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DBAMETRIX Solutions
     Present

 Oracle SGA in a Nutshell
DBA Learn by Presentation
               series
   DBA learning by presentation offered by
    DBAMETRIX Solutions.
   This all presentations have been prepared by
    Gitesh P Trivedi.
   Gitesh Trivedi has work excellent 14 years
    experience in DBA field and as consultant faculty.
   For more details please contact to
    www.dbametrix.com or gitesh@dbametrix.com or
    giteshtrivedi@yahoo.com
What is SGA

   SGA called as Shared Global Area
   It populates in Oracle’s memory region
   Size of SGA depends on Granule
    distribution
   Sometime it also called as Shared Memory
    Area
   It populates when Oracle database started
Sub Components of SGA

                                                                    SGA

Buffer Cache         Log Buffer                           Shared Pool                Java Pool             Stream Pool                Large Pool

  Dictionary Cache                Library Cache                                                         Control Structure

                                                                    Shared SQL Area                                         Locks

                                                                                                                            Latches
                                                                                       Execution Plan


                                                                                        Parse Tree
                                                                      Private Area


                                                  Persistent Area


                                                  Runtime Area
Parameters of SGA

   Db_cache_size    (Buffer Cache)
   Log_buffer      (Log Buffer)
   Shared_pool_size (Shared Pool)
   Java_pool_size   (Java Pool)
   Large_pool_size (Large Pool)
   Stream_pool_size (Stream Pool)
What is granules
   With dynamic SGA, the unit of allocation is
    called a granule
   Allocation of SGA components, as unit of
    granule
   Granule size is determined by total SGA
    size
   We can check size of granule from
    v$sgainfo dynamic view
Size of Granules
   It depends on operating system and kernel bit version.
   In Oracle 9i, if SGA is smaller than 128 MB than size of
    granule is 4MB. If more than 128MB than size of granule
    is 16MB.
   From Oracle 10g, if SGA is smaller than 1GB than size of
    granule is 4MB and bigger for 16MB.
   For 32bit Windows platform if SGA is bigger than 128MB
    than size of granule is 8MB
   Expanding size of component of SGA depends on
    multiple of Granule size
SGA Structure

                                 Dict Cache        Lib Cache
Buffer Cache    Log Buffer                                       Con Str


                                 Sort Ext Pool   Shared Pool




                   Stream Pool                   Java Pool     Large Pool
Database Buffer Cache
   For fetching data, Oracle first check in Buffer Cache.
   If no found data in Buffer Cache then Oracle fetch data
    from disk and copy in Buffer Cache for avoiding
    unnecessary disk I/O.
   3 types of Buffers available in Buffer Cache.
   Those are free buffers, pinned buffers and dirty buffers.
   When Oracle don’t find room for pinning new buffers
    then dirty buffers are flushed and written in to disk.
   For managing these all buffers, Oracle utilizes a least
    recently used algorithm for flushing buffers in Disk.
Type of Buffer Cache
   Multiple Buffer Cache
   DEFAULT Buffer Cache db_cache_size
   KEEP Buffer Cache db_keep_cache_size
   RECYCLE Buffer Cache
    db_recycle_cache_size
   Non standard Buffer Cache also available
    with parameter db_nK_cache_size where n is
    2,4,8,16,32.
   In Oracle 8i and prior version parameter was
    db_block_buffers
How Buffers work
        All are free Buffers in Buffer Cache
How Buffers work

          Pinned Buffers in
            Buffer Cache


           Free Buffers in Buffer Cache
How Buffers work

           Pinned Buffers




                  Free Buffers



                      Dirty Buffers
How Buffers work

        No free Buffers available, all occupied.
How Buffers work
        Now free Buffers
        available

                    Dirty Buffers flushed to disk
Log Buffers
   Redo log buffer is circular buffer that hold
    data of changes in database.
   Each redo entries contain data about
    dml/ddl operations.
   It is usable to reconstruct data from redo
    entries.
   Periodically Log Writer process writes data
    from redo log buffer to disk.
How Log buffer works

LGWR flushes data from buffer
to disk                                   Log Buffer




                                Redo        Redo       Redo
                                Log         Log        Log
                                group 1     group 2    group 3
Shared Pool
   Information of data dictionary views and privileges
    stores in Dictionary Cache.
   Explain plans, Cursors, Bind variables, store
    procedures store in Library Cache.
   Lock and Latches store in Control structure.
   Sort Extent Pool contains mapping of sort segment
    and sorting information.
   There is no separate parameter for any sub
    components.
   Parameter of Shared Pool is shared_pool_size.
How Shared Pool works

        Raw Cache                         Library Cache
                                                               Control
                                                               Structure


