Study on cultural difference in mc clelland's theory of need for achievement


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Study on cultural difference in mc clelland's theory of need for achievement

  1. 1. Study on Cultural Differencein McClellands theory of Need for Achievement ASHISH KULSHRESTHA (30) AMIT HOSLEY(13) GAUTAM JAIN(35) GIRDHARI SARAN(36) ABHISHEK GUPTA(4) SUBMITTED TO PROF. A. PATHAK
  2. 2. Agenda Introduction McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Journal Review Analysis Implication References
  3. 3. Agenda Introduction McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Journal Review Analysis Implication References
  4. 4. Introduction This is a detailed study on Cultural Difference in McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement. The methodology adopted for this purpose is to review several journals that have taken this theory as a basis of their study and attempted to understand the human behaviour.
  5. 5. Agenda Introduction McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Journal Review Analysis Implication References
  6. 6. McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Need for Achievement (N-Ach) refers to an individuals desire for significant accomplishment, mastering of skills, control, or high standards. These include: "intense, prolonged and repeated efforts to accomplish something difficult.
  7. 7. Agenda Introduction McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Journal Review Analysis Implication References
  8. 8. Are Indian Bank Managers Achievement Oriented? 1 Objective  The aim of this study is to throw some light on the distribution of achievement orientation among Indian managers and to determine whether the more achievement-oriented managers among them perform better than their less achievement-oriented counterparts. Review of Literature  McClelland (1966) had found the pattern of achievement motivation to be clearest in people in small companies, with the president normally having very high achievement motivation. In large companies, he found chief executives to be only average in achievement motivation, whereas managers in the upper middle level of management rated higher than their presidents in achievement motivation.  Carland and Carland (1992) observed that achievement-oriented managers can be distinguished from others in terms of objectives and their approaches toward risk- taking, creativity and Proactivity.  Xenikou and Simosi (2006) reported that the personality of achievement-oriented managers reflects assumptions, values and practices on task organisation, goal setting, organisational objectives, experimentation, and an emphasis placed on being effective.
  9. 9. Are Indian Bank ….contd 1 Methodology  The study uses a small sample of 132 managers representing all major regions and metros from highly competitive banking sector. Variable Used: level of achievement- orientation of managers and their performance effectiveness.  In the banking field, the performance targets to be achieved by managers take two major forms: (1) deposits; and (2) advances. Performance data collected, interview done
  10. 10. Are Indian Bank ….contd 1 Findings  Bank managers in general do possess above average levels of achievement orientation in their personality make-up;  The highest performers among them reflect significantly more achievement orientation than their lower performing counterparts.
  11. 11. Entrepreneurial and professional CEOs- Differences in motive and responsibility profile 2 Objective  This paper examines possible differences in motives and responsibility between professional and entrepreneurial CEOs. Review of Literature  At one time, the entrepreneur was depicted largely in negative connotations. The entrepreneurs were seen as “ruthless robber barons who exploited people and resources while rationalizing the necessity of progress” (Sexton and Bowman, 1985, p. 130), as well as “cunning, secretive, with strong exploitive, narcissistic and sadistic- authoritarian tendencies” (Maccoby, 1976 in Sexton and Bowman, 1985, p. 130) and “not remarkably likeable people” (Collins et al., 1964 in Sexton and Bowman, 1985, p. 130).  Since the economists have recognised the vital role of entrepreneurs in economic and social growth, the entrepreneur was considered the catalyst for transforming and improving the economy
  12. 12. Entrepreneurial and ... contd 2 Methodology  The study, is based on a group of Greek CEOs and presents particular interest, because the small and medium-sized enterprises constitute the core of the Hellenic Economy.  A total of 30 entrepreneurial CEOs and an equal number of CEO’s or top managers in larger companies were initially contacted from similar sector. The size of the respondent companies was over 30 employees.  The data were collected through face-to-face structured interviews with the CEO of each company of the sample.
