What is literature?• Literature is the total of preserved writings belonging to a given language or people.• Literature is the class or the total of writings, of a given country or period, is which notable for literary form or expression, as distinguished, on the one hand, from works merely of technical or erudite and, on the other, from journalistic or other ephemeral writings.11/18/2012 1
• Literature consists of those writings which interpret the meanings of nature and life, in words of charm and power, touched with the personality of the author, in artistic forms of permanent interests.• It is a product of life and about life.• It uses language as medium11/18/2012 2
• Imaginative literature or “literature of power” includes poems, short stories, novels, and plays. It interprets human experience by presenting fictitious persons, incidents, or situations, not by actual truths about particular events.• Non-fiction or “literature of knowledge” includes biographies and essays which presents actual facts, events, experiences and ideas.11/18/2012 3
Why study literature?• To express one’s self• To have access culture• To recognize human dreams and struggles• To develop mature sensibility and compassion for the condition of all creation• To appreciate beauty• To shape one’s own goals and values and clarify one’s own identity• To develop wider perspective of events11/18/2012 4
Main ingredients of literature• Subject• Form• Point of view11/18/2012 5
Literary types or genre• Fiction• Essay• Poetry• Drama11/18/2012 6
Presentation and structure of literature GENRE AUDIENCE AUTHOR WORKDrama group absent performedEpic group present recitedShort story private concealed readNovel private concealed readPoetry ignored present recited (or sung)Essay private implied read 11/18/2012 7
The Form of the Poem• A poem is formed by means of verses that are arranged into a stanza or stanzas, and that are regulated in flow by meter and rhyme.
Poetry• It is a rhythmic imaginative language expressing the invention, thought, imagination, taste, passion, and insight of the human soul.• According to William Wordsworth, it is “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” taking its origin from “emotion recollected in tranquility.”• For Edgar Allan Poe, poetry is the “rhythmical creation of beauty”11/18/2012 10
Characteristics of poetry• Rhythm 1. Meter 2. Rhyme 3. Sound devices• Imagery 1. Figures of speech 2. Symbols• Sense or meaning11/18/2012 11
• Verse – it is a single line of a poem. It may come short or long but whatever, it serves as a basic unit of stanza• Stanza – it is a set of verses arranged to make a part of a poem or to serve as the poem itself.
The stanza may be:• A couplet if it has two verses• A tercet if it has three• A quatrain if it has four• A cinquain if it has five
A poem may also be• A sonnet which consists of fourteen lines• A haiku which consists of three verses made up of seventeen syllables, with the first and third verses with five syllables. The pattern is 5-7-5.
CoupletI shall haunt you, O my lost one, as the twilight Haunts a reed-entangled trail, “To A Lost One” by Angela Manalang Gloria
Tercet Who’er she be, That not impossible she That shall command my heart and me “Wishes for the (Supposed) Mistress” by Richard Crashaw
Quatrain Gather ye rose-buds while you may Old time is still a-flying: And this same flower that smiles to-day, Tomorrow will be dying “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time” by Robert Herrick
Cinquain I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I – I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.“The Road Not Taken”by Robert Frost
SonnetLet me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments, love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove. O no, it is an ever fixèd mark That looks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wandring bark, Whose worths unknown although his height be taken. Loves not times fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickles compass come, Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom:If this be error and upon me proved,I never writ, nor no man ever loved. “Sonnet 116” by William Shakespeare
Haiku In the flood afloat Form a boy’s notebook, a page Now a paper boat “Paper Boat” by G. Burce Bunao
Meter• Meter means measure. It poetry, the verses are measured in foot, a measurement that is either disyllabic or trisyllabic long. A disyllabic foot is two syllables long while a trisyllabic foot is three syllables long.
Disyllabic foot• The iamb – is a foot composed of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented syllable.Example: x / x / x / x //Thy glance/ sweet maid/ when first/ we met
Disyllabic foot• The trochee – is a foot composed of one accented syllable followed by one unaccented syllable.Example: / x / x / x / x/Spin him/ round and/ send him/ flying
Disyllabic foot• The spondee – is a foot of two accented syllables. In a verse, it comes in combination with other foot as it is rare that one verse would contain all accented syllables.Example: / / x / x / x //Heighho/ the tale/ was all/ a lie
Trisyllabic foot• The dactyl – is a foot of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented.Example: / x x / x x/Boldly they/ fought and well
Trisyllabic foot• The anapest – is a foot of two unaccented syllables followed by one accented.Example: x x / x x / x x //And the sound/ of a voice/ that is still
• Verse differ in one another in the number of feet they contain. If a verse has one foot, it is called a monometer line; it it has two feet, a dimeter line; if it has three feet, a trimeter line; if it has four feet, a tetrameter line; and if it has five feet, a pentameter line.
/ x x / x x/Boldly they/ fought and well/Being a line of two feet is a dimeter line and because each foot is a dactyl, the line is called a dactylic dimeter line
x / x / x / x //Thy glance/ sweet maid/ when first/ we met/Being a line of four feet is a tetrameter line and because each foot is an iamb, the line is called a iambic tetrameter line
• Not all verses are measured as regularly as the previous examples. Instead, some verses are controlled by some verbal devices such as the end-stop or the run- on.
The end-stop• This is the verbal device that makes every line of a poem complete in thought. Thus, causes a stop at the end of every line, which stop serves as the verse control.
