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One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at theHuman-Livestock-Wildlife Interface<br />Health...
One Health Approach<br />Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface in the Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania<br />Stakeholder-Research P...
Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface<br /><ul><li>Majority of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in people are zoonotic
75% of emerging zoonoses with wildlife origins
Anthropogenic activities at the interface linked to EIDs (Nipah virus, SARS, Ebola)
Avg. annual population growth among highest in buffers to protected areas</li></li></ul><li>IP<br />Ruaha Landscape of Tan...
Importance of the Ruaha Landscape<br />Conservation Significance<br />Resources for Rural<br />Livelihoods<br />National D...
Increasing Water Scarcity …<br />Pre-1993:<br />Year round flow<br />of Great Ruaha<br />2005:<br />119 days of<br />no fl...
… from Irrigation and Grazing Pressures<br />9/26/2001<br />Presumed extent of irrigation<br />vs. observed flooded areas<...
Decline of the IhefuWetland and …<br />22 Aug 1991<br />322 km2<br />21 July 2000<br />153 km2<br />2-9 Feb 2006<br />84 k...
… Collapse of Water Buffalo Range<br />
Stakeholder-Research Partnership<br />Identifying the<br />Problem Model<br /><ul><li>  Pastoralist interviews
  Field visits
  Pre-project stakeholder    workshop</li></li></ul><li>Consequences of Change<br />↑  Livestock-horticulture conflict<br ...
HALI Project<br />– Goals <br />Determine the prevalence and transmission ecology of zoonotic diseases among wildlife, liv...
HALI Project – Approach<br />Disease Data<br />Livestock sampling<br />Health and economic <br />impact of disease<br />Re...
HALI Project – Socioeconomic Research<br />
HALI Project – Household Survey Sample<br />
HALI Project – Household Survey Sample<br />Percent of head of households born in the village:<br />Maasai     (n=63)	= 19...
HALI Project – Disease Perception<br />Where does illness come from in your livestock?<br />
HALI Project – Household health<br />Do you or anyone in your household drink blood from your livestock (%)? <br />
Photo: J. Brownlee<br />HALI Project – Water and Sanitation<br />Do livestock enter the sources of any of your drinking or...
HALI Project – SE Regression Analysis<br />Probability of reported chronic diseases in households:<br />Of poorer socioeco...
Located further away from surface water sources</li></ul>Next steps are to merge SE analysis with<br />wildlife, livestock...
HALI Project – Livestock Disease<br />Slaughtered animals<br /><ul><li>170 cattle and 58 shoats
18% M. bovis
Both cattle & shoats</li></ul>Live cattle<br /><ul><li>BTB reactor prevalence = 2%</li></ul>     (n=1350 cattle)<br /><ul>...
Herd BTB prevalence w/ suspects = 28% (28/102 households)
Brucellaseropositve = 7%</li></ul>	(88/1334 cattle)<br /><ul><li>Herd Brucellaseropositive = 42%</li></ul>     (39/93 hous...
HALI Project – Wildlife Disease<br />BTB<br />Samples collected in 2006/2007 through mid-2008 <br />4/43 (9%) positive for...
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One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at the Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface

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The One Health Approach: Identifying Solutions to Complex Problems at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface. Presented by Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement Principal Investigators Jon Erickson (University of Vermont) and Rudovick Kazwala (Sokoine University of Agriculture) at the GL-CRSP End of Program Conference, June 17, 2009, Naivasha, Kenya.

