2012 Recent US Work Relating to Munitions in the Underwater Environment


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Presentation on US research and development efforts relating to munitions in the underwater environment

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2012 Recent US Work Relating to Munitions in the Underwater Environment

  1. 1. Recent US Work Relating toMunitions in the Underwater Environment Geoff Carton, CALIBRE Systems, Inc 4th International Dialogue on Underwater Munitions San Juan, Puerto Rico - October 2012
  2. 2. Agenda• Army Environmental Quality Technology Program• Department of Defense Identification of Research Needs• Strategic Environmental Research and Development (SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Research Projects• Conclusions | 2
  3. 3. Army Environmental Quality Technology Program
  4. 4. Transport and Fate of Arsenic in Marine Sediments• Objectives: – Determine the partitioning of arsenic between deep sea sediments and seawater to evaluate the mobility of As (III) derived from lewisite – Determine potential for bioaccumulation of arsenic in benthic macroinvertebrates exposed to contaminated sediments – Evaluate the ability of test organisms to excrete accumulated arsenic when Nerve agent (GB, VX, GA), returned to clean sediments Mustard, 52% 1%• University of Hawaii is Arsenic, AsCl3, Cl2S2, 2% Lewisite, 41% conducting bench top Phosgene, 0% Unspecified experiments under Blood agents (CK, AC), 1% agent, 3% contract to the Army | 4
  5. 5. Imagery Analysis Software• Detection software to reduce workload and increase speed of underwater target imagery analysis (video)• User tunable software to cue images for analysis of imagery by human analyst• Software reduces the video stream to frames containing candidate objects of interest – Automated mode to generate detection list Prometheus Inc. – Interactive mode for adjustment of selection parameters• Available to DoD and DoD contractors | 5
  6. 6. Assessment of Technology to Locate Legacy Munitions• Assess existing technologies and methods for underwater wide area assessment at two sites on the US Atlantic coast• Project Strategy: – Use archival materials to establish initial survey area – Run non-overlapping, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), SONAR transects for reconnaissance survey – Ground truth with Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to ensure targets of interest are munitions – Conduct detailed survey with overlapping transects to better define boundary and better estimate the densities of munitions present | 6
  7. 7. Review of Aquatic Toxicology of Munitions Constituents• Assemble existing peer reviewed and other high quality data on aquatic ecotoxicity of energetic munitions constituents (MC)• Review of: – Fate and toxicity of MC in:  Water  Sediment – Bioconcentration, biotransformation and dietary uptake of MC – Exposure and effects assessment using realistic exposure scenarios | 7
  8. 8. Corrosion Analysis• Develop a scientific basis for predictive modeling for corrosion of munitions in the marine environment• Evaluate corrosion products and, if present, any calcareous deposits associated with recovered munitions• Identify metals used in munitions and develop a corrosion profile to estimate localized and average corrosion rates• Evaluate normal and galvanic corrosion on munitions or metallic surrogates• Analyzing munitions recovered from Ordnance Reef (HI-06) and may add study of munitions parts from HI-05 | 8
  9. 9. Ordnance Reef (HI-06) Projects• National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) survey (2006) obtained screening-level data to assess potential explosives safety and human health risks• 2009 University of Hawaii conducted environmental investigation to address data gaps (in final review) – Focus on human health – Screening level ecological risk assessment• NOAA current monitoring and trajectory modeling (in final review)• Technology demonstration (2011)• Follow-up investigation (ongoing)• Corrosion assessment (ongoing) | 9
  10. 10. Ordnance Reef (HI-06) Projects – NOAANOAA efforts:• Ocean current monitoring to understand fate of contaminants – Shallow (under 300 foot) and deep (about 8,000 foot) sensors collected data over one year – Model fate of potential release – Incorporate data into circulation 3D fate and transport models – Report expected 2012• Pre-removal survey completed, and relative risk of damage determined so impacts to coral during munitions removal were minimized | 10
