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Usage and consumption pattern of Social Media- Girish.Havale

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"Social Media becoming New trend for the marketers, marketing in such case will increase marketers strength and easier to track customers. Here the research focus on usage and consumption pattern of elements on Facebook, which helps for building strategies and calculation models of ROI of SMM."

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Usage and consumption pattern of Social Media- Girish.Havale

  1. 1. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 1 KARNATAK UNIVERSITY, DHARWAD KOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIESKOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIESKOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIESKOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES SUMMER IN-PLANT PROJECT A report onA report onA report onA report on “The Study on Usage and consumption pattern of Facebook” On Social media marketing for Marketers For partial fulfillment ofFor partial fulfillment ofFor partial fulfillment ofFor partial fulfillment of MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION During the academic yearDuring the academic yearDuring the academic yearDuring the academic year 2012201220122012----11114444 Submitted by: Mr. Girish.P.Havale Registration No: MBA12001013 Submitted to ` EXTERNAL GUIDE: Mr. Avinash.Kulkarni CORPORATE SALES HEAD Tata Motors LTD. MUMBAI INTERNAL GUIDE: Dr. M.S.SUBHAS PROFESSOR IN MANAGEMENT KIMS, DHARWAD
  2. 2. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 2 KARNATAK UNIVERSITY, DHARWAKARNATAK UNIVERSITY, DHARWAKARNATAK UNIVERSITY, DHARWAKARNATAK UNIVERSITY, DHARWADDDD KOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIESKOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIESKOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIESKOUSALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES Dr. A. H. Chachadi Tele / Fax [O]: 91+836+2741882 Dean & Director 91+836+2215305 Professor in Management 91+836+2440011 [R]: 91+836+2742820 Email: dr_ahc@rediffmail.com Ref. No. KU/KIMS/2012-13/ Date: 23.08.2013 CERTIFICATECERTIFICATECERTIFICATECERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. Girish.P.Havale a bonafide student of Kousali Institute of Management Studies, Karnatak University, Dharwad has completed his Summer In-plant Project (SIP) on Social Media Marketing. He has prepared and submitted project assigned to him,entitled “The Study on Usage and Consumption Pattern of Facebook” under my guidance. Dr. M.S.SUBHAS Faculty in Management KIMS, Dharwad
  3. 3. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 3 DECLARATIONDECLARATIONDECLARATIONDECLARATION I Girish.P.Havale, student, MBA 2nd semester, Kousali Institute of Management Studies, Karnatak University, Dharwad, hereby declare that the project work entitled “The Study on Usage and Consumption Pattern Of Facebook” on social media marketing is submitted to Karnatak University, Dharwad in partial fulfillment for the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration. This project report is a bona-fide work prepared by me under the guidance of Dr. M.S.SUBHAS Faculty, Kousali Institute of Management Studies, Karnatak University, Dharwad. The findings and suggestions of this project report are based on the information collected by me during the period of my study. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the matter presented in this report has not been submitted previously in part or full to any university for the award of any degrees. Date: 23/08/2013 Girish.P.Havale Place: Dharwad (MBA12001013)
  4. 4. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTACKNOWLEDGEMENTACKNOWLEDGEMENTACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project report is a result of contribution received from a number of people. This report cannot be claimed as my individual effort. This is to acknowledge all the people who have provided me with the inspiration, guidance & help during the preparation of the project. Therefore I extend my deep sense of gratitude towards those who have contributed. I am extremely grateful to Mr.Avinash.Kulkarni Corporate Sales Head at Tata Motors, MUMBAI, for the support and information provided by them throughout my project duration. I also wish to express my deep sense of gratitude towards Dr. M.S.Subhas Faculty, KIMS, Ashraf Allali,Vishwas Raichur and GeetaPatil Assistant Professors in Management, and all the faculty of Management Department for providing encouragement, guidance and valuable suggestions. Finally I would like to thank all my classmates and friends for their help. Last but not the least; my family has always been a source of motivation and unconditional love, which has helped me to accomplish my project on time. Girish.P.Havale (MBA12001013)
  5. 5. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 5
  6. 6. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 6 ContentsContentsContentsContents Sl. No Particulars Page No. 1 Executive Summary 2 2 Introduction of the study 3 3 Title of the study 5 4 Literature Review 7 5 About organization 15 6 Return on investment on social media marketing 23 7 Objective of the study and Methodology 30 8 Data analysis 37 9 Findings 62 10 Discussion 65 11 Conclusion 66 12 Reference 67
  7. 7. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 7 Executive summary: Social media as “a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user- generated content. Social media differentiates from traditional/industrial media in many aspects such as quality, reach, frequency, usability, immediacy and permanence. Social media marketing refers to the process of gaining website traffic or attention through social media sites. Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share it with their social networks. A corporate message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it appears to come from a trusted, third-party source, as opposed to the brand or company itself. Hence, this form of marketing is driven by word-of-mouth, meaning it results in earned media rather than paid media. Social networks and Facebook have been studied from different perspectives such as the network structure (Caciet al. 2012), characteristics of the users (Bhattacharyyaet al. 2011; Hargittai 2007; Karl et al. 2010), usage patterns (Golder et al. 2007; Lampe et al. 2006), and usage motivations (Joinson 2008; Raacke and Bonds-Raacke 2008), identity management and self-presentation (Labrecque et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2008), social interactions (Kostakos and Venkatanathan 2010; Nazir et al. 2008), and privacy and information disclosure (Debatin et al. 2009; Krasnova et al. 2009). Social media users use the social networks with certain way, the previous study answered the questions like motivation factors of using Facebook, time spent by users on Facebook, who will spend more time on it, when users spend time on social networks. The present study states about usage and consumption pattern of contents and advertisements by users on Facebook. The usage and consumption pattern of Facebook or social media helps marketers to build structure of marketing on Facebook. The research concludes with the findings that Home page, notification, type of Facebook advertisement, updates about brand and type of information’s are the key elements which help marketers to build strategy for social media marketing.
