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Writing versus speaking


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Writing versus speaking

  1. 1.  Writing transcends time and space while spoken communication operates in the here- and-now world  Writing tends to be more permanent while speaking is often transient
  2. 2.  In writing, the audience may often be general than specific, and may be represented as a type rather than as an addressee who we can see and interact with
  3. 3.  In writing, there is time lag between the production and reception.The writer has time to modify what will appear in the finished product
  4. 4.  Writing follows a defined course of organization and the language used  In writing, the level of correctness and the issue of well-formed-ness is addressed  Lexical density or the proportion of the content words to grammatical (function) words – written text frequently has more content words than function words.
  5. 5.  Phrasal verbs are likely to appear in spoken words than in formal writing  Hesitation markers (umm, well), non-clausal units (Mmm, Uh-huh), and interjections are common in speech than in writing  Contracted forms, tag questions, and echo questions are less common in writing
  6. 6.  Speakers and listeners use expressions and gestures, as well as stress and intonation, to convey meaning  Writing has fewer signs and symbols but they can be just as powerful
  7. 7.  Meaning is a work in progress in speaking so error is tolerated.  Writing is supposed to be an error-free finished product