Sea Disposal of
Chemical Warfare Materiel in
US Coastal Waters
Geoff Carton, CALIBRE Systems, Inc
Organisation for the Pro...
Disposal Sites in US Waters
Disposal Sites in US Coastal Waters
• US Department of Defense (DoD) ended sea disposal in 1970
• DoD identified 20 chemic...
Munitions Disposal Sites in US Waters (Pacific)

CWM disposal site
Source: Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of Military Munitions,...
Munitions Disposal Sites in US Waters (Atlantic & Gulf)

CWM disposal site
Source: FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs AR...
Example of Published US Site Inventory

Source: FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs ARC

| 6
Disposal of CWM in US Waters
How Much CWM was Disposed in US Waters?

Mustard, 52%

Nerve agent
(GB, VX, GA),
1%

Lewisite, 41%

Arsenic, AsCl3,
Cl2S2,...
CWM Disposal in US Waters by Distance
Over 185
(100 NM)
33%
Unknown
2%
19-185
(10-100 NM)
63%

Under 19
(10 NM)
2%

Percen...
CWM Disposal in US Waters by Depth
1,830-3,050
(6,000-10,000 ft)
7%

Over 3,050
(10,000 ft)
61%

Percent of chemical agent...
CWM Disposal in US Waters by Location
Gulf of
Caribbean Mexico
1%
0.1%

Pacific
34%
Alaska
4%

Atlantic
53%

Hawaii
8%

Pe...
Disposal Methods
Over the Side Disposal

Results in linear
trails such as
seen in the above
SONAR data
| 13
Consolidated Disposal

| 14
Chemical Bombs Off Hawaii

| 15
Development of an Inventory of Disposal Sites
• Congressional mandate for development of an
inventory of munitions disposa...
Conclusions…
• US undertook a significant effort to assemble an
inventory of historic disposals in US coastal waters
• CWM...
Geoff Carton
CALIBRE Systems, Inc
Alexandria, Virginia 22310, USA
Geoff.carton@calibresys.com

| 18
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

2013 Sea Disposal of Chemical Warfare Materiel in US Coastal Waters

1,027 views

Published on

Preseatation from a side event in cooperation with the Embassies of Lithuania and Poland at the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Headquarters on 3 December 2013 discussing the global issues with Sea Dumped Chemical Weapons. Summarizes the disposals in US coastal waters based on an inventory of disposals completed for Congress.

Published in: Environment, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to like this

2013 Sea Disposal of Chemical Warfare Materiel in US Coastal Waters

  1. 1. Sea Disposal of Chemical Warfare Materiel in US Coastal Waters Geoff Carton, CALIBRE Systems, Inc Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - Side Event The Hague - December 2013
  2. 2. Disposal Sites in US Waters
  3. 3. Disposal Sites in US Coastal Waters • US Department of Defense (DoD) ended sea disposal in 1970 • DoD identified 20 chemical warfare materiel (CWM) disposal sites in US waters • DoD munitions disposal sites − Range from 8 to over 400 kilometers (5 to <250 miles) from shore − Depths range from 15 to 4,875 meters (50 to 16,000 feet) • Designated disposal sites − − − − Received conventional munitions and CWM Possible disposal of industrial and municipal wastes by others Generally 260 square kilometers (100 square miles) Posted on nautical charts • DoD disposal methods − Loose or “over the side” − Consolidated in ship hulks and scuttled | 3
  4. 4. Munitions Disposal Sites in US Waters (Pacific) CWM disposal site Source: Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of Military Munitions, FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress (ARC) | 4
  5. 5. Munitions Disposal Sites in US Waters (Atlantic & Gulf) CWM disposal site Source: FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs ARC | 5
  6. 6. Example of Published US Site Inventory Source: FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs ARC | 6
  7. 7. Disposal of CWM in US Waters
  8. 8. How Much CWM was Disposed in US Waters? Mustard, 52% Nerve agent (GB, VX, GA), 1% Lewisite, 41% Arsenic, AsCl3, Cl2S2, 2% Phosgene, 0.1% Unspecified agent, 3% Blood agents (CK, AC), 1% About 29,000 metric tons of chemical agent was disposed in US waters Source: FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs ARC | 8
  9. 9. CWM Disposal in US Waters by Distance Over 185 (100 NM) 33% Unknown 2% 19-185 (10-100 NM) 63% Under 19 (10 NM) 2% Percent of chemical agent disposal by kilometers from shore Graph based on net chemical agent weight, FY09 ARC data | 9
  10. 10. CWM Disposal in US Waters by Depth 1,830-3,050 (6,000-10,000 ft) 7% Over 3,050 (10,000 ft) 61% Percent of chemical agent disposal by depth in meters Graph based on net chemical agent weight, FY09 ARC data 305-1,829 (1,000-5,999 ft) 28% Under 305 Unknown (1,000 ft) 2% 2% | 10
  11. 11. CWM Disposal in US Waters by Location Gulf of Caribbean Mexico 1% 0.1% Pacific 34% Alaska 4% Atlantic 53% Hawaii 8% Percent of chemical agent disposal by location Graph based on net chemical agent weight, FY09 ARC data | 11
  12. 12. Disposal Methods
  13. 13. Over the Side Disposal Results in linear trails such as seen in the above SONAR data | 13
  14. 14. Consolidated Disposal | 14
  15. 15. Chemical Bombs Off Hawaii | 15
  16. 16. Development of an Inventory of Disposal Sites • Congressional mandate for development of an inventory of munitions disposal sites • Effort required four years of research in DoD files and the National Archives • Documentation is widely dispersed – jigsaw puzzle of data • Central management of data critical • Additional information is still likely to be found • Provides a basis for discussion of possible risk and how it can be managed | 16
  17. 17. Conclusions… • US undertook a significant effort to assemble an inventory of historic disposals in US coastal waters • CWM in US coastal waters: − 20 sites known to receive CWC schedule chemicals − 96% of chemicals disposed 19km or more from shore − 96% of chemicals disposed in water 305m or deeper • Inventory allows for informed discussions on risk | 17
  18. 18. Geoff Carton CALIBRE Systems, Inc Alexandria, Virginia 22310, USA Geoff.carton@calibresys.com | 18

×