2009 - 2010 World War II

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A presentation for Greg Lehr's Contemporary U.S. History class. Information came from a variety of sources.

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2009 - 2010 World War II

  1. 1. World War II<br />
  2. 2. Road to War<br /> A. World War I was the “war to end all wars.”<br /> 1) Treaty of Versailles made people mad<br /> B. Dictators gaining Power<br /> 1) A group of totalitarian rulers <br /> - The rulers have absolute control over all aspects of life<br /> - Examples <br />
  3. 3. 2) Benito Mussolini (Italy)<br /> - Came to power in Italy in 1922<br /> - Was a fascist<br /> - What is fascism?<br /> - Fascism is a belief that the state or nation is the highest priority, rather than personal or individual freedoms.<br />
  4. 4. Collapse of European Democracies<br />
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  6. 6. - What would a fascist regime consist of?<br /> - Invaded Ethiopia in 1936<br /> a) Roosevelt sent him a letter telling him not to invade any other countries<br />
  7. 7. 3) Adolph Hitler (Germany)<br /> - Installed a fascist regime in 1933<br /> a) National Socialist (Nazi) Party<br /> - Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland in 1936<br /> a) Broke the Treaty of Versailles<br />
  8. 8. - July 1936, Civil War in Spain<br /> a) Germany & Italy helped the fascist side in the Civil War<br /> b) Fascist side was victorious and a dictatorship was established<br />
  9. 9. - 1938, Hitler pronounced his intentions to unify all German-speaking lands<br /> a) Hitler took Austria<br /> b) Then the Sudetenland (Western Czechoslovakia) with no resistance<br /> c) Hitler said he was done<br />
  10. 10. d) Policy of appeasement (Giving in to the demands of aggressive powers to avoid war) <br />
  11. 11. - Hitler and the Jewish Population<br /> a) Rd. “Jews in Nazi Germany”<br /> 4) Japanese dictators<br /> - 1931, Japan had conquered Manchuria<br /> - July 1937, Japan invaded northern China<br /> - Japan bombed an American gunboat, (Oops) but they apologized<br />
  12. 12. C. What did America do?<br /> 1) Responses to Italy (Mussolini)<br /> - Ethiopia: Neutrality<br /> 2) Responses to Germany (Hitler) <br /> - Rhineland: Neutrality<br /> - Spanish Civil War: Neutrality<br />
  13. 13. - Austria: Neutrality<br /> - Sudetenland: Neutrality<br /> - Jews: Nothing<br />Do you see a theme here? 3) Responses to Japan<br /> - Manchuria: Neutrality<br /> - China: Neutrality <br /> 4) American neutrality<br /> - Isolationism (don’t get involved) <br />
  14. 14. Should the U.S. get involved?<br /> - Neutrality Acts<br /> - American public did not want to go to war<br />
  15. 15. Why did the U.S. get involved?<br /> A. Hitler keeps invading<br /> 1) Hitler invades Poland<br /> - Britain & France declare war<br /> - Hitler says he’s done in Europe<br /> 2) Hitler uses a new method of fighting called blitzkrieg or “lightning war”<br />
  16. 16. 3) Axis Powers (Germany & Italy)<br /> -1940, Axis Powers take Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands and France<br /> Map over Territory<br />
  17. 17. 4) Neutrality Act of 1939<br /> - Any country could buy weapons if they could take them in their own ships (Germany can’t cross the Atlantic) <br /> B. Hitler’s treatment of Jews<br /> 1) Many people were outraged over the treatment<br /> 2) America does very little<br />
  18. 18. C. U.S. gets involved (sort of)<br /> 1) U.S. pledges to give Britain destroyers and aircraft<br /> 2) First peacetime draft<br /> 3) By the end of 1940, Congress had spent $39 billion<br /> 4) Confused public<br /> - 90%: stay out of war<br /> - 70%: give Britain destroyers<br /> - 60%: support Britain even if it leads to war<br />
  19. 19. 5) March 1941: Lend-Lease Bill passed & stated the president could lend or lease war material to any country vital to American security<br /> D. Pearl Harbor<br /> 1) U.S. military pressured Roosevelt for more help in the Pacific <br />
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  29. 29. Race & Ethnic Issues <br /> A. Japanese-American Internment<br /> 1) about 125,000 Japanese-Americans lived on the Pacific coast<br /> 2) Paranoia was all over the West Coast<br /> “We must worry about the Japanese all the time, until he is wiped off the map.”<br />
  30. 30. 3) California fired Japanese from state jobs, revoked law & medical licenses<br /> 4) Banks froze Japanese assets<br /> 5) West Coast was considered a military zone & 110,000 Japanese were transported to ten internment camps<br />