  13. 13. Entrepreneurial and …. 2 Findings: According to the McClelland’s theory, successful leaders show higher levels of power than achievement, but, contrary to this theory, the successful Greek entrepreneurs interviewed under the current study show higher achievement than power motives (sig. 0.002). Moreover, Greek entrepreneurs present high social responsibility, which is comparable to achievement (sig. 0.795) and significantly higher than power (sig. 0.013) With regard to professionals, we observe that in accordance to McClelland’s theory, they score higher in power than in affiliation (sig0.026). However, in contrast to this theory, the power level is not significantly higher than the achievement level. Achievement is more significant for Greek professional CEOs than affiliation (sig. 0.018). Social responsibility is, among the measured characteristics by far the strongest among Greek professionals
  14. 14. Individual Achievement and Family Ties: Some International Comparison 3 Research base: As per McClelland, in underdeveloped countries, traditions of family life are a serious obstacle to economic change. Without exploring so thoroughly the psychology of motive, the mutual obligations of family relationships are held to frustrate the rewards of individual achievement. Research scope: Research Explores how far aspects of family life in developing African cities (Lagos & Nairobi) and developed countries like Britain & US, can be understood as an adaptation to economic chances & Individual achievement. Also includes a few comments on the current debate in America about Negro family structure as a cause of poverty.
  15. 15. Individual Achievement……….. contd 3 In developing countries of Africa, research findings are: Nairobi Lagos Favors offering for Applications for employment from Govt isn’t strong to provide loans or support. Individual relatives are treated like any other, strictly Businessmen in Lagos pay attention to family achievement. on their merits, without favor. obligations. Family and friends are considered trustworthy & priority are given to them. Consumption/ Though they do not favor employing Even if capital for business is funded by Obligation on relatives, they pay for expenses of their family, they are free to spend the profit Individual relatives. wherever they wants. achievements Meaning of Sharing the farm/business is like Relationships carry the obligation to provide Individual achievement unsuccessful economic relationships with economic opportunities; Individual members of their family. One wants to businesses are setup with funding from have his separate share to prove one-self. family only. Sources for setting-up in Nairobi the raising of capital itself While in Lagos there is more scope for platform for individual depends largely on individual enterprise recruiting resources from ones family. achievement and qualification
  16. 16. Individual Achievement……….. contd 3In developed countries like Britain & US research findings are:There are still profound differences between the values of working-class and middle-class families. One sees personal ambition as leading to security and one as damaging.To the middle-class family, security lies in a permanent, well-paid job with a pension, property, and savings, and they plan their childrens careers care-fully to ensure them these advantages. This provide better ground work for individual achievement but family & social ties are not strong.But in working-class families, security comes from loyalty-to ones kinsfolk, to ones neighbors, to ones work-mates. Only by standing together can the hardships of life be met, because the permanent, well-paid, pensionable job is out of reach. So, amongst manual workers, social mobility may be condemned as exploitative and selfish. This proves detrimental for individual achievement.
  17. 17. Individual Achievement……….. contd 3Research finding on “Is Negro family structure as a cause of poverty”:The indifference of Negro children to education, the morbid retreat into drug addiction and crime, and the apparent apathy of Negro Americans towards economic opportunities have been traced to the disruption of family life. Income and living environment, has been low for generations, which results in negligence of parents to motivate their children for education. The self- incompetence handed on from generation to generation. Opportunity is also not enough for them, but wherever a genuine opportunity was created, the response was overwhelming. CONCLUSION :In each of the situations we have looked at, the opportunity to achieve greater economic security can be either through education or entrepreneurship opportunities. In some cases people pursue the opportunity eagerly, and in some they seem to repudiate it and in some they even don’t get such opportunities.There can not be a standard structure to drive this, but a complementing structure of family & social values with opportunities & govt policies, could brighter the chances of greater individual achievements.