  8. 8. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 8 Introduction Of the study: SOCIAL MEDIA Social media refers to the means of interaction among people in which they create, share, and exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as “a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. Social media differentiates from traditional/industrial media in many aspects such as quality, reach, frequency, usability, immediacy and permanence. Much of the criticism of social media are about its exclusiveness as most sites do not allow the transfer of information from one to another, disparity of information available, issues with trust worthiness and reliability of information presented, concentration, ownership of media content, and the meaning of interaction created by social media. Social network sites (SNSs) provide users with a variety of communication tools. For example, the SNS Facebook allows users to broadcast messages to large audiences using status updates and Wall posts, while also providing features, such as chat, for messages the user wishes to keep private. While the diversity of features available on SNSs allow for equally diverse forms of communication, previous research addressing the motivations for using SNSs have not fully considered the possibility that users may be attending to different features for different reasons. One method for distinguishing among different kinds of Facebook use is offered by the uses and gratifications approach, a traditional mass media framework which enables researchers to study how users select media and content to meet their individual goals (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevich, 1974). In recent years, researchers have applied this approach to Internet use in order to identify a wide range of motivations driving the use of various online sites and services, including SNSs such as MySpace and Facebook (Papacharissi & Mendelson, 2011; Raacke & Bonds-Raacke, 2008). Although previous research has looked at how motivations affect general use of SNSs, often measured as overall time spent on the site, little is known about what motivates users to utilize particular site features. Given the wide range of activities possible on these sites, it is likely users’ motivations for utilizing the various features available will differ. This study explores the user motivations associated with the use of specific features of Facebook, enabling SNS scholar’s tomovebeyond measures of general usage and thus providing insight into the interaction between user motivations and the characteristics of specific features of technical
  9. 9. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 9 systems that support social interaction. Social media marketing: Social media marketing refers to the process of gaining website traffic or attention through social media sites. Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share it with their social networks. A corporate message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it appears to come from a trusted, third-party source, as opposed to the brand or company itself. Hence, this form of marketing is driven by word-of-mouth, meaning it results in earned media rather than paid media. Social media is a platform that is easily accessible to anyone with internet access. Increased communication for organizations fosters brand awareness and often, improved customer service. Additionally, social media serves as a relatively inexpensive platform for organizations to implement marketing campaigns. Understanding Facebook use Early work showed how Facebook was used to connect with previously existing social connections, rather than make new connections (Lampe, Ellison, & Steinfield, 2006). Furthermore, researchers have shown that Facebook provides features that enable these connections (Lampe, Ellison, & Steinfield, 2007) and that the connections that aremadereflect similar closeness of ties between online and offline ties (Gilbert & Karahalios, 2009). However, central to the focus of this study, researchers have shown how Facebook use varies among users (Burke, Kraut, & Marlow, 2011; Ellison, Stein field, & Lampe, in press; Lampe, Ellison, & Stein field, 2008). For example, users differ on measures of social capital and loneliness depending on whether they use the site actively or passively (Burke, Marlow, & Lento, 2010). Research suggests that status updates can support offline student interactions (Backhaus & Tashiro, 2010), be used to answer questions posed to the social network (Morris, Teevan, & Panovich, 2010), or can be mined to describe geographic ‘‘happiness’’ levels (Kramer, 2010). Other work examines differences in the use of SNSs in the workplace (DiMicco et al., 208; Skeels & Grudin, 2009). Additionally, research has found that the manner in which people use Facebook changes over time (Lampe et al., 2008). Taken
  10. 10. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 10 together, this literature shows that Facebook can support a wide range of social activities. Given the heterogeneous nature of these sites, and the diversity of users of these sites, it is likely that different users come to Facebook for different reasons and that these reasons may be associated with different types of use, such as connecting with strangers or interacting only with close friends. Title of the study: Usage and consumption pattern of social media: Social networks and Facebook have been studied from different perspectives such as the network structure (Caciet al. 2012), characteristics of the users (Bhattacharyyaet al. 2011; Hargittai 2007; Karl et al. 2010), usage patterns (Golder et al. 2007; Lampe et al. 2006), and usage motivations (Joinson 2008; Raacke and Bonds-Raacke 2008), identity management and self-presentation (Labrecque et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2008), social interactions (Kostakos and Venkatanathan 2010; Nazir et al. 2008), and privacy and information disclosure (Debatin et al. 2009; Krasnova et al. 2009). One of the early definitions of engagement within brand communities refers to it as ‘‘consumer’s intrinsic motivation to interact and cooperate with community members’’ (Algesheimer et al. 2005). Since then, the term has been increasingly used in the marketing literature, and different context-depended definitions were provided. While certain interpretations focus on the cognitive and emotional aspects of engagement (Bowden 2009), others refer to the concept of engagement primarily as a specific activity type or pattern, beyond purchase, resulting from motivational drivers (Van Doorn et al. 2010). On online platforms, this form of engagement is commonly referred to as online engagement and is addressed from the perspective of measuring undertaken actions, such as the click-through rates (CTR), page views, etc., with different measures being applied depending on the possibilities offered by the platform (Lehmann et al. 2012).
  11. 11. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 11 What is User Generated Content? User Generated Content (UGC), also known as consumer-generated media (CGM), refers to any material created and uploaded to the Internet by non-media professionals, whether it’s a comment left on Amazon.com, a professional-quality video uploaded to YouTube, or a student’s profile on Facebook. UGC has been around in one form or another since the earliest days of the Internet itself. But in the past five years, thanks to the growing availability of high-speed Internet access and search technology, it has become one of the dominant forms of global media. It is currently one of the fastest growing forms of content on the Internet. UGC is fundamentally altering how audiences interact with the Internet, and how advertisers reach those audiences. In 2006, UGC sites attracted 69 million users in the United States alone, and in 2007 generated $1 billion in advertising revenue. By 2011, UGC sites are projected to attract 101 million users in the U.S. and earn $4.3 billion in ad revenue1. Still, obstacles remain that prevent advertisers from taking advantage of this dynamic new medium. History Early Forms of UGC UGC has been a staple of the peer-to-peer experience since the dawn of the digital age. The earliest forms arrived in 1980 with Usenet, a global discussion network that allowed users to share comments and experiences of a given topic. The late 1990s saw the rise of “ratings sites,” which allowed users to rate subjects based on any number of criteria, from physical appearance (ratemyface.com and hotornot.com) to professional competence (ratemyprofessors.com). These spread quickly across the Internet, and brought with them controversy over the impact they could have on the lives of private people often unwittingly exposed to public scrutiny. Such controversies have increased as UGC sites have become more common and influential. Another early form of UGC are forums; areas within content websites that allow readers to communicate with each other around topics related to the content. Even in this era dominated by social media sites, forums continue to be robust, controlled areas of user content.
  12. 12. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 12 Literature review: Facebook Facebook Pages (popularly known as ‘Fan Pages’) are a starting point for businesses wanting to connect to millions of potential and existing customers on Facebook. A Page allows brands to disseminate marketing and service information fast and lets customers interact directly with stake holders. Pages are also an important component of Facebook’s own revenue model[i] as 89% of Facebook’s total revenues come from brands advertising on the platform and Facebook attracts brands through pages. The users use frequently the Facebook but there are some patters which tell how frequently they use Facebook pages Facebook is the social media networking website where one can create profile to communicate by using user generated contents with others. Facebook is a social networking site (SNS), which provides users with a platform to create a personal profile page, add ‘friends’, and send messages. Since the company was founded in 2004, it has become the top ranked social networking site (Kazeniac, 2009). According to Facebook Statistics (2009), there are over 300 million current active users (i.e. users that have logged-on in the past 30 days). Facebook users have claimed the site a “necessity, along the lines of oxygen, water, and food” (Verna, 2009). For many people, visiting Facebook has become an integral part of their daily lives, and has even caused some to have an unhealthy obsession with the site. According to Elizabeth Cohen (2009), a CNN medical correspondent, therapists are seeing more and more “Facebook addicts,” who become compulsive Facebook users to the point where the site interferes with relationships, jobs, and normal daily life. The site has transformed social communication in the 21st century, with Facebook and other SNS reaching hundreds of millions of people across the globe.