  31. 31. 6) Japanese-Americans had to relocate with no time to prepare.<br /> - Had to sell all their assets<br /> - 26 room hotel sold for $500, pick-up truck for $25 <br /> 7) Were put in barracks and given a number<br />
  32. 32. 8) In each camp, the internees set up a community including farms, shops and small factories<br /> 9) By 1944, the camps were empty<br />B. The Holocaust<br /> Holocaust Questionnaire <br />
  33. 33. IV. America Responds to War<br /> A. America United<br /> 1) Isolationists disappeared after Pearl Harbor<br /> 2) Thousands rushed to enlist<br /> - 16.4 million would eventually serve<br />
  34. 34. 3) Roosevelt called for Americans to produce the goods necessary for victory<br /> - Factories were to run 24 hours a day<br /> B. Paying for the War<br /> 1) War cost a total of $321 Billion(twice as much as it had spent in total for the entire history of the U.S.)<br /> 2) Taxes went up (paid for half of the war)<br />
  35. 35. 3) War bonds paid for the other half<br /> 4) War ended the depression<br />
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  37. 37. C. People at Work and War<br /> 1) Rationing was a way of life<br /> - Cotton, coffee, sugar, silk, gas, canned goods, metal items (hair clips, safety pins), wool<br /> - Copper was taken out of pennies & replaced with steel<br /> 2) Victory Gardens<br /> - People grew their own food b/c of rationing<br />
  38. 38. Rationing Challenge:<br />http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2children/ration/ration_intro.shtml<br />
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  42. 42. D. Changes in the Work place<br /> 1) Women and minorities started finding jobs <br /> 2) About 15 million people start moving west (shipbuilding & aircraft industry)<br />
  43. 43. Powers of Persuasion:<br />http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/powers_of_persuasion_intro.html<br />- How did these different items help to influence and promote behaviors at home regarding the war? Be sure to provide an explanation for each section. Does this type of propaganda exist today? <br />
  44. 44. Man the Guns<br />Masculine strength was a common visual theme in patriotic posters. Pictures of powerful men and mighty machines illustrated America’s ability to channel its formidable strength into the war effort. American muscle was presented in a proud display of national confidence.<br />
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  47. 47. It’s A Women’s War Too!<br />In the face of acute wartime labor shortages, women were needed in the defense industries, the civilian service, and even the Armed Forces. Despite the continuing 20th century trend of women entering the workforce, publicity campaigns were aimed at those women who had never before held jobs. Poster and film images glorified and glamorized the roles of working women and suggested that a woman’s femininity need not be sacrificed. Whether fulfilling their duty in the home, factory, office, or military, women were portrayed as attractive confident, and resolved to do their part to win the war.<br />
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  50. 50. Of all the images of working women during World War II, the image of women in factories predominates. Rosie the Riveter--the strong, competent woman dressed in overalls and bandanna--was introduced as a symbol of patriotic womanhood. The accoutrements of war work--uniforms, tools, and lunch pails--were incorporated into the revised image of the feminine ideal.<br />
  51. 51. United We Win<br />During World War II, racial restriction and segregation were facts of life in the U.S. military. Nevertheless, an overwhelming majority of African Americans participated wholeheartedly in the fight against the Axis powers. They did so, however, with an eye toward ending racial discrimination in American society. This objective was expressed in the call, initiated in the black press for the &quot;Double V&quot;-victory over fascism abroad and over racism at home. The Government was well aware of the demoralizing effects of racial prejudice on the American population and its impact on the war effort. Consequently, it promoted posters, pamphlets, and films highlighting the participation and achievement of African Americans in military and civilian life..<br />
