Augmented Reality: A New Geovisualisation Method for GIS


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Augmented Reality: A New Geovisualisation Method for GIS

  1. 1. Augmented reality : A new visualisation method for GIS PhD Researcher Sung Hyun Jang Supervised by Mike Batty and Andy Hudson-Smith
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Initial results • Background – AR map using ARTag – Geovisualisation Trend – UCL buildings in Layar g y – Ubiquitous computing • Conclusion • Literature review • Future Work – Geovisualisation – About AR • Definition • History – AR applications • Methodology – Data extract – Scenario – Matching – Implementation and Evaluation 249
  3. 3. Introduction “ If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interface is worth a thousand pictures” (Shneiderman 2001) (Shneiderman, “If an interface is worth a thousand pictures, then a geovisualisation can save more than a thousand lives” 349
  4. 4. Introduction 449
  5. 5. Introduction Soho + Cholera death Water pump 549
  6. 6. Background Geovisualisation Trend Data Life Cycle C l GIS Geovisualisation GIS Platform Trend Uses GIS Data 649
  7. 7. Background GIS data life cycle 1st Gen. : linear and finite Data Acquisition A i iti Data Processing P i Geo- Visualisation 749
  8. 8. Background GIS data life cycle 2nd Gen. : Cloud Source Data Acquisition A i iti Data Processing P i Geo- Visualisation Openstreetmap 849
  9. 9. Background GIS data life cycle 3rd Gen. : Enhancing reality g y Data Acquisition q Data Realistic Processing view Geo Geo- Visualisation Openstreetmap Real Accessible time ti 949
  10. 10. Background Geovisualisation Trend – GIS Platform Enterprise Pervasive Desktop GIS Web GIS GIS GIS Embedded ArcInfo ArcView & Micro GIS Specialist Enterprise WWW 1049
  11. 11. Background Geovisualisation Trend – GIS data 2D 3D 3D + Realistic 3D SHP DEM /DTM in real-time Coverage 3D Model In real place etc. etc. Enhancing reality 1149
  12. 12. Background Geovisualisation Trend – GIS Uses User Demand Public Individual Context Awareness Policy Decision Everyday Intelligent Cognition, Cognition Making technology Everyday technology, Management g and Calm technology UIS StreetMap (Urban Information System) LIS Navigation g (Land Information System) 1249
  13. 13. Background Short summary of new Geovisualisation trend User demand Pervasive 3D+Realistic Context GIS Awareness 3D Intelligent cognition, I t lli t iti Embedded E b dd d in real-time Everyday technology, Ubiquitous & In real place and Calm technology Computing Micro Enhancing reality g y 1349
  14. 14. Background Visualization for Ubiquitous Environment. “Specialized elements of hardware and software, connected by wires, radio waves , y , and infrared, will be so ubiquitous that no one will notice their presence” p (The Computer for the 21th Century, Mark Weiser, 1988) 1449
  15. 15. Background Ubiquitous Space The 1st Space Physical Space (Real space) The 2nd Space Cyber Space (Virtual space) Physical Space + Cyber Space = Linked Operating Space y p y p p g p Th 3rd S The Space (Ubiquitous Space) Th 1st S The Space Th 2nd S The Space Th 3rd S The Space Space (Real Space) (Virtual Space) (Ubiquitous Space) Tech. Agriculture / Info.(IT, Computer) Space (Ubiquitous) Revolution Industrial Revolution Revolution Revolution Time 19th Century 20th Century 21st Century • Ubiquitous IT revolution and the 3rd space, 2002, DH Kim 1549
  16. 16. Background Ubiquitous Space Internet Location Based Service Invisible Embodied I i ibl E b di d Micro / Calm technology Embedded Intelligent Devices 1649
  17. 17. Background Ubiquitous Interface Workers Everybody 1749
  18. 18. Background Geovisualisation in Ubiquitous Interface • Geovisualisation beyond the desktop GIS, web GIS (Fixed location, screen, k b d and mouse) (Fi d l ti keyboard d ) • Requirements: q Handheld, Portable, Wearable Devices Very different scales or styles of output Implicit input – location time, context location, time 1849
  19. 19. Background Geo-objects in Ubiquitous Environment 1949