  13. 13. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 13 Features and Advertising Facebook continues to add new features and developments on a consistent basis. Since it is free to create an account, Facebook has to generate its revenue elsewhere, through a venue such as advertising. Companies can utilize Facebook’s features to reach their audiences in different ways. Gangadharbatla (2009) states that SNS are changing the way advertisers reach consumers, and that these changes are transforming online advertising all together. There are a variety of ways to use Facebook, and the different features allow creativity and experimentation in advertising. For instance, when users log-on, they are taken to a homep- age called a “News Feed” which highlights recent activities from other users. Each Facebook account also includes a personal profile page, a “Wall” to write public messages to other users, Facebook-generated applications (photos, events, groups, video, notes, and links), and an inbox to write private messages to other users. Facebook as a platform for social media marketing the selection of Facebook as an underlying platform was based on the reasoning that Facebook is currently the largest and fastest growing SN (Alexa 2012). In addition, according to the findings from a recent market research (Hubspot 2011), Facebook is considered by the companies as the most attractive social media platform to be used for marketing, in particular for B2C businesses. Facebook provides five possibilities for companies to utilize the platform for marketing purposes: (1) Facebook Ads, (2) Facebook Brand Pages, (3) Social Plugins, (4) Facebook Applications, and (5) Sponsored Stories (Facebook 2012b). Of these, Facebook pages provide the largest number of engagement possibilities by direct interaction with the consumers through dialog. In order to define the terminology, we will describe the concepts used in this paper based on the current definitions from Facebook (Facebook 2012c). Although like page is the official name for all Facebook pages which are not user profile pages, we will use the common terminology brand page (Richter et al. 2011) to distinguish pages created and operated by brand owners. The content shared on brand pages is referred to as posts and appears on the central part of the page, known as the wall or timeline. Each page might have one or more administrators responsible for creation and deletion of content, i.e., the page moderator. A brand page can have any number of members, in the continuation referred to as users or fans. Within a Facebook brand page, fans can engagewith a company by (1) posting content on the wall (depending on the communication policy set by the company), (2)
  14. 14. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 14 commenting on the existing post shared by the moderator, (3) indicating interest in an existing post by pressing the ‘‘like’’ button, i.e., liking, and (4) sharing the post on their profile wall. Post media type Post media type corresponds to the actual sharing action undertaken by the page moderator within a Facebook page. At the time of writing, Facebook offers the possibility to share (1) status, (2) photo, (3) video, and (4) link. These media types represent different level of media richness which is commonly referred to as vividness of online content (Daft and Lengel 1986). Moreover, different media types exhibit different levels of interactivity, expressed through the degree to which users can influence the form and content of the media environment (Steuer 1992). Few Evidence suggests that “ad likeability” (LA) a better predictor of sales than many other measures (ie recall, persuasion, etc) (Cramphorn 1992, Haley and Baldinger 1991, Polsfuss and Hess 1991, Spaeth, et al. 1990, Thorson 1991). Based on analysis of a considerable database it has been suggested that both LA (measured as enjoyment) and branding are critical to successful communication (Hollis 1995). And while Gallup & Robinson found LA to be positively correlated with Brand Rating (Greene 1992), other research found little evidence for LA contributing to registration of the brand name (Walker and Dubitsky 1994). Online social networks have gained an enormous influence among the global population over the last years. There are several types of these web applications, each with its own purpose, such as Facebook for personal relations, Youtube for sharing videos or Twitter to exchange text messages. Such is the speed and facility that provides these communication tools, that it is indeed revolutionizing marketing techniques, cultural events, political activism and emergencies management. An important fact of these technologies is that they provide an enormous amount of user generated data which may be collected and analyzed, bringing lots of opportunities for human behavior research. In this context Twitter introduces itself as a fast information diffusion network that allows people to be informed about ongoing events in real time and to interact with other users. There are several usage motivations for this network, but lately it has been used as a platform for social collective emergence and coordination, like the Arab Spring, where it played an important role in the event’s development. As a result, Twitter is allowing people to become an active part in ongoing stories, leaving behind the passivity associated to radio, television or press. For researchers it is an opportunity to analyze the social structures that emerge from the users’ relations and, because actions are usually time stamped, it also allows to study social dynamics, like
  15. 15. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 15 influence dynamics, communities interactions and prediction of information cascades. Since Facebook first burst upon the virtual scene in 2004, it has become the pre-eminent social networking site (SNS) on the internet (Anderson, Fagan, Woodnutt, & Chamorro- Premuzic, 2012). As of 2011, Facebook had 800 million active users, more than 50% of whom logged onto the site on any given day (Facebook.com, 2011). It is no surprise that social psychologists have flocked to this exciting new arena of social behavior with hypotheses and methodologies in tow, hoping to discover how human social interaction plays out in this ecological niche of cyberspace (Wilson, Gosling, & Graham, 2012). Facebook activity has puzzling and contradictory effects on social interaction. It apparently satisfies many of our interpersonal intimacy needs, but at the same time it diverts us from genuine face-to-face interaction with others (Sheldon, Abad, & Hinsch,2011), and as the use of social networking sites has increased, the use of other electronic media such as email has declined (Judd, 2010). Most studies indicate that Facebook users perceive their online time as an extension of, rather than a substitute for, face-toface interaction (Cheung, Chiu, & Lee, 2011; Kujath, 2011), and users do not report that the community that they experience online is as satisfying as the relationships that they have in ‘‘real life’’ (Reich, 2010). Nevertheless, there has been concern that excessive Facebook use can have negative effects on wellbeing (Tanner, 2011). Studies indicate that Facebook usage is a good behavioral measure of social integration among college students (Kalpidou, Costin, & Morris, 2011; Morris, Reese, Beck, & Mattis, 2009), and belonging to online friendship networks can be associated with higher life satisfaction and positive feelings under the right circumstances (Seder & Oishi, 2009). Individuals who are shy or low in self-esteem clearly recognize the potential of Facebook as a vehicle for increasing social connection, but it is unclear at this time if they benefit from access to online friendship networks (Ellison, Steinfeld, & Lampe,2007; Forest & Wood, 2012; Orr et al., 2009; Valkenburg, Peter, & Schouten, 2006).These generally desirable effects may occur because the self-presentation that goes on when one presents one’s self to the world on Facebook can have a positive influence on self-esteem by increasing self- awareness of positive traits and characteristics and decreasing awareness of negative things (Gonzales & Hancock, 2011; Harris, Houston, & Wilson, 2011). On the downside, there is evidence that more time on Facebook is correlated with more frequent episodes of jealousy related feelings and behaviors, especially among women (Muise, Christofides, & Desmarais, 2009). There are multiple motivations for using Facebook; we search for social information
  16. 16. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 16 about others, entertain ourselves, interact with friends, and use our Facebook page as an avenue of selfexpression (Baek, Holton, Harp, & Yaschur, 2011; Park, Kee, & Valenzuela, 2009; Wise, Alhabash, & Park, 2010). Younger people join Facebook to connect with friends, and their parents often join to monitor the behavior of their teenagers (Brandtzaeg, Lüders, & Skjetne, 2010; Cheung et al., 2011). Once the parents get hooked, however, they begin to use Facebook more like their children do, although the kids engage in a wider range of activities (such as chatting and messaging) than do their parents (Brandtzaeg et al., 2010). The intrusion of parents into the Facebook world of their children is not always welcomed. Even though Facebook pages are public, they are often perceived as private by teens who do not want to have their p rents as ‘‘friends’’ (West, Lewis, & Currie, 2009). There is some debate about the extent to which Facebook usage is about impression management and the expression of identity as opposed to merely being about social interaction. Since Facebook can be a way of publicly expressing ‘‘the hoped for possible self’’ (Mehdizadeh, 2010) [p. 358], some researchers believe that impression management is the most important reason for havin a Facebook page (Krämer & Winter, 2008). It is certainly true that virtual impression management takes place and that it can be effective. People are more likely to initiate friendships with individuals displaying attractive profile pictures (Wang, Moon, Kwon, Evans, & Stefanone, 2010), and even trivial manipulations in the photos can have desirable (or undesirable) effects. For example, Tifferet, Gaziel, and Baram (2011) found that women responded more favorably to friend requests from a man with a profile picture of himself holding a guitar vs. a request from the same man pictured without a guitar, and the aforementioned study by Wang et al. (2010) found that displaying no picture at all is preferable to displaying an unattractive photo. Walther, Van Der Heide, Kim, Westerman, and Tong (2008) even found that we are judged by the attractiveness of our friends’ photographs on Facebook! Be that as it may, studies designed to test the hypothesis that Facebook usage is primarily about impression management have concluded that this is not usually the case. Back et al. (2010) and Buss (2012) discovered that Facebook portrayals of individuals tend to be accurate reflections of their personality rather than idealized versions of themselves, and when Pempek, Yermolayeva, and Calvert (2009) had 92 undergraduates keep a diary of their Facebook usage for 1 week, it was clear that their Facebook time was primarily about social interaction and less about the expression of identity. The fact that extraverts show more Facebook activity than introverts (Gosling, Augustine, Vazire, Holtzman, & Gaddis, 2011) offers additional evidence that Facebook usage is heavily driven
  17. 17. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 17 by a desire for social interaction. Narcissism may be the one personality trait that identifies those who may be inclined to use Facebook for self-aggrandizement, a narcissism is positively related to the frequency of Facebook activities such as checking one’s own page, updating one’s status, and posting self-promotional notes and photographs (Mehdizadeh, 2010; Ong et al., 2011). In a study by Buffardi and Campbell (2008), volunteers had their Facebook profiles objectively analyzed and subjectively rated by others. They also filled out a narcissism scale. Narcissism was positively related to the attractiveness and sexiness of the photos that were posted as well as with the posting of self-promotional quotes and personal information. Buffardi and Campbell also found that observers could accurately estimate the level of a Facebook Page owner’s narcissism. Aside from narcissism, little is known about how useful personality is for predicting Facebook use, with opinions among researchers ranging from it being quite useful (Carpenter, Green, & LaFlam, 2011; Gosling et al., 2011) to being not very useful at all (Ross et al., 2009). Given all of the research that has been done to date, we still know surprisingly little about demographic influences on Facebook use. Young people disclose more personal information than older people (Christofides, Muise, & Desmarais, 2009, 2012), and people seeking relationships disclose more personal information than people who are not actively seeking a new relationship (Nosco, Wood, & Molema, 2010). The sex of the Facebook owner is a particularly promising yet understudied variable. Stefanone, Lackaff, and Rosen (2011) found that women have larger Facebook networks than men, and Walker, Cohen, and Sibbald (2008) found that women are more likely than men to introduce topics on Facebook that could lead to gossip about themselves. Beyond these few promising tidbits, however, we do not know much. Most previous studies have focused on why people use Facebook and on the effects of ‘‘face booking’’ on the wellbeing of Facebook users. Similarly, it is well replicated that men and women have very different mating strategies and preferences, with men seeking attractiveness, youth, and fertility in mates while advertising their own status, achievement, and access to resources; women show the opposite pattern (Buss, 1989a, 1989b; Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Geary, 2010). These findings, combined with behaviors one would reasonably expect from a person’s relationship status, suggest the following predictions: 1. Everyone will spend more time looking at the Facebook pages of people about the same age as themselves. However, to the extent that this interest is driven by the social comparison needs described above, older people should be under less pressure to