  18. 18. STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS OF ACHIEVEMENT AMONG WHITES AND BLACKS IN THE RURAL SOUTH 4 ObjectiveThis paper is based on study of several communities of rural South America. Specifically, two general research questions will guide the reporting of data:(1) How does racial/economic discrimination in the deep, rural South influence the level of achievement motivation and the pro-file of achievement value orientations?(2) Under what conditions are achievement orientations and motives among blacks and whites raised or lowered. Review of LiteratureIndividuals level of achievement motivation and achievement value orientations influence chances for success in the educational and occupational spheres
  19. 19. STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS………………………. Contd 4 Methodology Data on black and white subjects were collected in eight small communities in rural South Carolina having varying economic bases. the entire black and white population of male seventh and eighth graders present at school on a given day was studied. Two tests designed to measure the "achievement syndrome"(1). Thematic Apperception Tests developed by McClelland and his associates This test measures the desire to excel and level of achievement motivation . On a scale of 1 to 16 (low to high).(2). Second test measures three dimensions of achievement value orientations: f amilism-individualism, active-passivism, and present-futurism. 17 question for all orientation & every achievement carries +1Additionally, information is collected on family structure, family members occupation, origin etc
  20. 20. STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS………………………. Contd 4X ACHIEVEMENT SYNDROME SCORES FOR BLACK AND WHITE SUBJECTS BLACKS WHITES Achievement Motivation 2.9 5.1 Achievement Values 8.1 10.7 Individualism 2.6 3.7 Activism 3.2 4.2 Futurism 2.3 2.8 N 195 323PERCENT OF BLACK AND WHITE FATHER’S IN OCCUPATIONAL TYPES Occupational Status of Father % of BLACKS % of WHITES White Collar -- 24.8 Manual Skilled 14.8 56.8 Manual Unskilled 39.7 14.7 Farm Subsistence 45.5 4,1 N 195 323
  21. 21. STRUCTURAL CONDITIONS………………………. Contd 4Research findings: Some very tentative inferences about the structural conditions promoting the emergence of different dimensions of achievement can be made Report reveals significant differences between white and black adolescent males with regard to achievement motives and orientations The pattern of social organization in this area limits opportunities for blacks in the occupational and educational spheres. Achievement motivation appears to be a positive function of fathers economic status for both blacks and whites. But black orientations varied inversely with the skill and status of a fathers position in the occupational hierarchy, whereas white orientations displayed only a middle class-working class difference
  22. 22. Achievement, power and managerial motivation: selecting managerial talent with the job choice exercise 5 Purpose of the paper: The purpose of this paper is to see if the presence of both high nPow and high nAch (as measured by the Job choice exercise) is indicative of high managerial motivation and if the presence of both low nPow and low nAch is indicative of low managerial motivation. Model of the study: Stahl and Harrell developed an innovative decision modelling approach to the measurement of n Ach, n Pow and n Aff, entitled the Job Choice Exercise (JCE).  The JCE requires the subject to make 24 decisions about the attractiveness of hypothetical jobs which are described in nAff, nPow and nAch criteria.  The subjects decisions are regressed on the three criteria with the resultant beta weights being the motive measures. Hypotheses: There is a positive relationship between a higher managerial position and managerial motivation. Managerial motivation is low in blue collar employees and students.
  23. 23. Achievement, power and managerial motivation… contd 5Sample type No. Unique characteristicsManagerial 43 Mid to senior level manager from 3 different firmsBlue collar Employees 25 Employees of a vending machine company, Job type: Hourly and non- supervisoryFraternities presidents 13 PresidentsJunior and senior engineering students 24 Students (Clemson university)Line and staff managers 26 Divisional office of a large computer manufacturing and marketing firmFirst, second, and third level managers 45 A Midwestern plant of a large chemical firmCadets 1417 Air Force Academy
  24. 24. Achievement, power and managerial motivation… Contd 5 There was a higher proportion of subjects with high managerial motivation among the managers than among the non-managers. There was a higher proportion of subjects with high managerial motivation among the fraternity presidents than among the engineering students. Managers with high managerial motivation had higher managerial performance than others. There was a higher proportion of managers with high managerial motivation among the promoted managers than among the non-promoted managers There was a higher proportion of managers with high managerial motivation among the promoted managers than among the non-promoted managers No evidence was found of differences in either high or low managerial motivation between the sexes or between minorities and majorities.
