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Quantifying the Impact of Jointed Concrete Pavement Curling and Warping on Pavement Unevenness <ul><ul><li>George Chang, P...
US FHWA Curl/Warp Study <ul><li>Impact of Curling and Warping on JCP Performance </li></ul>
Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement  </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curv...
Curl/Warp Measurement <ul><li>What to be measured? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Co...
Selected Sites Seasonal Site Non-seasonal Site Dry-Freeze Wet-Nonfreeze Dry-Nonfreeze Wet-Freeze
Diurnal Profiling Inertial Profiling  Early AM  Mid-AM  Late AM - Early PM  Evening  Critical  Passes!!
Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement  </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curv...
Raw Profile IA_023A
Spike Profile Filter with moving average anti-smoothing Normalize by RMS Search deepest dip by a threshold
Spike Incidence Assemble the dip count across the data set
Weeded Spike Incidence Weed/clear false hits Extract the joint locations
Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement  </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curv...
Westergaard Curling Formula
Adjusted Westergaard Curling Parameters <ul><li>Adjusted to overcome Westergaard assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Fit to actu...
2GCI Fit – Curled Down Slab 25-mm data
2GCI Computation <ul><li>Isolate the individual slab segments </li></ul><ul><li>De-trend and de-mean the profile segment <...
2GCI Analysis AZ_001am - winter
2GCI Analysis AZ_001am - winter
2GCI Analysis MN_046a - summer
2GCI Analysis MN_046a - summer
Mean Curvatures
Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement  </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curv...
2GCI vs Roughness AZ_001m
2GCI vs Roughness AZ_001m
2GCI vs Roughness AZ_001m
Roughness Curvature  (downward) Curvature  (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc The RoCK Chart
0 R ub R lb R zc R btc Curvature-related Roughness Non Curvature-related Roughness Roughness Decomposition
Roughness Curvature  (downward) Curvature  (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE I-A Sites Curled up Curvature dominates rou...
Roughness Curvature  (downward) Curvature  (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE I-B Sites Curled up mildly Curvature affect...
Roughness Curvature  (downward) Curvature  (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE II Sites Curled up and down Curvature affec...
Roughness Curvature  (downward) Curvature  (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE III-A Sites Curled down Curvature dominates...
Roughness Curvature  (downward) Curvature  (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE III-B Sites Curled down mildly Curvature af...
Bolivian Project <ul><li>Two-lane undivided JCP </li></ul><ul><li>Mountainous terrain with moderate fills and cuts </li></...
Bolivian Project <ul><li>Low relative humidity and extreme temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Mix with a relatively high water...
Bolivian Project AM
Bolivian Project
Bolivian Project Strength FEM Analysis
The Implications… <ul><li>What’s timing to measure roughness for a pavement acceptance testing? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s t...
Tools you can use… <ul><li>New, robust profile synchronization and joint identification techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Inven...
Acknowledgement <ul><li>US FHWA Sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Co-authors:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steven M. Karamihas, Univ...
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Quantify Impact of JCP Curl/Warp on Smoothness

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George\'s presentation during SURF 2008

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Quantify Impact of JCP Curl/Warp on Smoothness