  18. 18. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 18 do so and will exhibit less interest in same-sex peers and more interest in family. 2. There will be more interest in looking at the pages of same sex others vs. opposite sex others, and this tendency will be even stronger in females than in males. 3. Because of the greater emphasis placed on the physical appearance of women, Females, compared to males, will spend more time on activities related to impression management with their profile pictures. 4. Related to the prediction above, females will also spend more time looking at the photos of other people. 5. Males, compared to females, will spend more time looking at items on the pages of others’ that reflect an individual’s status or prestige: Educational background, work/career information, and number of Facebook friends. 6. People not currently in a relationship, compared to those who are currently in a relationship, will spend less time looking at the pages of same-sex others (On the assumption, of course, that the majority of our sample was heterosexual). 7. People not currently in a relationship will expend more effort at impression management via their Facebook profile pictures than those in a committed relationship.( Francis T. McAndrew ⇑, Hye Sun Jeong) The previous studies answered the questions why people use the Facebook? How much time they spent on it? , who will spent more time on Facebook? , why users keep on updating their Facebook account? , Motivation factors for using Facebook? , what do people do on Facebook? According to studies found that youngsters use social network sites for the creation and the maintenance of friendships Lenhart and Madden (2007), Khan (2009) found that 65 percent of Facebook users accessed their account daily in several times to see if they had received new messages Khan (2009). Male students though spend more time on internet browsing as compared to female students but female students spend more time on the Facebook (Ahsan ul Haq & Sohail Chand, Pempek). Ahmet Selman Bozkır, Sacide Güzin Mazman, Ebru Akçapınar Sezer Hacettepe University stated that the most likely time for the majority of students to log on was during the evening hours from 9:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. According to Nazan Doruer, Pek Menevi Ramadan Eyyam it is found that motivation for using Facebook are Passing Time, Information Seeking, Personal Status, Relation Maintenance, Entertainment. User use Facebook about 22 times per week, spending about 30 min per visit (Namkee Park a, Seungyoon Lee, Jang Hyun Kim c).the degree of usage is accordance with Keeping in contact, Reactivating lost contacts, Managing the existing network Online address booking, Communicating with contacts, Visibility and self-
  19. 19. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 19 representation, Job and applicant search (Schaefer, Cora, University of Karlsruhe). According to Tracii Ryan, Sophia Xenos one of the note-worthy findings is that the lonely person use more comparing to other users. It is found that users us Facebook to update their status, to comment on other users, to indicate others likes, to send private messages (Keith Hampton, Lauren Sessions Goulet, Lee Rainie, Kristen Purcell). According to Frank reed people like brands on Facebook to support the brand, to get the discount, to receive updates of brands, participate in contest, share personal experience, to search specific product, to see brand ads, due to recommendation of others. The previous study did not mentioned the usage patterns of contents and how the ads consumed by the users and there is a gap of consumption and usage pattern of the users of the page and the news feed. Our study concentrates on these gaps and we are going to bring relation with the social media marketing.
  20. 20. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 20 About Organization A Brief History of the Facebook In February 2004, Mark Zuckerberg, with the help of Andrew McCollum and Eduardo Saverin, launched a website that would change online social interaction forever. The Facebook started on the campus of Harvard University, where the three friends were students, Zuckerberg being a psychology major of all things. Within 24 hours of going live, The Facebook was a community of 1200 Harvard University students. The Facebook buzz grew on the Harvard campus and within weeks students from Stanford and Yale wanted in. The network was extended and by April 2004, The Facebook was available on all Ivy League servers. But Zuckerberg needed help to grow his little social networking site that could. He would not stop until The Facebook had been installed on all university campuses in America. In May 2004, only 4 months after The Facebook was born, he dropped out of Harvard and moved to Silicon Valley with McCollum and Dustin Moskovitz. In September 2004, they secured venture capital from PayPal founder Peter Thiel. The $500,000 investment was a start, but Zuckerberg and friends had big plans for The Facebook. Seeing the potential value in The Facebook, Jim Breyer and Accel Partners ponied up $12.7 million to assist Zuckerberg in the expansion of his virtual empire. Jim Breyer is an interesting character with many high level connections. He served as chair for the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA) with Gilman Louie, who also happened to be CEO of QTel, a CIA established venture capital firm. Breyer also currently sits on the Board of Directors of WalMart Stores Inc, in the capacity of Lead / Presiding Independent Director, and Chairman of the Strategic Planning and Finance Committee. But wait, it gets better. Breyer also sits on the Board of BBN Technologies along with Anita Jones, who, along with Louie, sat on the Board of Directors of QTel. Previous to entering the private sector, Jones, interestingly enough held the position of Director of Defense Research and Engineering for the U.S. Department of Defense where she was an advisor to the Secretary of Defense and oversaw the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It should be no surprise then, that BBN Technologies has had many research and development contracts with the National Security Agency (NSA) and DARPA. BBN Technologies has been around for a while, since 1948 in fact, if their corporate timeline is to be believed as accurate. In 1969, BBN Technologies launched ARPANET, the first version of the modern day Internet. In 1982, BBN Technologies “won the contract to build and operate the worldwide Defense Data Network for the Department of
  21. 21. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 21 Defense” and in 1984, they developed the data encryption standards for the NSA, DARPA and the Air Force. Since then, they’ve worked on a number of military and defense projects, as well as educational and voice recognition software, they’ve won awards from NASA and are, generally, the company that provides the technology and support which powers the Internet. Among other things, they currently offer data mining solutions boasting, “There has never been so much information available so easily.” And with a $13 million investment in the fastest growing Social Networking Site online, they are probably quite right. So by October 2004, Zuckerberg had the money, the manpower, and the institutional backing to go global. Betatesting continued on within the American University population for the next year, and in August 2005, The Facebook dropped the “The” and Facebook.com was registered for $200,000. The network opened up, and within months anyone with a valid institutional email address from over 30,000 organizations across the planet were eligible for membership, including high school students, government employees and the corporate community. In September 2006, Facebook expanded once again. Now anyone with a valid email address could sign up and populate their profile with their stats, and signup they did. Even after a bit of bad press with the introduction of the “News Feed” feature, which was labeled intrusive and viewed as a violation of privacy by many of its longtime users, membership continued to grow. In fact, between May 2006 and May 2007 Facebook traffic grew by an astonishing 89%. Facebook remained a closed network until May 2007, when Zuckerberg announced that Facebook was to become the “social operating system for the Internet.” Up until that time, the Facebook platform was for Facebook alone, but now, users could integrate all of their Internet activities into their single Facebook profile. Developers quickly started to build applications for all the popular sites and users started adding them in an effort streamline their virtual identities. Flickr, MySpace, iTunes, YouTube, del.ici.ous, and Digg had official apps, and users started creating unofficial apps for these sites as well. Plus there was a whole host of independent developers creating quizzes, games, friend organizers and a variety of profile customization apps like virtual gardens and profile picture sketches. CatBook and DogBook allowed users to create profiles for their pets to network with their friend’s pets, and Human Pets allowed users to become pets themselves for other users. The next step for Facebook was direct advertising. In August 2007 Facebook announced that it was looking to “translate its popularity into bigger profits” by offering advertisersdirect access to their targeted demographic consumers. Indeed, Zuckerberg and Co. were certainly within their right to exploit the popularity of the phenomena, why not? What’s the point of offering the
  22. 22. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 22 service and collecting all this data if it can’t be used towards lining the company’s shareholders pockets? And if Facebook isn’t a massive Homeland Security Database, as some have speculated, advertising is all they got. As a Wall Street Journal article put it, “While the Web site had roughly 30.6 million visitors in July, the company says it needs to do a better job profiting from its huge user base.” And through it all, Zuckerberg still plays the role of the dotcom darling, presenting Facebook as a little independent startup who is holding out against the big corporate bullies like Viacom and Yahoo, despite its ties to Accel and Silicon Valley’s corporate elite. What is Facebook? Founded in February 2004, Facebook is a social network that helps people ommunicate more efficiently with their friends, family, coworkers and acquaintances. The company develops technologies that facilitate the sharing of information through the digital mapping of people’s real-world social connections. Anyone can sign up for Facebook, and in fact, 400 million people are on Facebook. The average user spends more than 55 minutes per day on Facebook. So, what are these users doing for 55 minutes per day? More importantly, how can conservative activists use this network to find like-minded activists and organize around a cause digitally? We’re going to tell you, so read on! Who started Facebook? Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook with his college roommates and fellow computer science students Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes while he was a student at Harvard University. The website’s membership was initially limited to Harvard students, but it later expanded further to include any university student. In late 2005, it was open to high school students, and finally, in 2006, Facebook became available to anyone aged 13 and over with a valid e-mail address. Facebook was once only available through a computer, however; in 2006 applications became available that make Facebook available through mobile phones, PDAs, iPods and other mp3 devices. There are more than 65 million active users currently accessing Facebook through their mobile devices.