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  53. 53. At the beginning of the war, African Americans could join the Navy but could serve only as messmen. <br />Doris (&quot;Dorie&quot;) Miller joined the Navy and was in service on board the U.S.S. West Virginia during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Restricted to the position of messman, he received no gunnery training. But during the attack, at great personal risk, he manned the weapon of a fallen gunman and succeeded in hitting Japanese planes. He was awarded the Navy Cross, but only after persistent pressure from the black press<br />
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  55. 55. Use it Up, Wear it Out<br />During the war years, gasoline, rubber, sugar, butter, and meat were rationed. Government publicity reminded people that shortages of these materials occurred because they were going to the troops, and that civilians should take part in conservation and salvage campaigns. <br />
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  59. 59. Warning! Our Homes Are in Danger Now!<br />Public relations specialists advised the U.S. Government that the most effective war posters were the ones that appealed to the emotions. The posters shown here played on the public&apos;s fear of the enemy. The images depict Americans in imminent danger-their backs against the wall, living in the shadow of Axis domination.<br />
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  61. 61. A study of commercial posters undertaken by the U.S. Government found that images of women and children in danger were effective emotional devices. The Canadian poster at right was part of the study and served as a model for American posters, such as the one below, that adopted a similar visual theme <br />
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  63. 63. He’s Watching You<br />Concerns about national security intensify in wartime. During World War II, the Government alerted citizens to the presence of enemy spies and saboteurs lurking just below the surface of American society. &quot;Careless talk&quot; posters warned people that small snippets of information regarding troop movements or other logistical details would be useful to the enemy. Well-meaning citizens could easily compromise national security and soldiers` safety with careless talk.<br />
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  65. 65. A woman--someone who could resemble the viewer`s neighbor, sister, wife, or daughter--was shown on a &quot;wanted&quot; poster as an unwitting murderess.<br />At least one viewer voiced objection to the choice of a female model. A letter from a resident of Hawaii to the Office of War Information reads, in part, &quot;American women who are knitting, rolling bandages, working long hours at war jobs and then carrying on with `women`s work` at home--in short, taking over the countless drab duties to which no salary and no glory are attached, resent these unwarranted and presumptuous accusations which have no basis in fact, but from the time-worn gags of newspaper funny men.&quot;<br />
  66. 66. Atlantic Front<br /><ul><li>Battle of Stalingrad
  67. 67. North African Front
  68. 68. Italian Campaign
  69. 69. D-Day
  70. 70. Battle of the Bulge
  71. 71. V-E Day</li></li></ul><li>Pacific Front<br /><ul><li>Doolittle’s Raid
  72. 72. Battle of Coral Sea
  73. 73. Battle of Midway
  74. 74. Battle of Iwo Jima</li></li></ul><li>Battles of World War II Project<br /><ul><li>What was the overall result of the battles you researched?</li></ul> 1) What did the Allies do when they won in North Africa?<br /> 2) Did Americans prevail in Italy? Why?<br /> 3) Why was D-Day important?<br /> 4) What was “island-hopping?” <br />
  75. 75. Victory <br /> A. Yalta Conference, Feb. 4, 1945<br /> 1) Big Three met to discuss Soviet territorial & political goals<br /> 2) Roosevelt wanted the Soviets to declare war on Japan & support the United Nations (U.N.)<br />
  76. 76. 3) Soviet Union had control of Eastern Europe<br /> - Would enter the war with Japan after Germany surrendered and support the U.N.<br /> 4) Yalta strained Roosevelt and he died on April 12, 1945 <br />
  77. 77. B. Dropping the Bomb<br /> 1) Manhattan Project had been developing an atomic bomb<br /> 2) July 26, 1945, U.S. told Japan to surrender or else<br /> 3) Japan didn’t<br /> - Atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima killing about 100,000<br /> - Japan didn’t surrender, Nagasaki bomb killed 75,000<br />
  78. 78. C. Overall Results<br /> 1) 30 million deaths both civilian and military<br /> 2) Nuremberg Trials put Nazi leaders on trial for war crimes (Holocaust)<br /> 3) U.S. occupied Japan<br /> 4) Cold War<br />

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