Vichy Regime and Deportation


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Vichy Regime and Deportation

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Petain and the Vichy regime willfully collaborated with the German occupation to a high degree. The French police and the state Milice organised raids to capture Jews and others considered &quot;undesirable&quot; by the Germans in the northern and southern zones. </li></ul><ul><li>During that period millions of Jews were deported. </li></ul>
  3. 3. I) THE COLLABORATOR STATE   <ul><li>A)Petain’s arrival to power </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Petain was elected in June, 1940 as president of the </li></ul><ul><li>council. The armistice was ratified the same month. </li></ul><ul><li>The government settled in Vichy in the free zone. The new regime </li></ul><ul><li>was authoritarian, anti-semitic and anticomunist but </li></ul><ul><li>Petain wasn’t forced by Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 10, 1940, deputies and senators voted a </li></ul><ul><li>law that abolished the Third Republic. Among 669 </li></ul><ul><li>parliamentarians, 569 voted for and 80 against while 20 </li></ul><ul><li>abstained. The French supported Petain because he was still </li></ul><ul><li>considered as the hero of Verdun. </li></ul><ul><li>The famous revolutionary principles of &quot;Liberty, Equality, </li></ul><ul><li>Fraternity&quot; were replaced by &quot;Work, Family, Fatherland &quot; . </li></ul><ul><li>  The new regime wanted to make an intellectual and moral </li></ul><ul><li>recovery. It promoted work, discipline, nationalism, order, </li></ul><ul><li>authority, the cult of the leader and economic corporatism. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>On October 24th 1940, Philippe Petain met Adolf Hitler in the Montoire-sur-le-Loir </li></ul><ul><li>station. </li></ul><ul><li>It was Laval who had the idea of this meeting. In a highly publicized handshake, the </li></ul><ul><li>old marshal officially celebrated &quot;collaboration&quot; between defeated France and </li></ul><ul><li>triumphant Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Petain said a few days later: « It is with honor and to preserve French unity, a unity of </li></ul><ul><li>ten centuries, through a constructive activity of the new European order, I enter today </li></ul><ul><li>in the way of collaboration (.. .). This collaboration must be sincere ...». </li></ul><ul><li>From then on, France worked for Germany and collaborated as much as possible… </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>B)Total collaboration in deportation </li></ul><ul><li>The internment camps already opened by the Third Republic were immediately </li></ul><ul><li>put to a new use, before ultimately becoming necessary transit </li></ul><ul><li>camps for the implementation of the Holocaust and the extermination of all </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;undesirable&quot;, including the Gypsies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Camp des Milles, near Aix-en-Provence, was the largest internment </li></ul><ul><li>camp in the south east of France : 2,500 Jews were deported from there. </li></ul><ul><li>But it is in 1944 that Vichy became the more collaborationist when Nazi sympathizers </li></ul><ul><li>Entered the government. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>According to General von Senger und Utterlin the German </li></ul><ul><li>Armistice Commission: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The French arm industry of war was given to full </li></ul><ul><li>rides for the German armaments. [...] Without the </li></ul><ul><li>economic potential of France, Hitler would not have </li></ul><ul><li>made the war last so long. That was the great advantage </li></ul><ul><li>that Hitler saw in the conquest of France. &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. II) MEASURES TAKEN TO ACCELERATE DEPORTATION <ul><li>When Pétain came to power, the Vichy Regime voluntarily adopted, without </li></ul><ul><li>coercion from the German forces, and voted laws that excluded Jews from certain roles in </li></ul><ul><li>society. These laws were copied from Nazi laws or ordinances, so that they were equally </li></ul><ul><li>harsh for their victims, and therefore, more rigorous than the laws set in place by the </li></ul><ul><li>Italian fascists. Thus, on October 3rd, 1940, the first status of the Jews was decreed </li></ul><ul><li>And a law was passed on October 4th, 1940 that authorized “the immediate internment of foreign Jews in camps” in particular in the South of the country. </li></ul>This document is about «  The control of the Jews ».It features many articles about the status of the Jews.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Here is the text of the law : </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ - First Article:  Jews can, by the promulgation of the present law, be interned in special camps by decision of the prefect of their residence”. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ - Article 2 : A committee in charge of the organization and the administration of these camps is established with the Minister Secretary of State of the Interior.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ - Article 3 : Jews can, at any time, be assigned a residence by the prefect of the department of the place of residence. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>From then on, the hunting of the Jews began and to make easier the work, the State </li></ul><ul><li>decided to affix the mention &quot;Jew&quot; on ID cards : </li></ul><ul><li>There was a permanent control even if there was also denoucement. Indeed, the policy of </li></ul><ul><li>collaboration was organized by Pétain under the German occupation, during the Second </li></ul><ul><li>World War, and it is Petain himself who invited the French people to collaborate with the </li></ul><ul><li>enemy in his radio speech of October 11 th , 1940. Accordingly there were about a fifth </li></ul><ul><li>to a sixth of the French population  that encouraged collaboration, which means many </li></ul><ul><li>millions of people. Petain really collaborated with the fascist strengths allowing the </li></ul><ul><li>Deportation of 76000 Jews in France only. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>But arrests – among which the most important one was the raid of the Velodrome d‘Hiver on July 17th, 1942 – internments and escortings to camps, which were the first stage of </li></ul><ul><li>the deportation of the Jews towards these camps, were really possible thanks to the </li></ul><ul><li>implementation of an impressive military aid. </li></ul>The sports stadium Velodrome d’Hiver, Paris, where thousands of Jews were detained for days without provisions before their deportation, July 1942.