  23. 23. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 23 Components of Social Media There are a number of important characteristics that set social media apart from any other sort of traditional media or online content: • User generated content: The days of visiting a website and merely reading content written by someone else are all but gone. Now we are all participants, authors and content creators. Even commenting on a blog or replying to someone publicly becomes this is what is known as Web 2.0. • Conversation: this is not a one-way medium. Anything anyone posts via social media has the potential to start a conversation. And with technologies such as Twitter, you can be part of this ever-evolving 24/7 conversation, with the ability to jump in and out whenever you feel like it. As in real life, you may contribute as little or as much as you like, thereby shaping the conversation. • Build and maintain relationships: Through social media you can keep in touch with existing friends, and even find new friends based on shared interests. From a business perspective, this includes current and potential clients. You can reconnect with old friends and maintain existing relationships on a daily basis. • Communication: For many of us, gone are the days of writing letters or picking up the phone. I can communicate with my friends via email, text messaging, or through our Facebook or Twitter accounts. I can even share information or make contact with multiple people all at the same time. • Information sharing: If I find something in the newspaper or online, or somewhere else that I find interesting, I now have the ability to share with a lot of people at the same time. Old-school methods required photocopying and hand distributing. New methods allow me to tweet a link to hundreds or thousands of people at a time. • Community/Consumer focused: while most media is product or company focused, social media is about building community and functions as such. The members (both consumer AND company/organization) are participants in the community. It is the community that dictates the shape and scope of the content.
  24. 24. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 24 Facebook structure News feed: The new layout, by contrast, created an alternative home page in which users saw a constantly updated list of their friends' Facebook activity. News Feed highlights information that includes profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays, among other updates. This has enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause Timeline: Timeline is the new virtual space in which all the content of Facebook users will be organized and shown Wall: The Wall is the original profile space where Facebook users' content. It allows the posting of messages, often short or temporal notes, for the user to see while displaying the time and date the message was written. A user's Wall is visible to anyone with the ability to see his or her full profile, and friends' Wall posts appear in the user's News Feed. Like: Described by Facebook as a way to "give positive feedback and connect with things you care about", users can "like" status updates, comments, photos, and links posted by their friends, as well as adverts, by clicking the "Like" button at the bottom of the content. This makes the content appear in their friends' News feeds. Messages and inbox: Since the website's founding, it has allowed users to send messages to each other. A Facebook user can send a message to any number of his/her friends at a time. Deleting a message from one's inbox does not delete it from the inbox of other users, thus disabling a sender to redo a message sent by him or her. Notification: Notifications are what inform the user that an addition has been added to his or her profile page. Examples of common notifications include: a message being shared on the user's wall or a comment on a picture of the user or on a picture that the user has previously commented on.
  25. 25. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 25 Network: Facebook networks can encompass a single broad regional area, a single company or organization, or any other large grouping. It is not used for posting items or issuing messages. Rather any users who join a network will be directed to affiliate with other users within that network. Groups: Facebook Groups can be created by individual users. Groups allow members to post items such as links, events, and notes, and to share or to upload files. Groups are used for discussions, events, etc. and are a way of enabling a number of people to come together online to share information and discuss specific subjects. They are increasingly used by clubs, companies and public sector organizations to engage with stakeholders, be they members of the public, employees, members, service users, shareholders or customers. A group includes but is not limited to the following: the members who have joined, recent news contents, wall contents, photos, posted items, videos and all associated comments of such items. In this respect, groups are similar to Facebook pages (below) but contain a different set of features. Facebook users cannot join more than 300 groups. Pages: Facebook users can create pages allowing fans of an individual, organization, product, service, or concept to like or subscribe to the page posts and updates. Pages look and behave much like a user's personal private profile, but they are also integrated with Facebook's advertising system, allowing owners to easily advertise to Facebook's users. Owners (admins) can send updates to their fans, and they also have access to insights and analytics of their fan base. APPLICATIONS Events: Facebook events are a way for members to let friends know about upcoming events in their community and to organize social gatherings. Events require an event name, network, host name, event type, start time, location, and a guest list of friends invited. Events can be public or private. Private events cannot be found in searches and are by invitation only. People who have not been invited cannot view a Private event's description, Wall or photos. They also will not see any Feed stories about the event. When setting up an event the user can choose to allow friends to upload photos or videos. Note that unlike real world events, all events are treated as separate entities (when the reality is some events sit inside other events, going to one event would preclude going to another, and so on).
  26. 26. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 26 Marketplace: Facebook Marketplace allowing users to post free classified ads within the following categories: For Sale, Housing, Jobs, and Other. Ads can be posted in either available or wanted format. The market place is available for all Facebook users and is currently free. Notes: Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22, 2006, a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable images. Places: It is a feature that lets users "check in" to Facebook using a mobile device to let a user's friends know where they are at the moment. Platform: The Facebook Platform provides a set of APIs and tools which enable third-party developers to integrate with the "open graph", whether through applications on Facebook.com or external websites and devices Questions: Facebook announced that its new product, Facebook Questions, facilitates short, poll-like answers in addition to long-form responses, and also links directly to relevant items in Facebook's directory of "fan pages". Photos: One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application, where users can upload albums of photos, tag friends helped by face recognition technology, and comment on photos. Videos: Users can add their videos with the service by uploading video, adding video through Facebook Mobile, and using a webcam recording feature. Additionally, users can "tag" their friends in videos they add much like the way users can tag their friends in photos, except the location of the friend in the video is not displayed.