  20. 20. Background Visualise Geo-objects in Ubiquitous Environment RFID Building information RFIDs RFID Street Tree RFID managing RFIDs RFID RFID RFID Car information RFIDs Traffic Lights Managing RFIDs Pipe managing RFIDs Communication Cables Water Pipes Gas Pipes 2049
  21. 21. Research Question • Can geovisualisation support the ubiquitous environment? • What is the best way to visualise intelligent geo- objects in the ubiquitous environment? j q 2149
  22. 22. Overall research aim IT Visualisation Ubiquitous computing Geovisualisation GIS in Geovisualisation Ubiquitous With AR Computing p g How can we visualise geo objects in ubiquitous environments? geo-objects – Dynamic visualisation: real-time, instant – Intuitive interface: Calm technology, awareness gy, – with Augmented Reality 2249
  23. 23. Research Objectives GIS in Geovisualisation G i li ti Ubiquitous Computing With AR • Select GIS data can be used with AR • P id d Provide dynamic & real-time GIS data i l ti d t visualization using AR • D Develop GIS b l GIS-based augmented reality service d t d lit i 2349
  24. 24. Literature review • Geovisualisation – Definition of visualisation, geovisualisation visualisation – Challenges for geovisualisation • Augmented reality – Definition of AR – History of AR – Applications 2449
  25. 25. Literature review What is geovisualisation? • Visualisation • The formation of mental visual images, the act or process of interpreting in visual terms (Classic definition) • In 1987, McCormick proposed visualisation taxonomy • Exploring data and information g p p g graphically, as a means of g y gaining g GIS understanding and insight into the data with All activities Software &and Wiseman, 1992: Brodlie et al., 1993) (Earnshaw GIS data Hardware • Geo + visualisation – The first use of the term visualisation in cartographic literature Interface – Ten principles common to cartography and geography (Philbrick, 1953) – A set of tools and techniques supporting geospatial data analysis through the use of interactive visualisation (K k and M (Kraak d Maceachren, 1999) h 2549
  26. 26. Literature review Challenges for geovisualisation • Paper maps were designed to be both database and presentation media. (MacEachren and Kraak, 2000) • 80% of all di it l d t generated t d i l d geospatial f ll digital data t d today include ti l referencing (e.g., geographic coordinates, address, postal codes, etc.) codes etc ) (MacEachren and Kraak 2000) Kraak, • Geovisualisation has the potential to provide ‘windows’ into the complexity of the phenomena and processes involved, through innovative scene construction, virtual environments and collaboration (MacEachren and Kraak, 2000) • Two current keywords in geovisualisation: Interaction, Dynamic (MacEachren, 1994) 2649
  27. 27. Literature review Why Augmented Reality 2749
  28. 28. Literature review Why Augmented Reality • Intuitive: : A more intuitive interface to access complex real world • Real – time: Real world should be a back ground • Dynamic: Dynamic features • Instant: Quick response • Link real and virtual world: Enhancing the real world 2849
  29. 29. Literature review Definition of AR • A combination of a real scene viewed by a user and a virtual scene generated by a computer that augments the scene with additional information. (Azuma 1997; Azuma, Baillot, Behringer, Feiner, Julier & MacIntyre 2001) 2949
  30. 30. Literature review Reality – Virtuality (RV) Continuum (Milgram & Colquhoun 1999) 3049
  31. 31. Literature review A Brief History of AR • 1960’s : • Ivan E Sutherland E. • The ultimate display The ultimate display would, of course, be a room within which the computer can control the existence of matter. A chair displayed in such a room would be good enough to sit in. ……. With appropriate programming, such a display could literally be the Wonderland into which Alice walked walked. 3149
  32. 32. Literature review A Brief History of AR • Early 1990’s : Boeing coined the term “AR” in its Wire harness assembly application (Anthony E. Majoros , Paul R. Jackson) • Early 1990’s : UNC ultrasound project y j • 1994: Motion Stabilized display 3249
