 15% belonged to other Protestant denominations (including the Iglesia ni Cristo, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and various Baptist churches)
  18. 18. FESTIVALS Visayans are known in the Philippines for their festivities such as the •Sinulog ( Cebu ) •Maskara ( Bacolod ) • Sandugo ( Tagbilaran Bohol) •Ati – Atihan ( Aklan ) •Pintados – Kasadyaan ( Tacloban ) •Dinagyang ( Iloilo )
  19. 19. SINULOG FESTIVAL OF CEBU The SINULOG Festival is an annual cultural and religious festival held on the third Sunday of January in Cebu City, and is the center of the Santo Niño celebration in the Philippines The SINULOG commemorates the Filipino people's acceptance of Christianity (specifically, Roman Catholicism), and their rejection of their former animist beliefs. The first of these conversions happened in 1521 on the island of Cebu, when Rajah Humabon and his queen Amihan (Humamay) were baptised along with their subjects, becoming Carlos and Juana of Cebu.
  20. 20. Maskara festival The Masskara Festival (Hiligaynon: Pista sang MassKara ; Filipino: Fiesta ng MassKara) is a festival held each year in Bacolod, Philippines, every third weekend of October nearest October 19, the city's Charter anniversary. The word "Masskara" is a portmanteau, coined by the late artist Ely Santiago from mass (a multitude of people), and the Spanish word cara (face), thus forming MassKara (a multitude of faces). The word is also a pun on maskara, Filipino for "mask" (itself from Spanish máscara), since a prominent feature of the festival are the masks worn by participants, which are always adorned with smiling faces.
  21. 21. SANDUGO FESTIVAL The Sandugo Festival is held every July. The Tagbilaran City Charter Day on July 1 kicks-off the month-long festival with a holy mass, diana, motorcade and program sponsored by the City Government of Tagbilaran. The Sandugo Festival is an annual historical celebration that takes place every year in Tagbilaran City on the island of Bohol in the Philippines. This festival commemorates the Treaty of Friendship between Datu Sikatuna, a chieftain in Bohol, and Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi. This 16th-century peace treaty occurred on March 16, 1565 through a blood compact or "SANDUGO".
  22. 22. The Ati-Atihan Festival is a feast held annually in January in honor of the Santo Niño (Infant Jesus), concluding on the third Sunday, in the island and town of Kalibo, Aklan in the Philippines. The name "Ati Atihan" means "to be like itas" or "make believe Ati's." Itas were the primary settlers in the islands of Panay. They too are the earliest settlers of Panay Island where the province of Aklan is situated.
  23. 23. PINTADOS KADSAYAAN FESTIVAL • Pintados-Kasadyaan Festival. Is a cultural and religious celebration held every June 29. • The Pintados-Kasadyaan Festival is based on two things being honored; the pagan practices of the former Leyte inhabitants of ancient body painting and tattooing by ?Pintados? warriors, and the Senior Santo Nino, Tacloban's patron saint. • The Pintados and Kasadyaan are actually two festivals merged into one, both festivals also having their own mini-festivals depending on the municipality. As each municipality holds its own mini-festival, each festival eventually merges into the Pintados-Kasadyaan highlighted by body painted warrior dancers, colorful costumes and floats during the Ritual Dance Presentation and the Pagrayhak Grand Parade.
  24. 24. DINAGYANG FESTIVAL • Dinagyang is Iloilo City’s version of the Ati-Atihan festival widely celebrated not only in Panay Island but also in other parts of the country. It may not be as ancient as the one in Kalibo in Aklan Province, but is definitely impressive in choreography and striking in terms of the various attires worn by participating tribes which reflect the ingenuity, craftsmanship and artistry of the Ilonggos. • An Ilonggo term for revelry or merrymaking, Dinagyang was coined in 1977 by Ilonggo writer/broadcaster Pacifico Sudario to describe the riotous celebration.