  25. 25. The Effect of Entrepreneurship program on Need for achievement and Locus of Control reinforcement 6Hypothesis The hypothesis to be tested is the following: “The participants in an entrepreneurship program will have a higher level of Need for Achievement, and a higher level of internal Locus of Control of Reinforcement, after the program, than a control group of non- participants.”Procedure: The independent variable:  Two semesters (9 months) entrepreneurship education. The dependent variable:  Point of Need for Achievement  Locus of Control reinforcement
  26. 26. The Effect of Entrepreneurship.. Contd 6 Subject •The population is persons with high school education or equivalent. •The experimental group consisted of people in a one year entrepreneurship program. •The participants were not informed about the purpose of the study. •The demographics of the members of both the groups is shown in the table belowSAMPLE GROUP N ATTRITION N M F AGE 2 YEARS in HS 3 YEARS in HSE (E1+E2) 19 15 4 23.3 6 13E1 11 1 10 8 2 23.6 2 8E2 15 6 9 7 2 23 4 5(CM1+CM2) 51(50) 24(23) 27 21.4 23(22) 28CM1 28 9(10) 19(18) 11(10) 8 18.4 16(15) 3CV2 38 6 32 13 19 23.1 7 25 Reliability •The trustworthiness in the instrument, how it is influenced by chance, participant, environment or experimenter, has been controlled by standardizing the measurement procedure. •All tests have been carried out in a similar milieu, in a group setting, by the same experimenter.
  27. 27. The Effect of Entrepreneurship.. Contd 6The need for 14achievement has 12 10increased in 8 Pre-test 6 Post-testsignificantly 4increased in the 2 0experimental group 2) E1 E2 1 2 ) E2 CM CV CM 1+ 1+ (Eafter the CM E C(entrepreneurialstudy.
  28. 28. The Effect of Entrepreneurship.. Contd 6 14Locus of Control 12 10Reinforcement: 8The locus of control 6 Pre testreinforcement has 4 Post testalso been significantly 2increased in the 0 E (E1+E2) E1 E2 C CM1 CV2experimental group as (CM1+CM2)compared to thecontrol group.
  29. 29. The Effect of Entrepreneurship.. Contd 6 Conclusion  The result of the study constitutes support for the hypothesis that participation in an entrepreneurship program will lead to a higher level of Need for Achievement and increase internal orientation of Locus of Control.  However, generalization has to be made with same caution. The entrepreneurship program (about 36 weeks) could not be regarded as standardized and easily reproducible.  Even if the result shows that the experiment worked, it does not explicitly explain which elements of the program that caused the result. The effect could be a result of pedagogical consideration, but it could be the relationships in the group, or expectations of the program.  Even though it is not possible to isolate the cause of the change, the result is interesting as it clearly indicates that personal characteristics, which are considered to be important for entrepreneurial action, could be affected and that this could be done in a fairly normal educational situation.
  30. 30. Role and impact of culture on South Pacific island Entrepreneurs 7 Objective  The aim of this study is to show that culture accounts for differences between the characteristics of the Pacific island entrepreneurs and the characteristics found in the Western entrepreneurs. Review of Literature  Researchers identified those dimensions that illustrate the impact of culture on the need for achievement among SP island entrepreneurs such as individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity-femininity.  Researchers also indicate that that locus of control, risk taking propensity and achievement motivation are important factors in the decision to start a business. Need for achievement, need for autonomy, dominance, high energy level and persistence are the characteristics of an entrepreneur  Paper demonstrated the moderating influence of cultural dimensions on N- Ach characteristic
  31. 31. Role and impact of culture on South Pacific island Entrepreneurs 7 Methodology  Study and analyze all the dimensions in conceptualization of culture  Identification of characteristics of entrepreneurs globally  Identification of characteristics of entrepreneurs specifically for SP Island  Using McClelland hypothesis, nArch and other characteristics are correlated with entrepreneurial success  Analyze and study the influence of culture on characteristics of SP island entrepreneurs
  32. 32. Role and impact of culture on South Pacific island Entrepreneurs 7 Findings  In SP Islands, the entrepreneur is first and foremost a member of the clan and is required to meet traditional obligations. Success should be measured in terms of whether the entrepreneur has the ability to balance the competing interests of the clan and business  A new set of characteristics in comparison with western cultures would be required to succeed as an entrepreneur in the SP island countries. These characteristics include flexibility, adaptability and ability to operate in the traditional and modern milieus; need for power and status, and the ability to use the extended family and the clan as a bastion against ambiguous situations.