  27. 27. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 27 Facebook Ads Advertisements on Facebook. Users can create Facebook Ads to market their products and ideas. Ads are not free. Ad spending is in the form of Pay-Per-Click (PPC) or Cost-Per- Thousand-Impressions (CPM). Page post metrics: You can see how many people your post reached, how many people engaged with it and how many people talked about it with their friends. Learn more about: Facebook engagement: Facebook engagement measures how fans and Facebook users interact with brand posts and pages. Engaged user: Engaged Users is the number of people who have clicked anywhere on your post. People talking about this: People Talking About This is the number of people who have created a story from your Page post. Stories include: • Sharing, liking or commenting on your post • Answering a question • Responding to an event • Claiming an offer Reach: Reach is the number of people who have seen your post. Figures are for the first 28 days after a post's publication and include people viewing your post on both desktop and mobile. Your post counts as having reached someone when it is loaded and shown in News Feed. • Organic reach: The number of unique people who saw your post in News Feed, ticker or on your Page. • Paid reach: The number of unique people who saw this post through an ad. • Viral reach: The number of unique people who saw this post from a story published by a friend. These stories can include liking, commenting or sharing your post, answering a question or responding to an event
  28. 28. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 28 Virility: Virility is the number of people who have created a story from your post as a percentage of the number of people who have seen it. Return on investment on social media marketing DEFINITION OF ROI A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. To calculate ROI, the benefit (return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment; the result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio. The return on investment formula: For a single-period review divide the return (net profit) by the resources that were committed (investment): Return on investment (%) = (Net profit / Investment) × 100 Return on Marketing Investment (ROMI) = [(Incremental Revenue Attributable to Marketing * Contribution Margin (%)) - Marketing Spending ] / Marketing Spending Contribution margin is the marginal profit per unit sale
  29. 29. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 29 Theories of ROI According to Connie benson Attributes that are used to measure ROI are as follows 1. Attention: time on website 2. Interaction: click, comment, share 3. Conversation index: ratio between blog post and comments + trackbacks 4. Velocity = distance/ time( rate of how fast your message is travelling in a given time) 5. Sentiment: tone, opinion 6. Qualitative= what did they say 7. Impacts=what did they do(influencers) Comparison of traditional marketing and new approaches, incorporating SM TRADITIONAL MARKETING NEW APPROACHES, INCORPORATING SOCIAL MEDIA Interruption and coercion: getting prospects to stop and pay attention Thinking like a journalist and thought leader, making buyer want to consume Advertising to me. Expensive one way massages: press, TV Media chosen to target segments Developing relation Wide and broad, ineffective unless product has wide appeal/ mass distribution option Provide the means for customers to solve their problems Advertising and branding trust in advertising- exclusively about selling Centered on interaction. Combination of marketing and P.R Great creative work, winning awards Information, education, choice Rules that cannot be transferred to the web. Separate from P.R Delivers useful content at the precise moment that a buyer need it.
  30. 30. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 30 Source: Meerman Scott, (2010) Types of social media engagement: 1. Post impression are views of the brand posts in the social medium/view of one item out of five opened e-zine 2. Page impression views of brand owner’s social platform /cost of broadcasting an open e-zine 3. Personal action: consumption of brand content through an action such as a click on a photo or video or a link=/YouTube promoted video cost 4. Public action: sharing brand content socially through conspicuous consumption, such as liking or commenting on content in a manner that ensures others can see what the user has just done or proactively recommending content to other/ Google paid search click.
  31. 31. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 31 Traditional process for media spending by Bruce D. Weinberg, Ekin Pehlivan MARKETING PLAN=>MARKETING BUDGET=>MARKETING CHANNELS=>CONSUMER TRADITIONAL SOCIAL Media Television, radio, print, billboard, etc Social networks, blogs, micro blogs, communities, etc Spend Cash, cost Social currency, trustworthiness, authenticity, transparency, investment Delivery Direct form of market, unedited From source, delivered by volition of, and in words selected by, source Objectives Awareness, knowledge, recall, purchase etc. Conversation, sharing, collaboration, engagement, evangelism, etc.
  32. 32. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 32 THE ROI PYRAMID Role data Metric Specific 5 categories of social media measurement • Exposure: Visits, views, followers, fans, subscribers, brands, mentions. • Influence- share of voice, sentiment, top influencers report • Engagement : Clicks, Retweets, shares, @replies, DMs, wall posts, comments • Action/convert: Content downloads, webinar, attendees, lead generation, forms, pitches/proposals • Sales: Online sales, phone sales, in personal sales. Business executives Business metrics Business stakeholder s Social media Analytics Share of voice, Resonation, WOM, support response, Community managers and agencies Engagement Data Clicks, Fans, Followers, RTs, Views, check-ins Revenue, reputation
  33. 33. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 33 Business elements of Social media Investment: time, manpower, technology, guidance Implementations: developing strategy, embedding social media in integrated marketing campaigns, blogging, tweeting, building relationships, learning Impact: click thru rates, retweets, web traffic, conversations, impressions, followers/fans/friends, press Financial gain: revenue, transaction, new customers Social Media ROI (SOCIAL MEDIA ACADEMY) ROI = (CM-IC)*100/IC CM: contribution margin IC: incremental cost SOCIAL ROI (Knowledge Broker International, SHANE GIBSSON) Reputation Risk reduction Client retention Efficiency Business intelligence Differentiation Brand association PR & exposure Immediate revenue Long-term revenue Supplier capacity building Perception shifting
  34. 34. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 34 By Donna L. Hoffman Marek Fodor To get an ROI estimate, managers would link the social media to an additional set of proxy benchmarks (e.g., the likelihood of future purchase by a user engaged with the company’s brand through a specific social media application, or the reach of a specific word of mouth element and subsequent conversation to future sales) example a popular personal care brand ran a large scale integrated as campaign on MY space in the second quarter of 2008 and user matched consumer panels to link online social media behavior to survey measures of purchase intent as well as actual in store sales. The results showed an ROI of 28% for the ad coming. Best social metrics (kaushik.net) • Conversation: audience comments per post • Amplification rate: share per post • Applause Rate: likes per post
  35. 35. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 35 Objectives of the study: 1. To understand what users do after logging on Facebook? 2. To know whether the users actively see posts of brands/ business pages. 3. To know the patterns of liking the brand page. 4. To know frequency of the elements which are used on Facebook. 5. To know the frequency of Facebook ads consumed by the user. 6. Understanding the Return on investment in Social media marketing. Methodology: The study carried out with sample size of “30” because the study more focused on qualitative data and with the simultaneously passed questionnaires to users, which fills the data which cannot get by Qualitative method. The sample size is considered by using “convenience sampling method”, where by considering time constrains and user’s convenience. The sample are preferred who are actively using Facebook and without considering age and gender. The data collection carried by asking permission to users to use Facebook on laptop, let them alone to use and activities happened on screen recorded by “BSR SCREEN RECORDER” and after usage, other data collected by asking questions to them. BSR SCREEN RECORDER: It is software which records activity happened on screen of computer, where we collect data are as follows: 1. Time of usage 2. Type of a Facebook pages users preferred with respective to time 3. Activities of users of using elements of Facebook. After collection of data, the average is calculated in terms of points and ranked them according to it.
  36. 36. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 36
  37. 37. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 37
  38. 38. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 38
  39. 39. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 39 Others data collected by Asking following question to the users after usage: 1. Do you know about brand page Yes No 2. If you liked any Brand Page please mention. 3. What made you to like the brand page a. Type of posts b. Because I am customer of the brand c. To receive regular updates from brand d. Friend’s recommendation e. To participate in contests f. Seeing friends like g. To see brand advertisements h. Mention if any other: 4. What do you do when you see brand post which you liked a. Like immediately b. Check the information c. Lurk the page d. Depend on the type of post posted 5. Do you notice Facebook adds Yes No
  40. 40. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 40 6. Have you liked on any ads, if yes please mention which brands add you have liked Yes No …………………………. 7. Rank the ads which you prefer on Facebook. a. Video ad b. Link ad c. Question ad d. Offer ad e. Event ad f. Page ad g. Application ad 8. Your most favorite activity on Facebook 9. How much time you spend on Facebook in a day <10min 10-30mins 30-60mins >60mins 10. Do you know about sponsored stories Yes No v v v v v v v v
  41. 41. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 41 11. Do you click on sponsored stories Always sometimes nowhere 12. Do you participated in any contests on Facebook Yes No 13. What type of Contests you have participated 14. Do you seek Information about product/ service through Facebook Yes No 15. Give the ranking for the following variables according to preference while checking your notifications a. Who likes your post b. Who tagged your post c. Who shared post d. Who comments on your post e. Application request f. Post added by your best friend g. Birthday h. Lurking Statistical tool: 1. To know the pattern of usage of Facebook pages and its elements the weighted average method is used to calculate 2. Pie charts and Bar graphs is used to indicate a clear picture of data’s 3. To know the relation of elements cross tabs used.
