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The Enlightenment And Revolution


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A slideshow for Mr. Lehr's classes over the Enlightenment. It includes basic ideas for Locke, Hobbes and a variety of enlightened thinkers.

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The Enlightenment And Revolution

  1. 1. The Enlightenment and Revolution Big Idea: Think, Think, Think
  2. 2. The Enlightenment is like _________ <ul><li>because _____________ </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  3. 3. Enlightenment Basics <ul><li>Who: Europe (including Russia) </li></ul><ul><li>What: Age of reason, believed that reason could answer every question </li></ul><ul><li>When: Approximately 1600 – 1800 </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  4. 4. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>Social Contract </li></ul><ul><li>People were cruel, greedy and selfish </li></ul><ul><li>If people weren’t controlled there would be chaos </li></ul><ul><li>People gave up some control to live in an organized society (social contract) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  5. 5. John Locke <ul><li>Natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>People were reasonable and moral </li></ul><ul><li>People had natural rights or rights that belonged to all humans from birth (life, liberty and property) </li></ul><ul><li>People formed gov’ts to protect their natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>If a gov’t doesn’t do their job, the people can overthrow it </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  6. 6. Voltaire <ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted corrupt officials </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked the French gov’t and the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Was imprisoned and forced into exile </li></ul><ul><li>“ I do not agree with a word that you say, he supposedly declared, “but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  7. 7. Baron de Montesquieu <ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><li>Admired the British gov’t for separating gov’t into three separate branches (legislative, executive and judicial) </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that each branch should be a check on each other </li></ul><ul><li>Is this influential? </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  8. 8. Cesare Beccaria <ul><li>Crime and </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that using torture was useless and evil </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment should be used to prevent crime rather than be used as an act of vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>The punishment should fit the crime </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent until proven guilty </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  9. 9. Rene Descartes <ul><li>Everything needs to be proved using reason </li></ul><ul><li>Developed analytical geometry (algebra & geometry combined) </li></ul><ul><li>Helped design the scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think therefore I am” because he knew one thing – he existed. </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  10. 10. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Telescope and the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Assembled an astronomical telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Saw mountains on the moon, sunspots </li></ul><ul><li>Saw four moons moving around Jupiter, just like the earth and the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Was condemned and threatened with death unless he said his information was false </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  11. 11. Jean Jacques Rousseau <ul><li>Theory of Natural Man </li></ul><ul><li>Social Contract Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Man was born neither good nor evil but is corrupted by society </li></ul><ul><li>Society is more important than its individual members </li></ul><ul><li>Each person could maintain personal freedom while being a loyal member of society </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  12. 12. Mary Wollstonecraft <ul><li>Women’s Rights </li></ul><ul><li>During this time, women were treated poorly </li></ul><ul><li>Denying women an education would hurt humanity </li></ul><ul><li>If women were to stay in housekeeping mode then they would be nothing but slaves </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  13. 13. Copernicus <ul><li>Heliocentric Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Theory that the earth rotates around the sun </li></ul><ul><li>The theory is the starting point for modern astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the way people looked at the world and galaxy </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  14. 14. Adam Smith <ul><li>Laissez-faire economics </li></ul><ul><li>Limited gov’t role in the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Said the state should provide schools, armies, navies and roads </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible hand economics </li></ul><ul><li>(supply and demand) </li></ul><ul><li>(shortages and surpluses) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  15. 15. Carl Scheele <ul><li>Oxygen is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered the chemical oxygen, chlorine, and many other chemical compounds </li></ul><ul><li>First to observe the action of light on silver salts (basis for modern photography) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  16. 16. Andreas Vesalius <ul><li>Father of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of modern human anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the use of human dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered many new things about the human body </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  17. 17. Francis Bacon <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>His works established the Baconian method or the Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of arguing about something, use experimentation to find the answer </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  18. 18. Thomas Paine <ul><li>Have some Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Common Sense , a pamphlet that promoted American independence from Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Also helped influence the French Revolution </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  19. 19. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Motion and Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Three laws of motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The inventor of calculus </li></ul><ul><li>Removed the doubt from the Heliocentric Theory </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  20. 20. Philosophes <ul><li>Thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>This group originated in France </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes means “lovers of wisdom” </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes included Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot ( Encyclopedia helped spread Enlightenment ideals) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  21. 21. Salons <ul><li>Let’s Party </li></ul><ul><li>Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers and others exchanged ideas </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1700’s the salon became a meeting for both middle-class and the nobility </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  22. 22. Enlightened Despotism <ul><li>“ Enlighten” the ruling classes </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes tried to convince European rulers to adopt their ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Some monarchs did accept these ideas </li></ul><ul><li>They became enlightened despots, or absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  23. 23. Bingo <ul><li>Social Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel, Greedy and Selfish </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrow the government </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  24. 24. <ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu </li></ul><ul><li>Beccaria </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think therefore I am” </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Natural Man </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric Theory </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  25. 25. <ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Scheele </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Motion and gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Salons </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened Despotism </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from
  26. 26. <ul><li>American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Secular Outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from