  33. 33. Assessing motivational needs: the case of the school superintendent 8 Objective  The aim of this study is to investigate the motivational profiles of one group of educational administrators – School Superintendents Review of Literature  Researchers used telephone interviews along with JCE to supplement the quantitative findings. A major purpose of the investigation was to examine the plausibility of using the JCE in the educational setting and to determine if verbal responses supported its results.  The job choice exercise provided quantitative data on the motivational profiles of the superintendents  The above activities establishes a friendly relationships with other persons (need for affiliation or n aff), influencing the activities or thoughts of a number of individuals (need for power or n pow), and receiving detailed information about personal performance (need for achievement or n ach)
  34. 34. Assessing motivational needs: the case of the school superintendent 8 Methodology  46 state-level award winners of the 1991 American Association of School Administrators’ National Superintendent of the Year program was sampled  JCE and an informational questionnaire on personal and work backgrounds were mailed to each volunteer  A structured interview schedule which included both closed and open-ended questions was devised, piloted and revised  Respondents’ decisions were regressed on the three criteria with the resultant standardized beta weights being the motive measures. Data from the informational questionnaire facilitated comparisons of our sample with a more representative group of superintendents
  35. 35. Assessing motivational needs: the case of the school superintendent 8 Findings  A high need for power score was exhibited in 89.7 per cent of the cases with the median at the seventieth percentile. Reports defined executive motivation as a high need for power coupled with a low need for affiliation. This high-low contrast was exhibited by 61.5 per cent of the superintendents  A high achievement score was exhibited in 71.8 per cent of the cases and as expected, the lowest of the three needs was affiliation (30.8 per cent)  Low affiliation scores support McClelland comment that “the top manager’s need for power ought to be greater than his need for being liked by people”
  36. 36. Entrepreneurial Environments and the emergence of Achievement Motivation in Adolescent Males 9 Objective  The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the nature of father’s occupation and the level of achievement motivation among sons. Review of Literature  The predominant emphasis in this research has been on family interaction between parents and sons.  The more a father worked with people and the less with things, and the less he was supervised by others and the more autonomy he had at work (i.e. entrepreneurial environment), the more he and his wife would stress achievement, independence and self reliance to their son.
  37. 37. Entrepreneurial Environments and the emergence of Achievement Motivation in Adolescent Males 9 Methodology  Occupations in a number of vastly different communities (transitional, industrial and modern) located in different areas of a southern state of USA were studied.  In each community, the entire seventh and eighth grade male population present at school on a given day was studied. Absenteeism in all cases was under 5%.  Subjects were given an extensive questionnaire on father’s occupation. This questionnaire was designed to reveal a fathers occupational status and his role behavior in that status. Also it was focused primarily to know whether or not father is engaged in entrepreneurial role in his occupation.  Subjects were also administered the Thematic Appreciation Tests developed by McClelland and his associates to measure achievement motivation. These tests were scored in strict accordance with the procedures outlined by McClelland and his associates
  38. 38. Entrepreneurial Environments and the emergence of Achievement Motivation in Adolescent Males 9 Findings  Adolescents with high need-achievement come from homes where fathers engage in entrepreneurial role behavior in their occupation structure.  The above statement is true regardless of whether or such an occupation is middle class or working class, or whether the community where the subject lives is highly modern or traditional.  Fathers in entrepreneurial occupations are seen as having a set of values and psychological dispositions compatible with those socialization practices in the family which will lead to high need for achievement in their sons.
  39. 39. Assessing motivational needs: Need Achievement & Income Growth 1 0 Objective  The objective of this paper is to evaluate the role of the need Achievement variable (nAch) as it effects economic growth Review of Literature  Achievement motivation is an important factor affecting the rate of economic development.  Higher levels of achievement motivation imply a more productive labor force which possesses a certain innovative capacity and which does not shirk technically complex tasks.  The following personality characteristics, obtained from the psychological theory of nAch, make an individual suitable for entrepreneurial occupations: (a) moderate risk taking as a function of skill not chance, decisiveness; (b) energetic and/or novel instrumental activity; (c) individual responsibility; (d) desire for knowledge of results of decision, money as a measure of results; (e) anticipation of future possibilities.