  11. 11. NOAA Current Study and Modeling Deep Water Site ~ 8,000 feet ADCP ADCP Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) Acoustic Release Shallow Water Site ADCP ~ 300 feet ADCP Trawl resistant platform Anchor with ADCP | 11
  12. 12. NOAA Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) Study • Results used in trajectory model • 4 shallow water ADCPs at Pacific Ocean Ordnance Reef (HI-06) Ordnance Reef Munitions Disposal • 5 deep water ADCPs on string at HI-01 (8,000 feet deep) Site HI - 06 • Measured currents for one year 4 Ordnance Reef ADCP Sensors • Report in final review Deep Water • Preliminary Ordnance Reef (HI-06) findings: ADCP Sensors Deep Water Munitions – Velocities most often between 0.3 to 0.6 knotsDisposal Site HI - 01 – High bias towards currents flowing along-shore – Currents are driven by tides and are asymmetrical | 12
  13. 13. NOAA Coral Avoidance and Minimization of Injury Plan• NOAA was brought in early to aid in developing best management practices for technology demonstration• Pre-removal survey determined relative risk of impacts to coral and provided baseline of condition• Surveys led to more efficient use of field time• Partnership with trustee allows them to protect resources better Relative Risk to Significant Coral Resources Coral Majority of area Coral colonies Coral colonies Presence of sand or present, but abundant, little large coral uncolonized substantial space space for ROV colonies Relief hard bottom to for ROV Little to no Low Low Low to moderate High relief Low vertical Low Low to moderate Moderate to high High relief High vertical Low Low to moderate Moderate to high High relief | 13
  14. 14. Ordnance Reef (HI-06) Technology Demonstrations• Army Technology Demonstrations (2011) consisted of: – Commercial technology adapted from oil exploration technology for the remote recovery of sea disposed munitions – NOAA input used to minimize impacts of recovery on coral – Barge mounted technology (existing and innovative) for destruction of recovered munitions• Summary of demonstrations published in the Marine Technology Society Journal (January 2012) | 14
  15. 15. 2011 Ordnance Reef Technology Demonstrations • Remotely Operated Underwater Munitions Recovery System (ROUMRS) • Explosive Hazard Demilitarization System (EHDS) • Underwater Portable Acoustic Contraband Detector (PACD) • In-situ trace explosive detection (Hammerhead) • Corrosion assessmentProprietary Data Notice: This presentation shall not be disclosed outside the government and shall not be duplicated, used, or disclosed -in whole or in part -for any purpose | 15
  16. 16. ROUMRS
  17. 17. ROUMRS Concept of Operations ROUMRS Process Steps Deploy ROV, document site and stage salvage basket on seafloor Transit ROV to UWMM, tentatively identify and recover to ROV hopper Retract ROV hopper and transit to salvage basket Transfer UWMM from ROV hopper to salvage basket Once salvage basket is full, rig lift bag and towline and use ROV to activate lift Surface craft tows submerged salvage basket to DSV for munitions demilitarization (EHDS) | 17
  18. 18. ROUMRS Data Collection and Management 35 Gigabytes of daily data, including: video, pictures, GPS location, navigation, depth, munitions description, size, coral condition, and actions | 18
  19. 19. ROUMRS Operations – Underwater Recovery
  20. 20. ROUMRSDuring the HI-06 Demonstration:• ROUMRS operated 21 straight days with about 8 hours of maintenance time• Many munitions were cemented to seafloor and could not be recovered with tools available• Covered approximately 10 acres – ROV Hopper malfunctioned and needs redesign – Both manipulators should have curved intermeshing claw for munitions work – Navigation and data storage processes need improvements | 20
  21. 21. EHDS Concept of Operations EHDS Process Steps Lift Salvage Basket on to DSV deck Identify and inventory salvage basket contents X-Ray and segregate munitions by size and fill Use remotely operated, water cooled, band saw to cut munitions Load RCBO and heat to appropriate temperature to degrade energetics Inspect and certify treated materials as safe or retreat, recycle scrap Lower salvage basket into water for reuse | 21
  22. 22. EHDS Identification and Remote Opening | 22
