Grammar book![1]


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Grammar book![1]

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOK!(2nd Semester)<br />Maxmiliano Glazier<br />
  2. 2. Table Of Contents<br /><ul><li>Informal commands
  3. 3. Informal Irregulars
  4. 4. Nosotros Commands
  5. 5. Mono Verbs
  6. 6. DOP+IOP Placement
  7. 7. Subjunctive
  8. 8. Subjunctive Irregulars
  9. 9. Trigger Phrases
  10. 10. Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns
  11. 11. Tan/ Tanto</li></ul>Conditional<br />Conditional Irregulars<br />Present Perfect<br />Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Past Perfect<br />Subjunctive Perfect<br />Se Impersonal<br />Saber Vs. Conocer<br />Formal Commands<br />Formal Irregulars<br />
  12. 12. CONDITIONAL<br />Would, could, should, probability<br />If would is used for a repeated action in the past, the imperfect would be used<br />At these endings to the end of the infinitive<br />Ía<br />Ías<br />Ía<br />Íamos<br />Íais<br />ían<br />
  13. 13. Conditional Irregulars<br />Caber-Cabr<br />Poder-Podr<br />Salir-Saldr<br />Decir-Dir<br />Poner-Poder<br />Tener-Tendr<br />Haber-Habr<br />Querer-Querr<br />Valer- Valdr<br />Hacer-har<br />Saber- Sabr<br />Venir- Vendr<br />
  14. 14. Present Perfect<br />Indicates a recently completed action<br />It is a compound tense, used with Haber and another verb<br />Used to tell what has/hasn’t been done<br />An action that was true in the past and is still true in the present<br />He, has, ha, hemos, hebeís, han<br />
  15. 15. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Abrir- Abierto<br />Cubir- Cubierto<br />Decir- Dicho<br />Escribir- Escrito<br />Hacer- Hecho<br />Ir-Ido<br />Ver- Visto<br />Volver- Vuelto<br />Romper- Roto<br />Poner- Puesto<br />
  16. 16. Past Perfect<br />Compound form<br />Haber and the past participle<br />The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated<br />He, has, ha, hemos, hebeís, han<br />Ar- ado<br />Ir-Ido<br />Er-Ido<br />
  17. 17. Subjunctive Perfect<br />Used when a verb or subject that requires the subjunctive is used in the main clause in the present, future or present perfect<br />Haber<br />Haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayais, hayan<br />Add the past Participle- Ar-Ado/ Er-Ido/ Ir-Ido<br />
  18. 18. Se Impersonal<br />Can be used in all verb tenses<br />“se” is always used in the 3rd person<br />Can replace an indirect object pronoun- “se lo”<br />
  19. 19. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Saber is to know facts or information<br />Conocer is to know people, places, things, or literary works<br />
  20. 20. Formal Commands<br />Ar- Conjugate to the yo form and drop the “o” and add an “e”<br />Er- Conjugate to the yo form and drop the “o” and add an “a”<br />Ir- Conjugate to the yo form and drop the “o” and add an “a”<br />
  21. 21. Irregular Formal Commands<br />Tener- Tenga<br />Venir- Venga<br />Dar- De<br />Ir- Vaya<br />Ser- Sea<br />Hacer- Haga<br />Estar- Esté<br />Saber- Sepa<br />
  22. 22. Informal Commands<br />Affirmative- Conjugate to the “tu” form and drop the “s”<br />Negative- Change to the “yo” form, change to opposite ending, and add an “s”<br />
  23. 23. Informal Irregulars<br /><ul><li>Tengas
  24. 24. Vengas
  25. 25. Digas
  26. 26. Vayas
  27. 27. Seas
  28. 28. Hagas
  29. 29. Estés
  30. 30. Sepas</li></ul>Di<br />Haz<br />Ve<br />Pon<br />Sal<br />Sé<br />Ten <br />Ven<br />Negative<br />Affirmative<br />
  31. 31. Nosotros Commands<br />Used when dealing with nosotros or “lets” in english<br />Change the verb to the “yo” form<br />Add the opposite vowel and add, “mos”<br />
  32. 32. Mono Verbs<br />The first “s” of the affirmative reflexive is dropped, that is “mosnos” goes to “monos”<br />Irregulars- Vamonos, Vayamos<br />If object pronouns are used they must be placed at the end of the affirmative commands<br />
  33. 33. DOP & IOP Placement <br />DOPs- lo, la, los and las<br />IOPs- Me, te, se, nos, os<br />Infinitive Phrases- attach to the end of an infinitive. <br />Place in front of a conjugated verb<br /><ul><li>Commands-
  34. 34. Affirmative- attach to the end of the command
  35. 35. Negative- It is after the “no”, but before the command.</li></li></ul><li>Present Subjunctive<br />Infinitive, change to the “yo” form and change to the opposite vowel<br />Ar verbs- a, as, a, amos, ais, an<br />Er verbs- e, es, e, emos, eis, en<br />
  36. 36. Subjunctive Irregulars<br />Tener- Tenga<br />Venir- Venga<br />Decir- Diga<br />Ir- Vaya<br />Ser- Sea<br />Hacer- Haga<br />Estar- Esté<br />Saber- Sepa<br />Car- que<br />Gar- gue<br />Zar- cé<br />Stem changing<br /><ul><li>Er and –Ar have the same stem changes
  37. 37. Nosotros and vosotros change with pedir (e-i), sentir (e-i) Dormir- (o-u)</li></li></ul><li>Trigger Phrases<br />Impersonal Expressions- Es… que<br />Malo, importante, bueno, mejor, etc.<br /><ul><li> Expressions of Emotions- Main clause + subordinate Clause
  38. 38. (sentir)- to be sorry
  39. 39. (estriste)- It is sad
  40. 40. (Temer)- To fear
  41. 41. (Esperar)- To hope
  42. 42. Conjunctions of Time- Precedes the subjunctive after the subordinate clause
  43. 43. Asique
  44. 44. Hastaque
  45. 45. Cuando
  46. 46. Despues de que</li></li></ul><li>Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns<br />Este/ Esta- this<br />Ese/ Esa- that<br />Estos/ Estas- these<br />Esos/ Esas- those<br />Aquel/ Aquella- that over there<br />Aquellos/ Aquellas- those over there<br />
  47. 47. Tan and Tanto<br />Tan<br /><ul><li>Como- (as… as)
  48. 48. Used always with adjectives and adverbs</li></ul>Tanto<br /><ul><li>Como- As much… as, as many…as
  49. 49. Used always with nouns and verbs</li>