Uday Presentation


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Uday Presentation

  1. 1. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitors: Some Perspectives on T h l Technology, M d li Modeling and A li ti d Applications Presentation Title MCCIA Pune MCCIA, December 10, 2008 Dr. Uday Deshpande, Dr. John Miller Maxwell Technologies MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  2. 2. Presenter Bio Ud Deshpande, Ph.D. Uday D h d Ph D Senior Director, Power Engineering Uday Deshpande joined Maxwell Technologies in early 2007 assuming primary responsibility for electrical and systems development. In this capacity he is responsible for solutions for Maxwell’s ultracapacitor products as well as developing increased understanding in the application and use of ultracapacitors in various industries worldwide. Prior to that he spent over 10 years in technology development/engineering roles where he led development of motor/drive solutions for automotive and power tool industries. He has a Bachelor of Technology (Hons.) degree from the Indian Institute of T h l Kh d Technology, Kharagpur and an MSEE and Ph.D. degrees from the d Ph D d f th University of Kentucky, all in Electrical Engineering. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, has published several papers and has several patents issued or pending in the field of electric machines and drives. His fields of interest are electric machines and drives, power Contact: electronics and energy storage systems. udeshpande@maxwell.com 1-858-503-3428 2
  3. 3. Overview • I d Introduction to Maxwell i M ll • Ultracapacitor Basics • Maxwell Products • Applications – Basics – Overview – UPS, AMR, Wind etc. –SSpecific Examples ifi E l • Traction • Automotive • Special Topics for Tata p p • Wrap-up/Q&A 3
  4. 4. Introduction • Founded in 1965 • 300 Employees • Revenue $55 M ('07) • Listed on Nasdaq – Symbol: MXWL • Locations in San Diego, CA and Rossens, Switzerland 1992 Maxwell starts development of Ultracapacitors 1995 Maxwell introduces first large Ultracapacitors 1997 Montena starts development of Ultracapacitors 2000 Montena introduces first Ultracapacitors to market 2002 Fusion of Maxwell and Montena 2004 Maxwell produces own, proprietary Electrode 2006 Launch of expanded Ultracapacitors product line 2006 Maxwell becomes supplier of proprietary Electrode 2007 Production start in China 2007 New CEO, David Schramm 2008 HTM Series Production Start 4
  5. 5. Maxwell Presence Germany: Maxwell Technologies GmbH Automotive HQ g Gilching 5
  6. 6. Production Facilities and Partners Rossens CH Rossens, Belton Group, Belton China San Diego, ISO 9001 ISO 14001 USA ISO/TS 16949 ISO 9001, ISO 14001, QS9000 Lishen, China ISO 9001, ISO/TS 16949 YEC, China ISO9002 ISO9002, ISO14001 6
  7. 7. Maxwell Business Units Ultracapacitors High voltage capacitors Microelectronics for space 7
  8. 8. High Voltage Capacitors R Three Product Lines Grading Capacitors Coupling Capacitors CVDs (capacitive voltage dividers) 8
  9. 9. Micro Electronics Advanced Memory Unique A/D & D/A products Single Board Computers Custom Software Radiation Hardening 9
  10. 10. BOOSTCAP® Ultracapacitors Provide products with highest  performance  efficiency  reliability  and long life f to optimize use of energy 10
  11. 11. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Basics Presentation Title MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  12. 12. What is an Ultracapacitor? • Invented in U S by Robert A Rightmire of SOHIO U.S. A. company. – U.S. Patent 3,288,641 “ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE , , APPARATUS: This invention relates generally to the utilization of an electrostatic field across the interphase boundary between an electron conductor and an ion conductor to promote the storage of energy by ionic adsorption at the interphase boundary.” Nov. 29, 1966 boundary. • Electrochemical storage batteries and capacitors have been in existence for over 2000 years (Baghdad battery BC) Volta “pile” 1800 to B (B hd d b BC), V l “ il ” 1800, Ben Franklin 1848 who coined the term “battery”. – Battery stores energy in chemical bonds that follow reduction-oxidation y gy (REDOX) reactions. Mass transfer is involved. – Capacitors store energy in electrostatic fields between ions in solution and a material. No mass transfer involved – hence no electrochemcial wearout. Source: Joel Schindall, “Concept and Status of Nano-sculpted Capacitor Battery,” Presented at 16th Annual Seminar on Double Layer Capacitors and Hybrid Energy Storage Devices December 4-6, Deerfield Beach, Florida 12