  23. 23. EHDSDuring the HI-06 Demonstration::• EHDS operated 16 straight days• Remote band saw and x-ray worked without failure.• Saw operations constrained by dive boats and weekends with Fluffy ash from successful treatment of 50/50 TNT/Ammonium nitrate people in safety arcs• Ovens operated all 16 days with about 24 hours of down time due to equipment failure and maintenance• Equipment repaired in field or remotely via cell phone modem to complete the project Fire during treatment of 19 lbs TNT | 23
  24. 24. ROUMRS and EHDS Demonstration Results• ROUMRS surveyed, investigated locations and recovered munitions• ROV is capable of using a variety of tools and supporting scientific research efforts• ROUMRS recovered – 74 munitions (138 items encrusted to bottom) – 2,300 small arms• EHDS was successful, proving the concept is effective and a viable tool for future use• Recommended improving EHDS resilience and controls• EHDS destroyed: – Munitions: 74 – Pounds of explosives 330 – Pounds of propellant 135 – Small arms 2,300 | 24
  25. 25. Portable Acoustic Contraband Detector (PACD)• Non-invasive measurement and calculation of acoustic velocity through the contents of container• Comparison to database to identify content• More robust underwater membrane necessary• Successful in identifying fill of a large munition in situ, verified at surface Projectile Type Fill Material Calibrated PACD Modified PACD in Tub at Surface 21m depth 5-inch Armor Wet Explosive D 1.32 +/- 0.50 1.10 +/- 0.46 Piercing (breached) 5-inch High TNT-based 2.46 +/- 0.18 Not measured Explosive explosive 5-inch Armor Dry Explosive D No signal Not measured Piercing (intact) | 25
  26. 26. In Situ Trace Explosive Detection (Hammerhead)• Biologically inspired fluorescent polymer sensor array, uses preconcentration to detect at low levels• Detection and discrimination of select explosives with detection limits of 10 - 100 parts per trillion (ppt)• Prototype operable to depths of 100 feet• Deployed on ROUMRS at Ordnance Reef (HI-06)• Sampled water near 12 different munitions – No detection of explosives – Non-detects (detection limit 10-100 ppt) were confirmed by laboratory analysis of a trap at the outlet of the sensor | 26
  27. 27. Hawaii Undersea Munitions Assessment (HUMMA)• Develop efficient and cost effective method for characterizing sea disposal sites at depths over 350 meters• Conducted South of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii – SONAR survey of about 70 km2 – Manned submersibles and ROVs – Seawater, sediment and biota analyzed – No confirmed detections of energetics or chemical agent• HUMMA’s 2010 report is available at (www.hummaproject.com)• Expanded SONAR survey completed in 2011 to south of original study area, additional 470 km2 area covered• Sampling at chemical bombs planned for 2012/2013 | 27
  28. 28. HUMMA Photographs | 28
  29. 29. DoD Identification of Research Needs
  30. 30. Identifying NeedsStrategic Environmental Research andDevelopment (SERDP) and EnvironmentalSecurity Technology Certification Program(ESTCP)• 2007 – Technology Needs for the Characterization, Management, and Remediation of Military Munitions in Underwater Environments• 2009 – Munitions in the Underwater Environment: State of the Science and Knowledge Gapswww.serdp.org/featured-initiatives/munitions-resposne-initiatives/muniitons-in-the- underwater-environment | 30
  31. 31. 2007 Critical Research Needs• SONAR/Acoustic Technologies – Characterize acoustic response of munitions and bottom clutter – Improve understanding of environment’s acoustic response• Electromagnetic, Magnetic and Optical Technologies – Improved methods for discrimination and classification – Enhanced methods for noise compensation• Platform and Navigation Technologies - Study of surf zone environment | 31
  32. 32. 2007 Critical Demonstration Needs• SONAR/Acoustic Technologies – Data collection with existing sensors to detect munitions that are proud on bottom – Improve understanding of environment’s acoustic response• Electromagnetic, Magnetic and Optical Technologies - Demonstration of electromagnetic induction and magnetic sensors• Platform and Navigation Technologies – Demonstration sites – Diverless platforms | 32
  33. 33. 2009 Priority Recommendations• Field work at several worst-case sites to: – Support ecological risk assessment – Collect water, sediment and tissue samples – Conduct modeling• Develop standard approach to: – Field data collection – Support comprehensive risk assessment• Increase communication between organizations conducting research through periodic meetings | 33
