PRINCIPLES OF MANGAGEMENTOrganizations have a variety of goals. They usually diresttheir energies and resources to achieve these goals. a profitoriented business firm for example might have a return oninvestment goal a hospital would have goals centeredaround patient care and an educational institution wouldestablish goals for teaching research and social service .Organizations possess human as well as non humanresources that are put to use in the service of specific goals.management is the force that unifies human as well as nonhuman resources in the service of organizational goals . it isprocess of getting results with and through people.
What is management?Management =MAGE +MEN+T(TACTFULLY)It is not easy to define the term management . there are asmany definitions of management as there are books on thesubject .l there are certain genuine reasons for this : (i)Management is a vast subject . it is very extensive . it is, therefore, not possible to put all the essential features ofmanagement in a single formula. (ii) Management isconcerned with human beings, who are behaviorally highlyunpredictable. (III) Management is a young developingdiscipline whose concept are continuously changing. It issmall wonder, writer like Allen remarked , that the manageris one of the great unknowns in the business.
1. Management is the art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. (KOONTZ H)2. Management is a process of planning , organizing , actuating and controlling to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use for people and resources, (TERY G)3. Management is the process by which managers create , direct , maintain and operate purposive organizations .through systematic , coordinated cooperative human effort , (MC.FAFLAND .)4. It is the coordination for all resources through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain stated objectives. For the sake of simplicity and convenience , we can broadly define the term thus: Management is concerned with resources, tasks and goals . it is the process of planning , organizing, staffing, directing and controlling to accomplish organizational objectives through the coordinated use for human and material resources.
MANAGEMENT AS A PROCESSManagement as a process refers to a series of inter relatedfunctions, such as planning , organizing. Staffing. Leading andcontrolling. Actually , managers are known by the work they do.According to JAMES LUNDY , ‘Management is what managementdoes’. Management process suggests that all manger performcertain functions in order to realize certain goals.THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENTManagement , it should be noted , is a social process because it isa social process because it is concerned with relations amongpeople at work . A manager sets the objectives of an organization .he provides and environment . that is helpful to group action. Heoffers incentives to those who show good performance and thushelps the organization realize its goals .
MANAGEMENT AS A GROUP/TEAMTHE TERM ‘MANAGEMENT’ is used to denote the personswho manage the affairs of an organization. Broadexpressions, such as ‘management has declared a lockout’management takes a tough stand against workers’. Often hitnewspaper headlines. When such statements aremade, reference is actually made to the people who managethe affairs of an organization. Thus. As group ofpersons, management includes all those who areresponsible for making decisions and supervising the work ofother.
MANAGEMENT AS A DISCIPLNEAS A DICIPLINE . MANAGEME0NT IS SPECIALISED branchof knowledge which involve the study of certain principlesand practice , over the years , management has emergedas separate field of study . it can be studied, knowledgeabout it obtained and skill in its applications acquired .the old saying managers are born . not made standsdepreciated now. People believe that managerial skillscould be acquired through formal education and training .it is small wonder that many institutes have been set up inIndia with a view to impart management education toprospective manager,.
MANAGEMENT AS AN ACTIVITYManagement refers to a separate class of activities whichare performed by manager. Managerial activity consists ofplanning. Organizing, staffing , directing and controlling .these activities are performed to get the work done withand through people . due to their biological andpsychological limitations, it is difficult for human beings toachieve their objectives all alone. They have to joinorganizations and work toward common goals.