History Alive French Revolutino Part Ii


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Part II, based on History Alive

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History Alive French Revolutino Part Ii

  1. 1. The French Revolution: Part II <ul><li>The Moderate Stage: 1789-1792 </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution begins but it isn’t violent…yet! </li></ul>
  2. 2. Write This! <ul><li>A meeting is called to order, attempting to solve the economic problems in France… </li></ul>
  3. 3. The meeting of the Estates General: May 5 th , 1789 Voting took place by Order (One vote per Estate)
  4. 4. Each Estate Prepares The Cahiers <ul><li>Cahier = Notebook with a list of complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Cahiers called for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairer taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular meetings of the Estates General </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Problem with the Estates General <ul><li>Voting took place by order (each group got one vote) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting always ended up 2-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 rd Estate wants voting by “head” = each person gets one vote. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Estate gets upset with voting by order </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Estate declares themselves the “National Assembly” </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Third Estate gets fed up!
  7. 7. The Tennis Court Oath: June 20 th , 1789 Members of the Third Estate meet after being locked out of Versailles. Pledge never to disband (break apart) until a new Constitution is written.
  8. 8. The Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>“We swear never to separate ourselves from the National Assembly, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the realm is drawn up and fixed upon solid foundations.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. The National Assembly (the 3 rd Estate) <ul><li>Established a Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy that is controlled by laws that are outlined in a Constitution. </li></ul></ul>King Louis XVI accepted the new Constitution which took away some of his power. But he planned to break apart the National Assembly as soon as he could…
  10. 10. Not all of King Louise XVI power is lost. He can still veto any law that is passed by the assembly! Meanwhile…in an attempt to solve France’s financial crisis, the newly elected government seized the land of the Catholic Church and the land of any nobles who fled France. The National Assembly wrote a Constitution, but…
  11. 11. The Revolution will soon turn violent & radical…
  12. 12. Money & Bread Problems <ul><li>1788: 50%of a peasant or urban worker’s income went toward the purchase of bread. </li></ul><ul><li>1789: this figure had risen to 80%. </li></ul><ul><li>To compound the situation, there was a growing fear of a plot by King Louis XVI against the National Assembly. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Storming of the Bastille: July 14 th 1789 1/4 th of Paris is unemployed, bread prices went sky high and a rumor was spreading that the King’s troops were coming back to Paris…
  14. 14. The Storming of the Bastille <ul><li>July 14 th 1789: Hundreds (800) of people marched to the Bastille, a medieval fort and prison, to search for gunpowder. </li></ul><ul><li>The Commanding officer of the Bastille refused to give over the supplies and fired on the crowd killing 98 people. </li></ul><ul><li>The soldiers finally surrendered hours later, and the revolutionary crowds captured the Bastille </li></ul><ul><li>This event symbolized the beginning of the French Revolution…(spontaneous revolts sprang up throughout France as the word spread) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is it a revolt?”…”No, sire, it is a revolution.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why did the Revolution turn violent & radical? <ul><li>1789: The peasants had become restless and violent. </li></ul><ul><li>As the price of bread continued to soar peasants began to attack food convoys on their way to Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants also refused to pay taxes </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of July, the peasants began to burn down the houses of their landlords and with them, the records of their obligations to their lords. </li></ul><ul><li>A rumor began to spread that the upper class (1 st estate) had organized an army to kill the peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>This was only a rumor, but the Great Fear, as this episode is known, led the peasants to take arms against an imaginary enemy. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Declaration of the Rights of Man <ul><li>Written by the National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Step towards writing a new Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled after the Declaration of Independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All men are “born free and equal in rights” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ life, liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All citizens are equal before the law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowed John Locke’s ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The King was slow to accept these ideas…he continued to send his royal troops to the city. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. King Louis XVI reaction… <ul><li>At first, Louis did not accept the Declaration of the Rights of Man . </li></ul><ul><li>But an angry mob would soon confront the King. </li></ul>
  18. 19. The March on Versailles : In the months following the Bastille and the Declaration of the Rights of Man, unemployment and hunger increased. On October 5 th 1789 7,000 women marched the twelve miles from Paris to Versailles to demand bread…
  19. 20. The March on Versailles <ul><li>The 7,000 women invaded the Palace at Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>Killed several guards </li></ul><ul><li>The King promised to give them bread immediately and to accompany them back to Paris with his family </li></ul><ul><li>The heads of two nobles, stuck on pikes, led the way, followed by the unarmed royal guards…the King and his family would never return to Versailles… </li></ul><ul><li>August 4: Louis XVI approves The Declaration of the Rights of Man. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Constitution of 1791 is finally written…remember the oath taken back at the tennis court? <ul><li>Limited the power of the Monarch </li></ul><ul><li>The National Assembly (the old 3 rd Estate) had power to make: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide issues of war & peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required equality under the law for all male citizens. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. The King’s Secret Plan… <ul><li>Louis had made several concessions to the National Assembly, none of which he sincerely intended to keep. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Paris and the French countryside loved their king as a child loves his father. </li></ul><ul><li>But on June 20, 1791, Louis XVI did something which earned him the general distrust of most French subjects. He planned to raise an army and crush the revolution. </li></ul>