  40. 40. Assessing motivational needs: Need Achievement & Income Growth 1 0 Methodology  Two hypotheses have been constructed in order to examine the links between social levels of nAch and indices of macroeconomic activity.  In the first hypothesis, the effect of achievement motive, nAff and nPwr upon economic development were tested, using gains in electricity production as an index of development  The first hypothesis states that the nAch, nAff, and nPwr levels of a society have a significant effect on its economic performance as measured by the growth of gross domestic product.  In the second hypothesis, the relationship between nAch and the investment activity of the private sector was examined.  The second hypothesis states that entrepreneurial drive, as captured in societal measures of nAch, significantly effects the proportion of total resources allocated to investment in the economy.
  41. 41. Assessing motivational needs: Need Achievement & Income Growth 1 0 Conclusions  Motivational factors play a determining role in the process of economic development through their influence on the behaviour of economic agents.  The predictive powers of the variables used in tests strongly suggest that some of the factors which determine a countrys rate of growth lie outside the boundaries of the economic system as conventionally defined.  The motives discussed in this paper underlie a populations myriad concerns and affect the parameters of economic activity as well as the activity levels of different economic agents
  42. 42. Agenda Introduction McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Journal Review Analysis Implication References
  43. 43. AnalysisObservation Need for achievement in Developed Countries is high in comparison to Developing Countries Need for achievement is driven by the racial/economic discrimination. More the discrimination lower will be Need of achievementSimilarity High nPow and high nAch is indicative of high managerial motivation. Which leads to higher performance and success rate. In case of entrepreneurs, the need for achievement is comparatively more than need for power
  44. 44. AnalysisDifferences - The 3 rules of McClelland theory takes priority within themselves based on type of work, situations, economic situations, or based on cultural differences. Definition of achievement in different cultures is different  Developing countries - the achievement motive is very closely resembled with the overall objective of society and family as compared to developed nations Adolescents with high need-achievement come from homes where fathers engage in entrepreneurial role in their occupation structure In small companies, president normally have very high achievement motivation as compared in large companies, where chief executives have only average achievement motivation As per different job profiles also, there is a difference between nAch and nPow of high level executives
  45. 45. Agenda Introduction McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Journal Review Analysis Implication References
  46. 46. Life Implications In India, there is a clear difference in private sector companies and public sector companies. The need of achievement in public sector is more inclined towards job security as need of achievement. On the other hand, people in private sectors consider monetary benefits as need of achievement. In India , most of the successful businesses are family owned in comparison to corporations in US. This in itself shows the need of achievement in India is driven through family ties. In Indian corporate world, need of Achievement varies person to person. For few people, it is simply “money”, for others, “balance in work life” and so on.
  47. 47. Agenda Introduction McClelland’s Theory of Need for Achievement Journal Review Analysis Implication References
  48. 48. References Journal “Strategic question in Indian banking sector: are Indian bank managers achievement oriented?” - James Thomas Kunnanatt Department of Business Administration, College of Business and Economics,United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Journal “Entrepreneurial and professional CEOs Differences in motive and responsibility profile” - Eleni Apospori, Nancy Papalexandris and Eleanna Galanaki Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece Journal “The role and impact of culture on South Pacific island entrepreneurs” - Kojo Saffu Department of Management, Marketing and HR, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada Journal – “Assessing motivational needs: the case of the school superintendent”- Emilie M. Lonardi Camp Hill School District, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, USA, Donald J. Willower Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA And Paul V. Bredeson University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA Journal – “The effects of an entrepreneurship programme on Need for Achievement and Locus of Control of reinforcement” -Ove C. Hansemark -Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden Journal - “Achievement, power and managerial motivation: selecting managerial talent with the job choice exercise” , MICHAEL J. STAHL,Clemson University Journal – “Individual Achievement and Family Ties: Some International Comparisons”- Peter Marris Journal – “Entrepreneurial Environments and the Emergence of Achievement Motivation in Adolescent Males” - Jonathan H. Turner