  42. 42. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 42 Data analysis: Pattern of Using Facebook Pages Sl.No Pages of facebook Points Rank 1 Home page 1.26 1 2 Profile page 2.33 2 3 Others page 3.4 3 4 Posts 3.43 4 5 Message page 3.833 5 Points Rank0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Home page Profile page Others page Posts Message page 1 2 3 4 5 1.26 2.33 3.4 3.43 3.833 Points Rank
  43. 43. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 43 Pattern of consumption pages with respective to time. Sl.No Pages of facebook Points Rank 1 Home page 324.93 1 2 Posts 82.2 2 3 Profile page 73.56 3 4 Message page 37.36 4 5 Others page 4.833 5 324.93, 62% 82.2, 16% 73.56, 14% 37.36, 7% 4.833, 1% Points 1 Home page 2 Posts 3 Profile page 4 Message page 5 Others page
  44. 44. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 44 USERS ACTIVITY AFTER LOGGING INTO FACEBOOK Sl.NO Activity Points Rank 1 Notification 1.766 1 2 lurking home page 3.3 2 3 Check who is online 4.033 3 4 Chatting 4.5 4 5 friend request 4.633 5 6 check message 4.7 6 7 checking about friend 4.7 7 8 Liking 4.866 8 9 commenting 4.866 9 10 Checking sponsored stories 5.233 10 11 lurking time line 5.3 11 12 sharing posts 5.466 12 13 checking ads 5.6 13 14 Update profile 5.6 13 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Notification lurkinghomepage Checkwhoisonline chatting friendrequest checkmessage checkingaboutfriend liking commenting Checkingsponceredstories lurkingtimeline sharringposts checkingads Updateprofile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Rank Points
  45. 45. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 45 Types OF Facebook Advertisements Users Consume Sl.No Paid Ads Points Rank 1 Video 2.233 1 2 Question 3 2 3 Offer 3.6 3 4 Event 3.633 4 5 Application 4.433 5 6 Link 4.9 6 7 Page 5.2 7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Video Question Offer Event Application Link Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rank Points
  46. 46. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 46 Most Likely Activities Users Consume On Notification Sl.No Notification Points Rank 1 likes your post 1.9 1 2 shared your post 3.166 2 3 comments on posts 3.266 3 4 birthday 4.366 4 5 tagged your post 4.5 5 6 application request 5.633 6 7 post by best friend 5.8 7 8 lurking 7.366 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 likesyourpost sharedyourpost commentsonposts birthday taggedyourpost applicationrequest postbybestfriend lurking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rank points
  47. 47. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 47 Statistics: N Mean Valid Missing Awareness_of_brand_page 30 0 1.133333 Reason_of_liking_brand_page 30 0 2.4 Reaction_looking_at_brand_post 30 0 2.633333 Notice_of_facebook_ads 30 0 1.233333 Click_on_any_ads 30 0 1.533333 Time_spending_on_facebook_in_a_day 30 0 2.433333 Awareness_of_sponsored_stories 30 0 1.4 Click_on_sponsored_stories 18 12 2.5 Participation_of_facebook_contest 30 0 2 Seeking_information_about_brand_on_facebook 30 0 1.466667
  48. 48. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 48 Frequency Table Awareness_of_brand_page Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 26 86.7 86.7 86.7 no 4 13.3 13.3 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  49. 49. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 49 Frequency Table Reason_of_liking_brand_page Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid no like 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 type of post 6 20.0 20.0 33.3 becouse i am customerr of it 4 13.3 13.3 46.7 to recive regular updates 13 43.3 43.3 90.0 Seeing friends like 2 6.7 6.7 96.7 To see brand advertisements 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  50. 50. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 50 Frequency Table Reaction_looking_at_brand_post Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid like immediately 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 check information 16 53.3 53.3 63.3 depend on type of post 11 36.7 36.7 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  51. 51. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 51 Frequency Table Notice_of_facebook_ads Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 23 76.7 76.7 76.7 no 7 23.3 23.3 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  52. 52. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 52 Frequency Table Click_on_any_ads Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 14 46.7 46.7 46.7 no 16 53.3 53.3 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  53. 53. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 53 Frequency Table Time_spending_on_facebook_in_a_day Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid <10min 5 16.7 16.7 16.7 10-30mins 13 43.3 43.3 60.0 30-60mins 6 20.0 20.0 80.0 >60mins 6 20.0 20.0 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  54. 54. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 54 Frequency Table Awareness_of_sponsored_stories Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 18 60.0 60.0 60.0 no 12 40.0 40.0 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  55. 55. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 55 Frequency Table Click_on_sponsored_stories Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid sometimes 9 30.0 50.0 50.0 nowhere 9 30.0 50.0 100.0 Total 18 60.0 100.0 Missing System 12 40.0 Total 30 100.0
  56. 56. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 56 Frequency Table Participation_of_facebook_contest Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid no 30 100.0 100.0 100.0
  57. 57. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 57 Frequency Table Seeking_information_about_brand_on_facebook Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid yes 16 53.3 53.3 53.3 no 14 46.7 46.7 100.0 Total 30 100.0 100.0
  58. 58. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 58 Crosstabs Reaction_looking_at_brand_post * Reason_of_liking_brand_page Crosstabulation Reaction_looking_at_brand_post Totallike immediatly check information depend on type of post Reason_of_liking_brand_pag e no like 1 1 2 4 type of post 2 4 0 6 because i am customer of it 0 2 2 4 to receive regular updates 0 7 6 13 Seeing friends like 0 1 1 2 To see brand advertisements 0 1 0 1 Total 3 16 11 30 Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Reaction_looking_at_bran d_post * Reason_of_liking_brand_p age 30 100.0% 0 .0% 30 100.0%
  59. 59. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 59
  60. 60. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 60 CROSSTABS Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Time_spending_on_facebo ok_in_a_day * Click_on_any_ads 30 100.0% 0 .0% 30 100.0% Time_spending_on_facebo ok_in_a_day * Notice_of_facebook_ads 30 100.0% 0 .0% 30 100.0% Time_spending_on_facebook_in_a_day * Notice_of_facebook_ads
  61. 61. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 61 CROSSTABS Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Awareness_of_sponsored_ stories * Click_on_sponsored_storie s 18 60.0% 12 40.0% 30 100.0% Awareness_of_sponsored_stories * Click_on_sponsored_stories Crosstabulation Count Click_on_sponsored_stories Totalsometimes nowhere Awareness_of_sponsored_ stories Yes 9 9 18 Total 9 9 18
  62. 62. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 62
  63. 63. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 63 Crosstabs Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Awareness_of_brand_page * Seeking_information_abou t_brand_on_facebook 30 100.0% 0 .0% 30 100.0% Awareness_of_brand_page * Seeking_information_about_brand_on_facebook Crosstabulation Count Seeking_information_about_bra nd_on_facebook Totalyes No Awareness_of_brand_page yes 15 11 26 no 1 3 4 Total 16 14 30
  64. 64. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 64
  65. 65. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 65 Crosstabs Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Reason_of_liking_brand_p age * Seeking_information_abou t_brand_on_facebook 30 100.0% 0 .0% 30 100.0% Reason_of_liking_brand_page * Seeking_information_about_brand_on_facebook Crosstabulation Count Seeking_information_about_bra nd_on_facebook Totalyes No Reason_of_liking_brand_p age no like 1 3 4 type of post 2 4 6 becouse i am customerr of it 3 1 4 to recive regular updates 8 5 13 Seeing friends like 2 0 2 To see brand advertisements 0 1 1 Total 16 14 30
  66. 66. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 66
  67. 67. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 67 Findings: The order of usage of Facebook pages are a follows Sl.No Pages of Facebook 1 Home page 2 Profile page 3 Others page 4 Posts 5 Message page The frequency of most usable pages of Facebook are as follows Sl.No Pages of Facebook 1 Home page 2 Posts 3 Profile page 4 Message page 5 Others page
  68. 68. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 68 Pattern of the elements users use on Facebook are as follows Sl.NO Activity 1 Notification 2 lurking home page 3 Check who is online 4 Chatting 5 friend request 6 check message 7 checking about friend 8 Liking 9 Commenting 10 Checking sponsored stories 11 lurking time line 12 sharing posts 13 checking ads 14 Update profile Pattern of the Facebook Advertisements user consume are as follows Sl.No Paid Ads 1 Video 2 Question 3 Offer 4 Event 5 Application 6 Link 7 Page
  69. 69. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 69 Pattern of most likely elements users consume on Facebook Notification are as follows Sl.No Notification 1 likes your post 2 shared your post 3 comments on posts 4 Birthday 5 tagged your post 6 application request 7 post by best friend 8 Lurking Among 30 sample 86.67% of users are aware about brand page on Facebook. Among 30 samples the reason said for liking brand page are, 43.3% to receive regular updates, 20% due to type of post posted by brand, 13.3% because they are customer of brand, 6.7% seeing friends like, 3.3% to receive brand advertisement and 13.3% not liked at all any brand page. Among 30 samples reaction when they look at any brand page are 53.3% check information, 36.7% the reaction depend upon type of post and 10% like immediately. Among 30 sample 76.7% notice Facebook Advertisements and 23.3% don’t. Among 30 sample 53.3% click on Facebook advertisement and 46.7% don’t. Among 30 sample time spending on Facebook per day are 43.3% 10-30 minutes, 20% 30-60 minutes, 20% more than 60 minutes and remaining 16.7% less than 10 minutes. Among 30 samples 60% aware about sponsored stories of Facebook and remaining 40% don’t. Among 30 samples 30% of click on sponsored stories sometimes and 30% don’t click on it.