The end-stop Youth is full of pleasance,Age is full of care; Youth like summer morn,Age like winter weather.“A Madrigal”by William Shakespeare
The run-on• This is a verbal device that makes the reading of the verses go “running on” from one verse to another until and up to where the full thought is conveyed.
The run-onLances and laces my lord I place upon your head.“Gifts”by Cirilo Bautista
The Rhyme• The rhyme makes the poem musical sounding. It is the identity of sounds within a verse line or at the end of the verse lines. The identity of sound within is an internal rhyme.
Internal Rhyme For all averred, I had killed the bird That made the breeze to blow. Ah wretch! said they, the bird to slay That made the breeze to blow.“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
The Rhyme• The identity of the sound at the end of the lines is called an end rhyme and this may be single or masculine end rhyme or double or feminine end rhyme
The Rhyme• There is a single or masculine rhyme when the last pronounced syllable of one line and the last pronounced syllable of another line are identical. And there is double or masculine rhyme when the last two pronounced syllables of one line and the last two syllables of another line are the same.
She holds no joys beyond the day’s tomorrow, She finds no worlds beyond his arms embrace, She looks upon the Form behind the furrow Who is her Mind, her Motion, Time, and Space “The Spouse” by Luis DatoGreen – double (feminine rhyme)Red – single (masculine rhyme)
• Alliteration – this is a rhyme device which makes a poem musical sounding by the repetition of initial consonantal sounds.• Euphony – this is a sound quality of a poem affected by the use of soft, fluid, pleasing sounds.
Silently sifting and veiling road, roof and railingHaving difference, making unevenness even,Into angles and crevices softly drifting and sailing(Notice the alliterating s and r and the euphonious sound of the underlined phrases)
Kinds of poetry• Lyric poetry 1. Simple lyric 2. Song (sacred or secular) 3. Sonnet a. Italian/Petrarchan sonnet b. English/Elizabethan/Shakespearean sonnet c. Spenserian sonnet4. Elegy5. Ode11/18/2012 42
• Narrative poetry 1. Ballad (folk and literary) 2. Metrical Tale 3. Metrical Romance 4. Epic11/18/2012 43
Characteristics of epic a. Broad in scope and theme; its subject matter is often a mixture o legend, history, myth, religion and tradition b. The action is grand and in a huge scale, the supernatural element is highly pronounced, the characters are larger than life (god, demi-gods, and highborn mortals) c. The source of conflict involves elemental passions. The events centers on a prodigious struggle or effort to achieve a great purpose or carry out a great task against powerful forces.11/18/2012 44
Characteristics of epic d. The plot consists of numerous episodes and sub- plots people by numerous characters, each with his own adventure and story; but all these are held together by a unifying theme. e. The plot often begins in medias res (in the middle or near the end of the action) and the story is completed by a series of flashbacks. This plot is recounted in the epic poem is often just a portion of a much larger story which is found in the mythology of the nation. f. The style is solemn and majestic in keeping with the grandeur of the subject matter.11/18/2012 45
Prose• Prose is discourse which uses sentences usually forming paragraphs to express ideas, feelings and actions. In subject matter, prose generally concentrates on the familiar and the ordinary. Prose is mainly concerned with the ordinary, but it may deal with subjects such as heroism, beauty, love and the nobility of spirit which usually find the most eloquent expression in poetry.11/18/2012 47
Distinction between prose and poetryPoetry Prose• Expresses strong • Is concerned with the emotion or lofty thought in presentation of an idea, a compressed and concept or point of view intense utterance in a more ordinary and• Its main purpose is to leisurely manner provide pleasure and • Its purpose is to furnish delight information, instruction, or• It appeals to the emotion enlightenment and imagination • It appeals to the intellect11/18/2012 48
Elements of fiction• Plot• Setting• Characterization• Style• Point of view11/18/2012 49
Divisions of prose• Novel Bases for classification The novelist’s vision of life a. Romantic fiction b. Realistic fiction c. Naturalistic fiction11/18/2012 50
Writer’s choice of materials a. Historical novel b. Psychological novel c. Social novel Structure of the novel a. Panoramic novel b. Dramatic novel11/18/2012 51
Point of view• Internal1. The narrator is himself the protagonist or the most important character2. The story is told by a minor character who is supposed to be present at the time of the important incidents3. Composite point of view – the reader is given a comprehensive view of the different aspects of the action and the different angles from which the plot develops11/18/2012 52
• External point of view – also called omniscient point of view11/18/2012 53
Short story• It is an artistic form of prose fiction which is centered on a single main incident and is intended to produce a single dominant impression.• Economy, compression and emphasis characterize the short story.11/18/2012 54
Non-fiction• Essay1. Formal2. Informal• Oration• Biography• Autobiography, memoirs, letters and epistles, diaries and journals11/18/2012 55
Styles of drama• The realistic or illusionistic or representational style• The non-realistic or non-illusionistic or presentational style11/18/2012 57
Sources:• Garcia, Carolina U. et al. (1993). A study of literary types and forms. Manila: UST Publishing House.• Sebastian, Evelyn L. and Erlinda A. Cayao. (2006). Readings in world literature. Quezon City; C & E Publishing Inc.• Tan, Arsenia B. (2001). Introduction to literature. Fourth edition. Manila: Academic Publishing Corporation11/18/2012 58