  1. 1. Quantifying the Impact of Jointed Concrete Pavement Curling and Warping on Pavement Unevenness <ul><ul><li>George Chang, PhD, PE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transtec Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>T RANSTEC GROUP THE
  2. 2. US FHWA Curl/Warp Study <ul><li>Impact of Curling and Warping on JCP Performance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curvature Index </li></ul><ul><li>RoCK System for Curvature-Impact-Roughess Analysis </li></ul>
  4. 4. Curl/Warp Measurement <ul><li>What to be measured? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to measure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Selected Sites Seasonal Site Non-seasonal Site Dry-Freeze Wet-Nonfreeze Dry-Nonfreeze Wet-Freeze
  6. 6. Diurnal Profiling Inertial Profiling Early AM Mid-AM Late AM - Early PM Evening Critical Passes!!
  7. 7. Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curvature Index </li></ul><ul><li>RoCK System for Curvature-Impact-Roughess Analysis </li></ul>
  8. 8. Raw Profile IA_023A
  9. 9. Spike Profile Filter with moving average anti-smoothing Normalize by RMS Search deepest dip by a threshold
  10. 10. Spike Incidence Assemble the dip count across the data set
  11. 11. Weeded Spike Incidence Weed/clear false hits Extract the joint locations
  12. 12. Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curvature Index </li></ul><ul><li>RoCK System for Curvature-Impact-Roughess Analysis </li></ul>
  13. 13. Westergaard Curling Formula
  14. 14. Adjusted Westergaard Curling Parameters <ul><li>Adjusted to overcome Westergaard assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Fit to actual slab deformation </li></ul><ul><li>More fundamental than an arbitrary geometric function </li></ul><ul><li>Fitted parameters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudo-radius of relative stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudo-strain gradient </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 2GCI Fit – Curled Down Slab 25-mm data
  16. 16. 2GCI Computation <ul><li>Isolate the individual slab segments </li></ul><ul><li>De-trend and de-mean the profile segment </li></ul><ul><li>Mask joints </li></ul><ul><li>Define model parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Perform nonlinear curve fitting </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2GCI Analysis AZ_001am - winter
  18. 18. 2GCI Analysis AZ_001am - winter
  19. 19. 2GCI Analysis MN_046a - summer
  20. 20. 2GCI Analysis MN_046a - summer
  21. 21. Mean Curvatures
  22. 22. Outlines <ul><li>Curl/Warp Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Profile Synchronization and Joint ID </li></ul><ul><li>2GCI Curvature Index </li></ul><ul><li>RoCK System for Curvature-Impact-Roughess Analysis </li></ul>
  23. 23. 2GCI vs Roughness AZ_001m
  24. 24. 2GCI vs Roughness AZ_001m
  25. 25. 2GCI vs Roughness AZ_001m
  26. 26. Roughness Curvature (downward) Curvature (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc The RoCK Chart
  27. 27. 0 R ub R lb R zc R btc Curvature-related Roughness Non Curvature-related Roughness Roughness Decomposition
  28. 28. Roughness Curvature (downward) Curvature (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE I-A Sites Curled up Curvature dominates roughness Src < 0 Rbtc > 0
  29. 29. Roughness Curvature (downward) Curvature (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE I-B Sites Curled up mildly Curvature affects roughness Src < 0 Rbtc ~ 0
  30. 30. Roughness Curvature (downward) Curvature (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE II Sites Curled up and down Curvature affects Roughness mildly Src < 0 Rbtc ~ 0 Src > 0 Rbtc ~ 0
  31. 31. Roughness Curvature (downward) Curvature (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE III-A Sites Curled down Curvature dominates roughness Src > 0 Rbtc > 0
  32. 32. Roughness Curvature (downward) Curvature (upward) 0 Crt Clf Rub Rlb Rzc TYPE III-B Sites Curled down mildly Curvature affects roughness Src > 0 Rbtc ~ 0
  33. 33. Bolivian Project <ul><li>Two-lane undivided JCP </li></ul><ul><li>Mountainous terrain with moderate fills and cuts </li></ul><ul><li>24-ft wide, 12-ft joint spacing </li></ul><ul><li>8-inch slab on 6-inch granular base </li></ul><ul><li>Local climate is arid with rains from December to March </li></ul><ul><li>Drastic overnight temperature drops </li></ul>
  34. 34. Bolivian Project <ul><li>Low relative humidity and extreme temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Mix with a relatively high water cement ratio, high CTE aggregate, and inadequate curing techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal cracks at the center of the slab in both travel directions after the first winter </li></ul>
  35. 35. Bolivian Project AM
  36. 36. Bolivian Project
  37. 37. Bolivian Project Strength FEM Analysis
  38. 38. The Implications… <ul><li>What’s timing to measure roughness for a pavement acceptance testing? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the best practice to avoid curl and warp? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the best time to grind the pavements to improve smoothness? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Tools you can use… <ul><li>New, robust profile synchronization and joint identification techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of 2GCI to better characterize slab curvature </li></ul><ul><li>New, effective slab curvature analysis framework </li></ul><ul><li>RoCK System to assess curvature’s impact on roughness </li></ul>
  40. 40. Acknowledgement <ul><li>US FHWA Sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Co-authors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steven M. Karamihas, University of Michigan, USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Otto Rasmussen, P.E., Ph.D., The Transtec Group, Inc., USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Merritt, P.E., M.S., The Transtec Group, Inc., USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark Swanlund, P.E., US DOT Federal Highway Administration, USA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many US State DOT for assistance in field measurements </li></ul>

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