  33. 33. Literature review A Brief History of AR • 1994: Fiducial tracking in video see through AR see-through • 1996: UNC hybrid magnetic-vision tracker • 2000: Augmented sports broadcasts • 2009: Mobile AR ( o e 3GS, Android etc ) 009 ob e (iPhone d o d etc.) 3349
  34. 34. Literature review Components of augmented reality system Component Type Description Outdoor GPS Positioning Indoor 2D Tag, RFID Digital Compass Direction of your sight (Horizontal) User Perspective Accelerometers Angle of your sight (Vertical) Optical see through Optical combiners in front of the user s eyes user’s Combining a closed-view HMD with one or Display Video see through two cameras Combining virtual objects and real objects on Monitor base a monitor 3449
  35. 35. Literature review Display materials 3549
  36. 36. Literature review Tag based augmented reality • ARToolKit: Washington Univ. HIT lab • ARTag: Columbia Univ Univ. • Library for tag-based AR applications • Open Source, Multi-Platform • Solves two significant p g problems in AR • Tracking • Registration • Overlays 3D virtual objects on real markers • Uses single tracking marker 3649
  37. 37. Literature review ARToolKit 3749
  38. 38. Literature review Tag-based Flash AR 3849
  39. 39. Literature review Mobile augmented reality • 2009 was the turning point for mobile augmented reality • Combined Location Based Service (LBS) • C Capabilities of mobile d i biliti f bil devices hhave i improved d – Built in GPS, Digital Compass, Accelerometers • Wireless communication widely used – Improving positioning – WiFi, 3G 3949
  40. 40. Literature review Nearest Tube station 4049
  41. 41. Methodology Methodology • How can we visualise geo-objects g j Scenarios in ubiquitous environments ? – Augmented reality Data extract Point Line Polygon Text DEM DTM Satellite t Service Models Implementation/ Evaluation 4149
  42. 42. Methodology Scenarios Static Dynamic Indoor Outdoor Virtuality Reality Graphic Text Data Location Data Based Extract Classfication Public Service Participation Models GIS data for d t f AR Cloud Implementation Source Identify Mobile Tag (Location) Position & Mobile Orient Database AR Platform GIS with GIS with AR view AR view 4249
  43. 43. Initial Result GIS ARMap • Library : ARTag (2D tag-based) – 2D rectangles with distinctive p g patterns • 3D data format – 3D objects loaded from WRL (VRML) OBJ (Wavefront (VRML), (Wavefront, Maya), ASE (3D-Studio export) 4349
  44. 44. Initial Result GIS ARMap 4449
  45. 45. Initial Result UCL in Layar • Platform : Layar • Data format: JSON • Information: UCL buildings – Location, Image, Website, Phone Number • Architecture 4549
  46. 46. Initial Result UCL in Layar 4649
  47. 47. Conclusion and Future work Conclusion • Augmented reality in GIS – Promising visualisation method for GIS data – AR supports dynamic (time, location, user interface) geovisualisation – Need to improve positioning/ rendering technology • GIS in Augmented reality – Combine Location Based Service –NNew fi ld with various challenges field ith i h ll – Need to select suitable GIS data for augmented reality 4749
  48. 48. Future work Application Scenario • AR Urban Information System 4849
  49. 49. Future work Future work • New user interface in static situation – FLARTookit 2.0 20 • Image matching – Visual Tag – A l 3D t 2D T Apply to Transformation f ti • Use tags as Ground Control Points (GCPs) • Matching GIS data with real world • Indoor positioning – RFID 4949
  50. 50. Future work Future work 3D 2D Tag GIS With Data Geo ref 3D t 2D to Transformation 2D Screen 5049
  51. 51. Future work 3D to 2D Transformation 5149
  52. 52. Future work Application Scenario • London Olympic 2012 with GIS AR (Olympic 2012 team) Location Based Future Sight Service What’s going on Service 5249
  53. 53. Future work Future work • Data acquisition – POI data related to the Olympics • Stadiums, tourist Information desks, ticket offices, etc. – 3D model of the Olympic buildings • Application Development – 3D data on the Layar platform – Using DBMS with Layar • D Develop more scenarios relating t th L d l i l ti to the London Olympics 5349
  54. 54. Questions and comments? Thank Th k you. 5449