  34. 34. SERDP/ESTCPResearch Projects
  35. 35. SERDPESTCP Ongoing ResearchProject Titles CompletionInversion of High Frequency Acoustic Data for Sediment Properties Needed for the Detection and Classification of UXOs OngoingLead Organization: University of WashingtonEcological Risk Assessment of Munitions Compounds on Coral and Coral Reef Health OngoingLead Organization: NOAAPhotochemical Transformation of Munitions Constituents in Marine Waters OngoingLead Organization: U.S. Naval AcademyTracking the Uptake, Translocation, Cycling, and Metabolism of Munitions Compounds in Coastal Marine Ecosystems Ongoingusing Stable Isotopic TracerLead Organization: University of ConnecticutTNT Incorporation and Mineralization by Natural Microbial Assemblages at Frontal Boundaries between Water Masses and Ongoingin Underlying Sediments in Coastal EcosystemsLead Organization: Naval Research LaboratoryDefining Munitions Constituent Source Terms in Aquatic Environments on DoD Ranges OngoingLead Organization: Navy SPAWAR Systems Center PacificAcoustic Response of Underwater Munitions Near a Sediment Interface: Measurement-Model Comparisons and OngoingClassification SchemesLead Organization: University of WashingtonDemonstration of ROV-Based Underwater Electromagnetic Array Technology OngoingLead Organization: Sky Research, IncVortex Lattice UXO Mobility Model Integration OngoingLead Organization: Scripps Institution of OceanographyDetection of Underwater Unexploded Ordnance in Mud OngoingLead Organization: TNO DefenceMunitions Detection Using Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Equipped with Advanced Sensors OngoingLead Organization: Naval Surface Warfare Center - Panama City Division | 35
  36. 36. SERDPESTCP Ongoing ResearchProject Titles CompletionInvestigation of an EMI-Based Marine Classification System OngoingLead Organization: SAICData and Processing Tools for Sonar Classification of Underwater UXO OngoingLead Organization: Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)Structural Acoustic UXO Detection and Identification in Marine Environments OngoingLead Organization: Naval Research LaboratoryReal-Time Handheld Magnetometer Array OngoingLead Organization: GeometricsInnovative Processing, Feature Development, and Specialized Data Collection for Underwater Munitions Advanced Classifier OngoingDesignLead Organization: BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Information TechnologiesExploiting VLF/LF Electric and Magnetic Fields for Underwater Munitions Characterization OngoingLead Organization: Sky Research, Inc.Vortex Lattice UXO Mobility Model for Reef-Type Range Environments OngoingLead Organization: Scripps Institution of OceanographyAutonomous Underwater Vehicle Munitions and Explosives of Concern Detection System OngoingLead Organization: Weston Solutions, IncDefining Munitions Constituent Source Terms in Aquatic Environments on DoD Ranges OngoingLead Organization: Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems CommandFull-Scale Measurement and Modeling of the Acoustic Response of Proud and Buried Munitions at Frequencies from 1-30 kHz OngoingLead Organization: University of WashingtonBlow-in-Place Pressure Reduction (Covering Technology) OngoingLead Organization: Navy SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific | 36
  37. 37. SERDPESTCP Completed ResearchProject Titles CompletionMitigation of Underwater UXO Blow-in-Place Explosions OngoingLead Organization: Navy SPAWAR Systems Center PacificUnderwater Acoustic Positioning Systems for MEC Detection and Reacquisition Operations OngoingLead Organization: U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, HuntsvilleSonar Detection and Classification of Underwater UXO and Environmental Parameters Jul 2012Lead Organization: Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)Superconducting Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer System for Detection of Underwater Military Munitions Jun 2012Lead Organization: Sky Research, IncDemonstration of the Laser Line Scan System for UXO Characterization Apr 2012Lead Organization: Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR)Wide Area Assessment for Marine UXO Mar 2012Lead Organization: Tetra Tech EC, IncUnderwater