U 5 lesson 3 integrado e.s. environmental changes

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U 5 lesson 3 integrado e.s. environmental changes

  1. 1. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
  2. 2. Change Comes Naturally Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • All environments change over time. Some changes happen slowly and some occur quickly. • Climate changes, or changes to weather patterns, affect organisms. • An ice age happens when Earth’s temperatures are colder than normal for a very long time. Large areas of land are covered in ice for thousands of years. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  3. 3. Change Comes Naturally Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • What kinds of changes to the environment may have happened during the last ice age? Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  4. 4. Change Comes Naturally Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Earth is now in a warming cycle, due in part to human activities. As areas become warmer, organisms will move, adapt, or disappear. • Natural events, such as floods, mudslides, or volcanic eruptions can change the environment quickly. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  5. 5. Next, Please! Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • The gradual change of organisms in an ecosystem is called succession. • Primary succession begins on bare rock. The first organisms to colonize are called pioneer species. • Lichens, common pioneers, break down rock as they grow, producing soil. When they die, their litter decays, adding nutrients to the soil. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  6. 6. Next, Please! Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Plants grow as soil develops. Mosses flourish, producing more soil. Bigger plants take hold and, eventually, trees grow. • This establishes a mature, stable community. This process can take hundreds of years. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  7. 7. Next, Please! Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Secondary succession occurs where an ecosystem has been disturbed, but soil is still present. • Secondary succession occurs more quickly and uses existing soil that contains seeds and roots that sprout and grow. • Shrubs and grasses grow first, followed by larger plants. Eventually, a stable ecological community is re-established. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  8. 8. For Better or Worse Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Organisms living in an environment can cause both harmful and helpful changes. • For example, beavers cut down trees that provide food and shelter for other living things in order to make a dam. • The dam also slows the flow of water to animals. However, dams also produce wetlands, providing homes for other organisms. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  9. 9. Invasive Species Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Invasive species grow quickly after being introduced into a new environment. • Invasive species take food and space away from native species, the organisms already living in an ecosystem. • Invasive and native species compete for food. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  10. 10. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Human activities such as open-pit mining, cutting down forests, and building highways can harm an ecosystem. • Humans produce waste, which ends up in landfills. These landfills can pollute soil and water. • Pollution is the contamination of air, water, or soil by substances harmful to organisms. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms? Humans Change the Environment
  11. 11. Humans Change the Environment Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Not all changes caused by humans are harmful. • Conservation is the act of protecting ecosystems and the organisms living in them. • Humans practice conservation by replanting trees, cleaning up pollution, removing invasive plants and animals, and caring for injured animals. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  12. 12. Gone! Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Some organisms do not survive changes in the environment. • Extinction happens when all the members of a certain species dies. • For example, giant reptiles like the Tyrannosaurus rex lived in a time when the Earth was warm. As the environment cooled, they became extinct. Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?
  13. 13. Gone! Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Could the extinction of the dodo bird have been prevented? Why or why not? Unit 5 Lesson 3 How Do Environmental Changes Affect Organisms?

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