One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at the Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface

  1. 1. One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at theHuman-Livestock-Wildlife Interface<br />Health for Animals & Livelihood Improvement (HALI) Project<br />http://haliproject.wordpress.com<br />
  2. 2. One Health Approach<br />Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface in the Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania<br />Stakeholder-Research Partnership<br />HALI Project – Socioeconomic research<br /> – Disease & water sampling<br /> – Education & outreach<br />One Health Approach to Livelihood Improvement<br />
  3. 3. Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface<br /><ul><li>Majority of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in people are zoonotic
  4. 4. 75% of emerging zoonoses with wildlife origins
  5. 5. Anthropogenic activities at the interface linked to EIDs (Nipah virus, SARS, Ebola)
  6. 6. Avg. annual population growth among highest in buffers to protected areas</li></li></ul><li>IP<br />Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania<br />Ihefu<br />Wetland<br />
  7. 7. Importance of the Ruaha Landscape<br />Conservation Significance<br />Resources for Rural<br />Livelihoods<br />National Development<br />
  8. 8. Increasing Water Scarcity …<br />Pre-1993:<br />Year round flow<br />of Great Ruaha<br />2005:<br />119 days of<br />no flow<br />
  9. 9. … from Irrigation and Grazing Pressures<br />9/26/2001<br />Presumed extent of irrigation<br />vs. observed flooded areas<br />Cattle density (#/km2) at boundary<br />of RNP, WMA, & village lands<br />
  10. 10. Decline of the IhefuWetland and …<br />22 Aug 1991<br />322 km2<br />21 July 2000<br />153 km2<br />2-9 Feb 2006<br />84 km2<br />IP<br />Ihefu<br />Wetland<br />
  11. 11. … Collapse of Water Buffalo Range<br />
  12. 12. Stakeholder-Research Partnership<br />Identifying the<br />Problem Model<br /><ul><li> Pastoralist interviews
  13. 13. Field visits
  14. 14. Pre-project stakeholder workshop</li></li></ul><li>Consequences of Change<br />↑ Livestock-horticulture conflict<br />↑ Grazing pressure<br />↑ Wildlife conflicts & poaching<br />↓ Tourism revenues<br />↓ Wildlife<br />↓ Water & Water quality<br />↓ National economy<br />↑ Disease?<br />
  15. 15. HALI Project<br />– Goals <br />Determine the prevalence and transmission ecology of zoonotic diseases among wildlife, livestock, and pastoral communities.<br />Assess the effects of water management and quality on the presence, abundance, and severity of disease. <br />Assess how water management and disease affect the health and economic livelihoods of pastoral communities. <br />Identify and recommend measures to mitigate the effects of zoonotic diseases and water limitations. <br />Strengthen local capacity to diagnose zoonotic diseases and design prevention programs. <br />
  16. 16. HALI Project – Approach<br />Disease Data<br />Livestock sampling<br />Health and economic <br />impact of disease<br />Recommendations<br />for disease prevention<br />Recommendations <br />for water management<br />Wildlife sampling<br />Water sampling<br />Socioeconomic<br />Data<br />Pastoralist <br />household <br />surveys,<br />workshops,<br />& focus groups<br />TRAINING & CAPACITY BUILDING<br />
  17. 17. HALI Project – Socioeconomic Research<br />
  18. 18. HALI Project – Household Survey Sample<br />
  19. 19. HALI Project – Household Survey Sample<br />Percent of head of households born in the village:<br />Maasai (n=63) = 19%<br /> Sukuma (n=53) = 0%<br /> Barabaig (n=43) = 0%<br />Number of years head of household has lived in<br />the village:<br />
  20. 20. HALI Project – Disease Perception<br />Where does illness come from in your livestock?<br />
  21. 21. HALI Project – Household health<br />Do you or anyone in your household drink blood from your livestock (%)? <br />
  22. 22. Photo: J. Brownlee<br />HALI Project – Water and Sanitation<br />Do livestock enter the sources of any of your drinking or bathing water?<br />Yes = 67% No = 30%<br />Don’t know = 3%<br />Do wildlife enter the sources of any of your drinking or bathing water?<br />Yes = 65% No = 23%<br />Don’t know = 12%<br />Do you believe sharing water sources with livestock to be a health risk?<br />Yes = 18% No = 61%<br />Don’t know = 22%<br />