        Sort extent Pool




Tracking sort
segment                                             Stores
                           Contains dictionary      cursors,           Hold locks &
                           data, privileges,        PL/SQL             latches
                           system data
Managing Shared Pool
   Shared pool can be flushed using “alter system
    flush shared_pool” command.
   While flushing shared pool, all objects wipe off
    and cursors become invalidate. Oracle reparse
    all cursors after reuse.
   If object pinned using dbms_shared_pool.keep,
    would never flush (after using above command).
   Default size of shared pool is 8 MB in 32 bit
    platform and 64 MB in 64 bit platform.
Large Pool
   It contains I/O of server process
   It contains memory of Backup & Restore
    operations
   It contains memory for shared server process
    (mts configuration)
   It contains parallel server process and buffers
   There is no LRU algorithm to manage request in
    Large Pool
   Parameter is large_pool_size
Java Pool
   It handles Java related memories
   It contains Java class, definitions and JVM components
   It handles request for session specific java code
   In Oracle 8i can be disable, but from Oracle 9i it can't
    due to dependencies like feature of data warehousing
    (SYS.DBMS_CDC_PUBLISH), export and import etc
   It determines from following query from database
   SELECT name, bytes FROM V$SGASTAT WHERE pool =
    'java pool';
   Parameter is java_pool_size
Stream Pool

   It uses allocation of memory of stream
    buffers
   If size is greater than 0, then allocates
    stream in pool. If size is 0 then memory
    will be allocated in shared pool
   Parameter is stream_pool_size
SGA_TARGET (Oracle 10g and
          higher version)
   Introduce in 10g as Automatic Shared
    Memory Management.
   If set nonzero value then Oracle
    automatically determine and adjust SGA size.
   Oracle re-distribute memory allocation when
    found change of workload.
   For re-organization of SGA size, responsible
    background process is called MMAN (Memory
    Manager).
Components of SGA_TARGET
   Buffer Cache (default)
   Log Buffer
   Shared Pool
   Stream Pool
   Java Pool
   Large Pool
   Manual allocation of buffer pools (keep & recyle)
   Manual allocation of Non-standard Buffer Cache
    ((controlled by DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE, n = {2, 4, 8,
    16, 32})
New Automatic Memory
      Management in Oracle 11g
   New parameters memory_target and
    memory_max_target are introduced.
   Whole instance memory automatically managed using
    these parameters.
   It overrides sga_target and pga_target.
   If both set then it will be treated as lower bound of
    memory of same region.
   Memory_target is dynamic and memory_max_target is
    static parameter.
   V$memory_target_advice dynamic view for more
    reference and guidance of same new feture.
Oracle SGA in Nutshell

Presented by Gitesh P Trivedi
    DBAMETRIX Solutions
    www.dbametrix.com

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Remote DBA team-1Z0-042 Oracle Sga In Nutshell Oracle Dba Learn By Presentation