  25. 25. VISAYANS TRAITS
  26. 26. THE VISAYAN PEOPLE The Visayan is happy- go-lucky and is more interested in the here and now than in the past or the future. Further, Teodoro A. Agoncillo states that the Visayan exceeds the Tagalog's for the finer thins in life, so much so that he is ready to spend his last peso for these. The Visayan is adventurous, independent and loves to go place. He will be ready to leave his home in search of adventure. Agoncillo also describes the Visayan as a hedonist. His guiding principle in life is to drink and be merry for tomorrow he dies. The Visayan is a music lover. His musical instrument and his songs are sufficient to drive all his sorrows away.
  27. 27. VISAYANS CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS
  28. 28. BIRTH The coming of a child is welcomed by a VISAYAN family for it is about to give birth, pomelo leaves are placed under the house so as to drive away all evil spirits which maybe hovering around. While the woman is in labor, the family burn some dried leaves and roots so that smoke will free the mother from painful labor pains. It is a sign of good luck when the mothers first baby happens to be a boy. After the child is born, the placenta is buried on the seashore to insure the baby's good health. During the first haircut of the child some pieces of hair are set aside and inserted in the prayer book or any book to make the child a wide reader when he grows up.
  29. 29. BAPTISM It is the customs among the Visayans to baptize child a few days after birth or in a week's time Godparents are chosen very carefully because they are the second parents of the child. The parents hope the child will emulate the good examples shown by his godparents.
  30. 30. COURTSHIP When a man falls in love with a girl, the first step that he does is to visit her at home. Woman are quite shy and it will take the man a long time before a girl answers his proposal. Sometimes the man asks a third person to act as his go-between to help him win the favor of the girl he loves. As soon as he engaged, the man's parents request an important person in the community, preferably the barangay chairman, to ask for the girl's hand in marriage. The mediator has to go back several times before the girls parents give their consent to the marriage of their daughter. Every time he goes to the house of the girl's parent he bring with him food and drinks for merrymaking. An important requirement which the parents of the girl ask for the living of DOWRY consisting of a certain amount of money of some valuable pieces of jewelry.
  31. 31. MARRIAGE All the preparations for the wedding party is done at the groom's house. Part of it is bought to the bride's house to be served to her guests and relatives. The expenses for the party are shouldered by the groom. After the wedding ceremony, the newlyweds walk together to the bride's house. Two plates filled with water and some leaves of the San Francisco plant are placed at the foot of the stairs for the newlyweds to step on. An old woman who is a member of the bride's family combs the hair of the newlyweds and offers some advice for a happy life together. It is believed that by stepping on the plates and combing the hair of the married couple, they will have an orderly, and harmonious life.
  32. 32. VISAYANS SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS
  33. 33. PLANTING It is believed that crops planted during low tide bear more fruit so farmers observe the movement of the tides before planting anything. When the skies are filled with thousands stars, it is the best time to plant for it will bear plenty of fruits.
  34. 34. COURTSHIP When a star is close to the moon, it is believed that it is the proper time to court a lady. The man's proposal will readily be accepted
  35. 35. ILLNESS When someone gets sick in the family, it is believed that the sick person is being punished by the fairies because of his carelessness or naughtiness. An herbolario is invited to perform the healing ceremony. The family kills or dresses a pig or two chickens on this occasion.
  36. 36. ReferencesREFERENCES: • · G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, pp. 122–123. • · · Zorc, David Paul. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1977. • · · Cf. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1911). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 04 of 55 (1493-1803). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 257–260. • · · Jovito S. Abellana, "Bisaya Patronymesis Sri Visjaya" (Ms., Cebuano Studies Center, ca. 1960) • · · Argos, B. M. (26 November 2007). "Binukot: Revisiting Western Visayas' only indigenous group". Retrieved 18 April 2015. • · · Paul Morrow (1998). "The Maragtas Legend". Retrieved 17 April 2014. • · · Maria Christine N. Halili (2004). Philippine History. Quezon City: Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 9–10. ISBN 971-233-934-3. • · · Celedonio G. Aguilar (1994). Readings in Philippine Literature. Quezon City: Rex Book Store, Inc. pp. 64–67. ISBN 971-231-564-9. • · · Rasul, Jainal D. (2003). Agonies and Dreams: The Filipino Muslims and Other Minorities. Quezon City: CARE Minorities. p. 77.
  37. 37. Gnnaguit

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