  70. 70. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 70 Among 30 samples no one participate on Facebook contests. Among 30 samples 53.3% seek information on Facebook and 46.7% don’t. Discussion: The study mentioned about the pattern and usage of the Facebook pages where most of the users given weightage to Home page with first priority so the marketers must concentrate more on home page of the Facebook, and the elements of the Home page. The Research justified that Posts is the important element of the Home page where the users engagement is more so marketers must concentrate on strategy of the posting the posts on Home page. The findings of the usage of the elements of the Facebook states that the “Notification” is the first priority given by the users followed by the “Lurking of the Home page”, so the marketers must build strategy about the Home page where users actions and they can follow Brand page. Research found that very little users concentrate on paid Advertisements of Facebook, so marketers must concentrate on non-paid ads that are by posts on walls. Research findings states that Video ads, question ads and offer ad have greater impact comparing to event ad, application ad, and link and page ads. The research found most of the users aware about brand page but they like brand page to receive regular updates so marketers must take action with proper strategy of updating the information’s on Facebook. The cross tab between reason of liking brand page and action when users watch brand posts stated that information checking and the updates of the brand have more concern, so marketers have to take decisions that the content must concentrate both the information with regular updates. The cross tab between notice of Facebook ad’s and click on Facebook ad’s states that most of them notice Facebook ads but very less click on it, so marketers have to take actions on it to make users click on ads. The research states that no users are participating on Facebook contests, so marketers must concentrate less on Facebook contest strategy. The cross tab between time spending on Facebook and notice on Facebook ad’s states there is no any particular pattern of it so marketers can take decisions to any users of Facebook. Cross tab between awareness of sponsored stories and click on sponsored stories states that 50% users click on sponsored stories that are aware about it, so marketers must build strategy of awareness of sponsored stories. Cross tab between awareness about brand page and seeking information about
  71. 71. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 71 brand page states that 50% of the users seek information among aware users, so marketers must make aware of Facebook brand pages using traditional or Facebook strategy. Cross tab between reason of liking brand page and seeking information about brand states that about 26.6% users like brand page to receive regular updates of brand page. So marketers have to build strategy for regular updates about their brand page. Conclusion: Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share it with their social networks. Social networks and Facebook have been studied from different perspectives such as the network structure (Caciet al. 2012), characteristics of the users (Bhattacharyyaet al. 2011; Hargittai 2007; Karl et al. 2010), usage patterns (Golder et al. 2007; Lampe et al. 2006), and usage motivations (Joinson 2008; Raacke and Bonds-Raacke 2008), identity management and self-presentation (Labrecque et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2008), social interactions (Kostakos and Venkatanathan 2010; Nazir et al. 2008), and privacy and information disclosure (Debatin et al. 2009; Krasnova et al. 2009). Social media users use the social networks with certain way, the previous study answered the questions like motivation factors of using Facebook, time spent by users on Facebook, who will spend more time on it, when users spend time on social networks. The present study states about usage and consumption pattern of contents and advertisements by users on Facebook The usage and consumption pattern of Facebook or social media helps marketers to build structure of marketing on Facebook. The research concludes with the findings that Home page, notification, type of Facebook advertisement, updates about brand and type of information’s are the key elements which helps marketers to build strategy for social media marketing.
  72. 72. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 72 Reference: Pattern of Facebook usage and its Impact on Academic Performance of University Students: A Gender Based Comparison by Ahsan ul Haq & Sohail Chand, Bulletin of Education and Research December 2012, Vol. 34, No. 2 pp.19-28 Identifying usage patterns in social networks with data mining techniques- Face book case Ahmet Selman Bozkır, Sacide Güzin Mazman, Ebru Akçapınar Sezer Hacettepe University College students' social networking experiences on Facebook Tiffany A. Pempek, Yevdokiya A. Yermolayeva, Sandra L. Calvert College students' social networking experiences on Facebook Tiffany A. Pempek, Yevdokiya A. Yermolayeva, Sandra L. Calvert (Department of Psychology, Georgetown University, USA Available online 11 January 2009) Personality and Patterns of Facebook Usage Yoram Bachrach by Microsoft Research yobach@microsoft.com Michal Kosinski University of Cambridge mk583@cam.ac.uk Thore Graepel Microsoft Research thoreg@microsoft.com Pushmeet Kohli Microsoft Research pkohli@microsoft.com David Stillwell University of Cambridge ds617@cam.ac.uk What is the motivation for using Facebook? By Nazan Doruer a , pek Menevi b, Ramadan Eyyam ca Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus Investigating the Patterns of Social Network Sites (SNS) Usage among Business Students Wan Malini Wan Isa1, Azilawati Rozaimee1, Hasni Hassan1, Izah Mohd Tahir Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 2, No.3; March 2012 Analyzing Patterns of User Content Generation in Online Social Networks Lei Guo1, Enhua Tan2, Songqing Chen3, Xiaodong Zhang2, and Yihong (Eric) Zhao1 Six Patterns for Persuasion in Online Social Networks (G. Michael Weiksner,1, B.J. Fogg1, Xingxin Liu1, Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305) Motivation and usage of pattern of social media by Schaefer, Cora, University of Karlsruhe (TH), Institute of Informations Systems and Management, Kaiserstr. 12, 76128 Karlsruhe
  73. 73. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 73 Who uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five,shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage by Tracii Ryan, Sophia Xenos, Computers in Human Behavior 27 (2011) 1658–1664 Why do people use Facebook? byAshwini Nadkarni a, Stefan G. Hofmann (Personality and Individual Differences journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/paidArticle history:Received 20 July 2011) Privacy and Perceptions: How Facebook Advertising Affects its Users by Katherine K. Roberts (Strategic Communications Elon University 24 — The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications • Vol. 1, No. 1 • Winter 2010) Facebook Therapy: Why People Share Self-Relevant Content Online Eva Buechel, Jonah Berger (2012) Does ad liking (LA) improve correct branding? By Rachel Kennedy, Byron Sharp and Cam Rungie (Marketing Science Centre, University of South Australia Competitive paper Correspondence to Rachel Kennedy, Marketing Science Centre, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001,Australia Email: Rachel.Kennedy@msc.unisa.edu.au Telephone: 61 8 8302 0290, Fax :61 8 8302 0123) Online engagement factors on Facebook brand pagesby Irena Pletikosa Cvijikj & Florian Michahelles (Social Network Analysis and Mining ISSN 1869-5450 Soc. Netw. Anal. Min. DOI 10.1007/s13278-013-0098-8) The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement by Reynol Junco Department of Academic Development and Counseling, Lock Haven University, 104 Russell Hall, Lock Haven, PA 17745, USA Article history: Received 26 April 2011 Received in revised form 26 July 2011 Accepted 3 August 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebook Users structure and behavior on an online social network during a
  74. 74. Social media marketing [Kousali Institute Of Management Studies, Dharwad ] Page 74 political protest by A.J. Morales, J.C. Losada, R.M. Benito Grupo de Sistemas Complejos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Agrónomos, 28040, Madrid, Spain Who does what on Facebook? Age, sex, and relationship status as predictors of Facebook use by Francis T. McAndrew ⇑, Hye Sun Jeong Department of Psychology, Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, United States

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