  • 1. DBAMETRIX Solutions Present Oracle SGA in a Nutshell
  • 2. DBA Learn by Presentation series  DBA learning by presentation offered by DBAMETRIX Solutions.  This all presentations have been prepared by Gitesh P Trivedi.  Gitesh Trivedi has work excellent 14 years experience in DBA field and as consultant faculty.  For more details please contact to www.dbametrix.com or gitesh@dbametrix.com or giteshtrivedi@yahoo.com
  • 3. What is SGA  SGA called as Shared Global Area  It populates in Oracle’s memory region  Size of SGA depends on Granule distribution  Sometime it also called as Shared Memory Area  It populates when Oracle database started
  • 4. Sub Components of SGA SGA Buffer Cache Log Buffer Shared Pool Java Pool Stream Pool Large Pool Dictionary Cache Library Cache Control Structure Shared SQL Area Locks Latches Execution Plan Parse Tree Private Area Persistent Area Runtime Area
  • 5. Parameters of SGA  Db_cache_size (Buffer Cache)  Log_buffer (Log Buffer)  Shared_pool_size (Shared Pool)  Java_pool_size (Java Pool)  Large_pool_size (Large Pool)  Stream_pool_size (Stream Pool)
  • 6. What is granules  With dynamic SGA, the unit of allocation is called a granule  Allocation of SGA components, as unit of granule  Granule size is determined by total SGA size  We can check size of granule from v$sgainfo dynamic view
  • 7. Size of Granules  It depends on operating system and kernel bit version.  In Oracle 9i, if SGA is smaller than 128 MB than size of granule is 4MB. If more than 128MB than size of granule is 16MB.  From Oracle 10g, if SGA is smaller than 1GB than size of granule is 4MB and bigger for 16MB.  For 32bit Windows platform if SGA is bigger than 128MB than size of granule is 8MB  Expanding size of component of SGA depends on multiple of Granule size
  • 8. SGA Structure Dict Cache Lib Cache Buffer Cache Log Buffer Con Str Sort Ext Pool Shared Pool Stream Pool Java Pool Large Pool
  • 9. Database Buffer Cache  For fetching data, Oracle first check in Buffer Cache.  If no found data in Buffer Cache then Oracle fetch data from disk and copy in Buffer Cache for avoiding unnecessary disk I/O.  3 types of Buffers available in Buffer Cache.  Those are free buffers, pinned buffers and dirty buffers.  When Oracle don’t find room for pinning new buffers then dirty buffers are flushed and written in to disk.  For managing these all buffers, Oracle utilizes a least recently used algorithm for flushing buffers in Disk.
  • 10. Type of Buffer Cache  Multiple Buffer Cache  DEFAULT Buffer Cache db_cache_size  KEEP Buffer Cache db_keep_cache_size  RECYCLE Buffer Cache db_recycle_cache_size  Non standard Buffer Cache also available with parameter db_nK_cache_size where n is 2,4,8,16,32.  In Oracle 8i and prior version parameter was db_block_buffers
  • 11. How Buffers work All are free Buffers in Buffer Cache
  • 12. How Buffers work Pinned Buffers in Buffer Cache Free Buffers in Buffer Cache
  • 13. How Buffers work Pinned Buffers Free Buffers Dirty Buffers
  • 14. How Buffers work No free Buffers available, all occupied.
  • 15. How Buffers work Now free Buffers available Dirty Buffers flushed to disk
  • 16. Log Buffers  Redo log buffer is circular buffer that hold data of changes in database.  Each redo entries contain data about dml/ddl operations.  It is usable to reconstruct data from redo entries.  Periodically Log Writer process writes data from redo log buffer to disk.
  • 17. How Log buffer works LGWR flushes data from buffer to disk Log Buffer Redo Redo Redo Log Log Log group 1 group 2 group 3
  • 18. Shared Pool  Information of data dictionary views and privileges stores in Dictionary Cache.  Explain plans, Cursors, Bind variables, store procedures store in Library Cache.  Lock and Latches store in Control structure.  Sort Extent Pool contains mapping of sort segment and sorting information.  There is no separate parameter for any sub components.  Parameter of Shared Pool is shared_pool_size.
  • 19. How Shared Pool works Raw Cache Library Cache Control Structure Sort extent Pool Tracking sort segment Stores Contains dictionary cursors, Hold locks & data, privileges, PL/SQL latches system data
  • 20. Managing Shared Pool  Shared pool can be flushed using “alter system flush shared_pool” command.  While flushing shared pool, all objects wipe off and cursors become invalidate. Oracle reparse all cursors after reuse.  If object pinned using dbms_shared_pool.keep, would never flush (after using above command).  Default size of shared pool is 8 MB in 32 bit platform and 64 MB in 64 bit platform.
  • 21. Large Pool  It contains I/O of server process  It contains memory of Backup & Restore operations  It contains memory for shared server process (mts configuration)  It contains parallel server process and buffers  There is no LRU algorithm to manage request in Large Pool  Parameter is large_pool_size
  • 22. Java Pool  It handles Java related memories  It contains Java class, definitions and JVM components  It handles request for session specific java code  In Oracle 8i can be disable, but from Oracle 9i it can't due to dependencies like feature of data warehousing (SYS.DBMS_CDC_PUBLISH), export and import etc  It determines from following query from database  SELECT name, bytes FROM V$SGASTAT WHERE pool = 'java pool';  Parameter is java_pool_size
  • 23. Stream Pool  It uses allocation of memory of stream buffers  If size is greater than 0, then allocates stream in pool. If size is 0 then memory will be allocated in shared pool  Parameter is stream_pool_size
  • 24. SGA_TARGET (Oracle 10g and higher version)  Introduce in 10g as Automatic Shared Memory Management.  If set nonzero value then Oracle automatically determine and adjust SGA size.  Oracle re-distribute memory allocation when found change of workload.  For re-organization of SGA size, responsible background process is called MMAN (Memory Manager).
  • 25. Components of SGA_TARGET  Buffer Cache (default)  Log Buffer  Shared Pool  Stream Pool  Java Pool  Large Pool  Manual allocation of buffer pools (keep & recyle)  Manual allocation of Non-standard Buffer Cache ((controlled by DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE, n = {2, 4, 8, 16, 32})
  • 26. New Automatic Memory Management in Oracle 11g  New parameters memory_target and memory_max_target are introduced.  Whole instance memory automatically managed using these parameters.  It overrides sga_target and pga_target.  If both set then it will be treated as lower bound of memory of same region.  Memory_target is dynamic and memory_max_target is static parameter.  V$memory_target_advice dynamic view for more reference and guidance of same new feture.
  • 27. Oracle SGA in Nutshell Presented by Gitesh P Trivedi DBAMETRIX Solutions www.dbametrix.com