  23. 23. HALI Project – SE Regression Analysis<br />Probability of reported chronic diseases in households:<br />Of poorer socioeconomic group<br />With reports of sick cattle<br />Who reported consumption of raw cow blood<br />Located further away from surface water sources<br />Probability of reported sick cattle in herd in households:<br /><ul><li>With low accessibility to veterinary care through extension officer
  24. 24. Located further away from surface water sources</li></ul>Next steps are to merge SE analysis with<br />wildlife, livestock, and water data<br />
  25. 25. HALI Project – Livestock Disease<br />Slaughtered animals<br /><ul><li>170 cattle and 58 shoats
  26. 26. 18% M. bovis
  27. 27. Both cattle & shoats</li></ul>Live cattle<br /><ul><li>BTB reactor prevalence = 2%</li></ul> (n=1350 cattle)<br /><ul><li>Herd BTB reactor prevalence = 18% (18/102 households)
  28. 28. Herd BTB prevalence w/ suspects = 28% (28/102 households)
  29. 29. Brucellaseropositve = 7%</li></ul> (88/1334 cattle)<br /><ul><li>Herd Brucellaseropositive = 42%</li></ul> (39/93 households)<br />Photo: HALI<br />
  30. 30. HALI Project – Wildlife Disease<br />BTB<br />Samples collected in 2006/2007 through mid-2008 <br />4/43 (9%) positive for BTB via culture<br />2 impala, 1 buffalo, 1 lesser kudu<br />Brucella<br />1/27 (4%) tested to date seropositive<br />Only seropositive animal was the BTB infected buffalo<br />
  31. 31. HALI Project – Potential BTB Transmission<br />
  32. 32. HALI Project – Water Sampling<br />11 Sites:<br /><ul><li>9 rivers
  33. 33. 1 seasonal pond
  34. 34. 1 reservoir</li></ul>Stratified by use:<br /><ul><li> 1 livestock only
  35. 35. 2 wildlife only
  36. 36. 1 human only
  37. 37. 4 human + livestock
  38. 38. 1 wildlife + livestock
  39. 39. 1 human + wildlife
  40. 40. 1 human + livestock +</li></ul> wildlife<br />
  41. 41. HALI Project – Water Sampling<br />Giardiaoocyst<br />Detection of water borne parasites:<br /><ul><li>Giardia
  42. 42. Cryptosporidium</li></ul>Note:<br /><ul><li>First use of MS–DFA</li></ul> technology<br /><ul><li>Heaviest protozoa</li></ul> burden in water source<br /> frequented by humans<br /> and livestock<br />Cryptosporidiumoocyst<br />
  43. 43. HALI Project – Water Sampling<br />Isolations of enteric<br />bacteria:<br /><ul><li>E. coli
  44. 44. Salmonella
  45. 45. Vibrio
  46. 46. Shigella</li></ul>Salmonella -virulence gene PCRs<br />19 Salmonella isolates characterized for<br />relatedness using rapid PCR and virulence genes <br />
  47. 47. HALI Project – Education & Outreach<br />Training<br />2 MPVM @ SUA, 1 MS @ UC Davis, 1 PhD @ UVM, 3 externs (2 TZ, 1 UC Davis), 2 honors BVM @ SUA, & outreach to over 600 people<br />Outreach<br />Direct assistance to pastoralists + various community events<br />4 radio shows on health and education<br />Community scout and hunter education<br />Publications & Conference Presentations<br />6 GL CSRP research briefs published<br />Invited article under review at PLOS Medicine (others drafted)<br />17 professional meetings & seminar presentations<br />
  48. 48. HALI Project – Education & Outreach<br />Partnerships and Networking<br />Tanzania: Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania National Parks Authority, Veterinary Investigation Centers, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, District Livestock Offices, National Institute for Medical Research, National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program, Southern Highland Livestock Development Association<br />United States: University of California at Davis, University of Vermont, USAID, Envirovet, Einstein Medical College<br />International: Wildlife Conservation Society, International Livestock Research Institute, various professional societies<br />
  49. 49. One Health Approach to Livelihood Improvement<br /><ul><li>HALI Project has demonstrated that when livestock and wildlife are in close proximity, diseases can have severe impacts on livelihoods and biodiversity, and may also affect human health.
  50. 50. These findings call for the One Health approach in intervening the challenges presented in ecosystems with interfaces between livestock, wildlife and humans.
  51. 51. Trade-offs are needed to balance the needs of people and their domestic animals with wildlife.
  52. 52. Disease control must consider natural resource use, cultural or indigenous practices, and perceptions.</li></li></ul><li>Asante sana<br />This research was made possible through support provided to the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program by the United States Agency for International Development under terms of Grant No. PCE-G-00-98-00036-00 and by contributions of participating institutions.<br />

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