Plantlayout

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Plantlayout

  1. 1. <ul><li>Plant Layout </li></ul>Production and Operations Management
  2. 2. Plant layout <ul><li>Meaning- </li></ul><ul><li>Plant layout is the physical arrangement of industrial facilities. It involves the allocation of space & the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized. </li></ul>D D D D G G G G G G M M M M M M A A A A L L L L L L L L
  3. 3. Objectives of plant layout <ul><li>An efficient layout can be instrumental in the accomplishment of the following objectives- </li></ul><ul><li>Economies in materials, facilitate manufacturing process & handling of semi-finished & finished goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper & efficient utilization of available floor space. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid congestion & bottlenecks. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of better supervision & control of operations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives of plant layout cont. <ul><li>5. Careful planning to avoid frequent changes in layout which may result in undue increase in cost of production. </li></ul><ul><li>6. To provide adequate safety to the workers from accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>7. To meet the quality & capacity requirements in the most economical manner. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Provision of medical facilities & cafeteria at suitable & convenient places. </li></ul><ul><li>9. To provide efficient material handling system. </li></ul><ul><li>10. To suggest the improvements in production process & work methods. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Principles of plant layout <ul><li>Principle of integration (of 5M’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of minimum distance </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of cubic space utilization( both horizontal & vertical space). </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of flow( must be forward no backtracking) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of maximum flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of safety, security & satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of minimum handling. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of plant layout <ul><li>Product layout </li></ul><ul><li>Process layout </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Position/ Stationary layout </li></ul><ul><li>Product layout - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here machines are arranged acc. To the needs of product & in the same sequence as the operations are necessary for manufacture. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Product Layout Raw materials or customer Finished item Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 Material and/or labor Station 1 Material and/or labor Material and/or labor Material and/or labor Used for Repetitive or Continuous Processing
  8. 8. <ul><li>High rate of output </li></ul><ul><li>Low unit cost </li></ul><ul><li>Labor specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Low material handling cost </li></ul><ul><li>High utilization of labor and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Established routing and scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Short processing time </li></ul>Advantages of Product Layout
  9. 9. <ul><li>Creates dull, repetitive jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly skilled workers may not maintain equipment or quality of output </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly inflexible to changes in volume </li></ul><ul><li>Highly susceptible to shutdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Needs preventive maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Require large capital investment </li></ul>Disadvantages of Product Layout
  10. 10. A U-Shaped Production Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 In Out Workers
  11. 11. <ul><li>Process layout - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout that can handle varied processing requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here all machines performing similar type of operations are grouped together at one location in the process layout. Thus here facilities are grouped together acc. To their functions. E.g. all drilling machines are located at one place known as drilling section. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Process Layout Process Layout - work travels to dedicated process centers Milling Assembly & Test Grinding Drilling Plating
  13. 13. Process Layout Used for Intermittent processing Job Shop or Batch Process Layout (functional) Dept. A Dept. B Dept. D Dept. C Dept. F Dept. E
  14. 14. Product Layout Product Layout (sequential) Used for Repetitive Processing Repetitive or Continuous Work Station 1 Work Station 2 Work Station 3
  15. 15. <ul><li>Can handle a variety of processing requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Machines breakdown doesn’t result in shutdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment used is less costly </li></ul><ul><li>Wide flexibility in production facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Each production unit of system works independently. </li></ul><ul><li>High utilization of facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Variety makes the job interesting. </li></ul>Advantages of Process Layouts
  16. 16. <ul><li>In-process inventory costs can be high </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging routing and scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment utilization rates are low </li></ul><ul><li>Material handling is slow and inefficient & is more. </li></ul><ul><li>More space is required </li></ul><ul><li>Longer processing time </li></ul><ul><li>Back tracking may occur. </li></ul>Disadvantages of Process Layouts
  17. 17. Comparison of product & process layout factors Product layout Process layout 1. nature Sequence of facilities Similar aregp2gether 2. Machines utilization Not to full capacity Better utilization 3. product standardized diversified 4. Processing time less more 5. Material handling less more 6. inventory High WIP Low WIP 7. breakdown Can’t tolerate Can tolerate 8. Production centre simple complex 9.flexibilty low high 10. floor space Requires less more 11. investment high low
  18. 18. <ul><li>Fixed position layout- Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed. E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Employed in large project type organisation </li></ul><ul><li>construction of DAMS. </li></ul><ul><li>ISRO </li></ul><ul><li>Helicopter </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear engg. Division of BHEL </li></ul><ul><li>The product, because of its size and/or weight, remains in one location and processes are brought to it. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Factors affecting plant layout <ul><li>Nature of product- e.g. some products need air-conditioned plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of output- </li></ul><ul><li>For bulk-product/line layout </li></ul><ul><li>For small-functional layout </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of manufacturing system- </li></ul><ul><li>For intermittent-functional layout </li></ul><ul><li>For continuous-product/line layout </li></ul><ul><li>Localization of plant- e.g. there will be different transportation arrangement if site is located near railway line. </li></ul><ul><li>Machines or equipment- e.g. heavy machines need stationary layout </li></ul><ul><li>Climatic conditions, need of light, temperature also affect design of layout. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>COMPANY PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>RYDON GROUP,Coimbatore FOUNDED IN THE YEAR 1991 HAS ESTABLISHED BUSINESS IN THE FIELD OF MANUFACTURING AND AS WELL AS AUTOMOBILE DEALERSHIP. THE COMPANY HAS COMPLETE IN-HOUSE FACILITY TO PRODUCE SPROCKETS FOR TWO WHEELER, FOUR WHEELER AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of sprockets OE: Original Equipment (line-2) RP: Retail Product (line-3) FD: Final Drive (line-1) SPROCKETS OE RP FD
  22. 22. <ul><li>FINAL DRIVE SPROCKET-line-1 </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT AND RETAIL PRODUCT SPROCKET: </li></ul><ul><li>THE OE AND RP SPROCKETS ARE SIMILAR EXCEPT FOR THE HEAT TREATMENT IS DONE ONLY FOR THE OE SPROCKETS. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>PROCESS FLOW FOR FD SPROCKETS in line-1 as shown in the model. </li></ul>Raw material Turning Drilling Heat treatment Tooth cutting Despatch
  25. 25. <ul><li>PROCESS FLOW FOR OE SPROCKETS in line-2 as shown in the model. </li></ul>Raw material Turning Boring Heat treatment Tooth grinding Despatch
  26. 26. <ul><li>PROCESS FLOW FOR RP SPROCKETS in line-3 as shown in the model. </li></ul>Raw material Turning Milling Gear Hobbing Despatch
  27. 27. Flow chart of methodology for future layout design change Process Study Data Collection Modeling Simulation Evaluation
  28. 28. <ul><li>Thank you for your patient listening </li></ul>

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