Electric Field Sensor for UXO Detection Dec 2011Lead Organization: QUASAR Federal SystemsElectromagnetic Induction Modeling for UXO Detection and Discrimination Underwater Dec 2011Lead Organization: Dartmouth CollegeDemonstration of an Ultrasonic Method for Three-Dimensional Visualization of Shallow Buried Underwater Objects Jul 2011Lead Organization: Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR)A Low Frequency Electromagnetic Sensor for Underwater Geolocation May 2011Lead Organization: Dartmouth CollegeBelief Theoretic Multi-Sensory Data Fusion for Underwater UXO Identification Feb 2011Lead Organization: University of MiamiWide-Area Detection and Identification of Underwater UXO Using Structural Acoustic Sensors Feb 2011Lead Organization: Naval Research Laboratory | 37
  38. 38. SERDPESTCP Completed ResearchProject Titles CompletionUnderwater Simultaneous Electromagnetic Induction and Magnetometer System Feb 2011Lead Organization: U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, HuntsvilleBuried Underwater Munitions and Clutter Discrimination Oct 2010Lead Organization: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC)Marine UXO Characterization Based on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Technology Jul 2010Lead Organization: Sky Research, IncOperational Evaluation of a New Acoustic Technique for UXO Filler Identification Jun 2010Lead Organization: University of DenverEfficient Shallow Underwater UXO Retrieval Jun 2010Lead Organization: U.S. Naval Research LaboratoryDetection and Classification of Buried UXO and Determination of Seafloor Parameters in Littoral Environments Using Apr 2010Resonance Scattering SonarLead Organization: Array Information TechnologyDeep Water Munitions Detection System Mar 2010Lead Organization: SAICUXO Detection and Characterization in the Marine Environment Dec 2009Lead Organization: SAICSensor Phenomenology and Feature Development for Improved Sonar-Based Detection and Discrimination of Underwater Dec 2009UXOLead Organization: BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Information TechnologiesUnderwater UXO Multi-Sensor Data Base Collection Jul 2009Lead Organization: Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)Assessing Sonar Performance Against Underwater UXO May 2009Lead Organization: Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) | 38
  39. 39. SERDPESTCP Completed ResearchProject Titles CompletionBiotic and Abiotic Attenuation of Nitrogenous Energetic Compounds (NEC) in Coastal Waters and Sediments Sep 2008Lead Organization: Naval Research LaboratoryCharacterization of Freshwater Electromagnetic Subbottom Sediment Properties and Target Responses for Detection of Sep 2008UXO with Ground-Penetrating RadarLead Organization: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC)Predicting the Mobility and Burial of Underwater UXO Using the Modified VORTEX Model May 2008Lead Organization: Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NAVFAC)Modeling for Sensor Evaluation in Underwater UXO Test Beds Jan 2008Lead Organization: Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)Dredging Equipment Modifications for Detection and Removal of Ordnance Dec 2006Lead Organization: Navy SPAWAR Systems Center PacificSeismic Imaging of UXO-Contaminated Underwater Sites Oct 2005Lead Organization: Array Information TechnologyBroadband Electromagnetic Detection and Discrimination of Underwater UXO Aug 2005Lead Organization: Geophex, Ltd.Detection of UXO in Underwater Sites Using Towed-Array Resistivity/ Induced Polarization Measurements Apr 2004Lead Organization: Zonge Engineering, IncTechnology Needs for Underwater UXO Search and Discrimination Oct 2003Lead Organization: SAICLow-Order, Underwater Detonation (UNDET) Study Apr 2002Lead Organization: Naval EOD Technology DivisionMobile Underwater Debris Survey System (MUDSS) Apr 2000Classification and Mapping of Underwater UXO Dec 1997 | 39
  40. 40. Conclusion…• Significant effort is being expended to improve technologies and techniques for the detection and discrimination of munitions in the underwater environment• Efforts to understand the fate, transport and toxicity of munitions constituents are continuing• Expansion of the body of peer reviewed literature will aid in development of sound risk management policy | 40
  41. 41. Geoff Carton CALIBRE Systems, Inc Alexandria, Virginia, USAGeoff.carton@calibresys.com | 41