  11. 11. <ul><li>III) Creation of new polices </li></ul><ul><li>After the Vichy regime had been set, Pétain created many polices in order to help the Nazis for deportation. There were special polices for a part of population. For example, one for the Jews, another for the communists… Those polices were called the Militia, CGQJ, SSS and SPAC. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>French Militia symbol </li></ul><ul><li>The French Militia </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous police was the Militia. It was created in 1943 to fight against the resistance fighters and also against the Jews. It had only 15 000 members but they terrified the population. Indeed, the militants could arrest anyone at anytime then torture them or deport them. They helped the Gestapo, the German police, and although they were not Nazis, the militants were harsh. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>CGQJ : Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives </li></ul><ul><li>That police dealt with the questions linked to the French anti-Semitic policy. It was created in march 1941 by Pétain’s government. Its different goals were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create new anti-semetic laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To coordinate the actions inside the French administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To manage the Jews’ belongings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To organise police measures </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The first superintendant, Xavier Vallat, was a former deputy of Ardeche. There were two police stations : one in Paris and another in Vichy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>SSS : Service des Sociétés Secrètes </li></ul><ul><li>This service was created in May 1941. It mainly fought against the Freemasons but as its name wasn’t clear this service could fight against any kind of groupings. It was divided into 6 services among which the most important one was the research service. Altogether 989 Freemasons were deported and 540 were killed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>SPAC : Service de Police AntiCommuniste </li></ul><ul><li>Pucheu, a minister, created that police in October 1941 to fight against communist activities and to collect information on that movement in </li></ul><ul><li>the free area and the occupied area. </li></ul><ul><li> However, it didn’t last very long </li></ul><ul><li>because it was disolved in June </li></ul><ul><li>1942. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>After those polices had arrested people in Ardeche, they took them to internment camps situated in Vals-les-Bains, near Aubenas, in Chabane and in Le Cheylard. Then there were sent by train to concentration camps. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>After the German invasion, France signed an armistice with </li></ul><ul><li>Germany in June 1940. Northern France came under direct German </li></ul><ul><li>occupation, and the southern part remained unoccupied and was </li></ul><ul><li>governed by a French administration – the Vichy government – that </li></ul><ul><li>collaborated closely with Germany. In November 1942 the German </li></ul><ul><li>forces took over the unoccupied zone. </li></ul><ul><li>The persecution of the Jews in France began soon after the </li></ul><ul><li>occupation. They were gradually deprived of their civil rights and </li></ul><ul><li>jobs, and thousands of mostly foreign Jews were sent to </li></ul><ul><li>internment camps. When massive deportations from France to </li></ul><ul><li>death camps began in summer 1942, Jewish emigrants were the </li></ul><ul><li>first to be targeted. On July 16 and 17, 12 884 Jews, including 4051 </li></ul><ul><li>children were rounded up in Paris in what came to be known as the </li></ul><ul><li>Raffle du Vel D'Hiv. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Léa Courbon </li></ul><ul><li>Jade Leton </li></ul><ul><li>Alois Tilloy </li></ul>