  13. 13. Capacitance terminology • Generic types of electrochemical capacitors (EC’s): – Symmetric design – same carbon material is used in both electrodes. Testing generally imparts a (+) positive or (-) negative polarization. – Asymmetric design – electrodes are different materials, one activated y g , carbon (DLC electrode) and the opposing electrode is a battery type that stores charge via chemical reactions, reduction-oxidation (redox) • Electrolyte type varies for each type of EC: Aqueous (water based) Organic (carbon or hydrocarbon based) Symmetric carbon-carbon electrodes Symmetric carbon-carbon electrodes Asymmetric carbon-battery electrode Asymmetric carbon-battery electrode Electrolyte is alkaline with dissolved salts Electrolyte is organic with dissolved salts Current collector is nickel, container is plastic Current collector is aluminum, container is aluminum Distinguished b l Di ti i h d by low operating voltage ti lt Di i i h d by high i l Distinguished b hi h operating voltage • Separator- porous paper, polymer or ceramic that prevents EC electrodes from shorting together. Must be ion conducting (porous) and electron blocking blocking. • Current collectors – metal foils used in each electrode to which the carbon electrode films are laminated. Typically aluminum foil. • Charge – ionic molecules in solution electrons in conducting medium solution, medium. 13
  14. 14. Energy Storage Technology Options 14
  15. 15. Electrochemical Capacitor • Family of Electrochemical Capacitors (EC’s) has two y p ( ) branches: – Double layer capacitors that rely on purely electrostatic accumulation, accumulation and – Asymmetric capacitors or sometimes called pseudocapacitors. Electrodes Type Device 2 – electrostatic EDLC Symmetric carbon Asymmetric Pseudocap 1- redox (hybrid 1 – electrostatic capacitor) 2 – redox Battery 15
  16. 16. The Fundamentals: A Review • Basics of the electronic double layer i e ultracapacitor layer, i.e., – An electronic charge accumulator having extreme capacitor plate specific area and atomic scale charge separation distance. Graphic: IEEE Spectrum, Jan 2005 16
  17. 17. The Fundamentals: A Review • E t Extreme capacitance is available f it i il bl from th the carbon electrochemical double layer capacitor it – Activated carbon has very high specific area (S) – The compact layer interface between the carbon particles and electrolyte ions, the Helmholtz layer, is on the order of 1 atom layer 3 m2 S 3 10 ( g ) thickness. C  Ultra = d 10  9 Scale * 10 12  The “Ultra” in Ultracapacitor. 17
  18. 18. The Fundamentals: A Review • The ultracapacitor model commonly applied is that of the series combination of two DLC’s at th electrode - solvent compact layer. t DLC’ t the l t d l t tl • Ultracapacitor response is very fast in comparison to a battery – no Redox reactions, • But, slow in comparison to film or ceramic capacitors. _ _ + + Ionic Resistance Separator + electrolyte Electrical Resistance: Helmholtz layers Helmholtz layers Collector foil + Separator _ + Foil to Carbon+ _ _ + + _ _ _ + C C-particle to ti l t C-particle + + + _ _ + _ + _ + _ _ _ + + + + _ + + _ + _ _ _ _ + + _ + _ _ _ + + + Electrode Electrolyte Electrode Electric conductivity Ionic conductivity Electric conductivity 18
  19. 19. Electrochemical Makeup of Ultracap • The ultracapacitor model commonly applied is that of the series combination of two DLC’s at the electrode - solvent compact layer. • Ultracapacitor response is very fast in comparison to a battery – no Redox reactions, • But, slow in comparison to film or ceramic capacitors. Rionic Re Uc Re 19
  20. 20. Ultracapacitors – Perspectives on size Size Scaled Carbon electrode 100 m 10 km Mt. Everest Carbon particle 5 m 500 m Petronas Towers Micro-pores 2 nm 20 cm Bucket Ions 0.7 nm 7 cm Grapefruit Inter-atomic dist. 0.2 nm 2 cm Cherry 20
  21. 21. Capacity, ESR and Internal Pressure • Overcharge at maximum rated temperature – Typically, ultracapacitor cells are shipped as manunfactured – No burn in – initial capacitance drop and ESR increase evident – Accelerated testing under dc life criteria: 2.85V/cell @ +65oC – End of life (EOL) when R2x Rinitial and C0.8 Cinitial BCAP3000 P270 Capacitance & ESR versus Temp C, & 3.5 Cell Pressure (bar) ESR 2.0 20 3 ESR change 2.5 2 1.0 r/ESRr 15 Cr Capacitance drift 1.5 0.8 1 Internal Pressure 0.5 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 Temp (deg. C) Time in Test (h) Cr - Normalized to 24 deg.C ESRr - Normalized to 24 deg. C 21
  22. 22. Fundamentals - Extreme Current Applications High bursts of power charging & discharging power, discharging, impose correspondingly high carbon loading Lid/Negative Terminal  Current flows from one Negative Collector terminal, through the jelly roll to th other terminal ll t the th t i l Foil/Negative T b F il/N ti Tab and out – known  Each interface is affected by the current flow  It is important to ensure p that there is not “bottle necking” – especially due to high rates during “Jelly Roll” operation (Electrode + Electrolyte)  Temperature will exacerbate the effects  Vibration can cause mechanical fatigue of Foil/Positive Tab components Positive Collector Can/Positive Terminal 22
  23. 23. Fundamentals – Extreme Current Cell construction must be robust to tolerate high electrical, thermal and mechanical stress Aluminum can Aluminum cover Aluminum collector Laser welded interconnects Wound Carbon Electrode – Paper separator, two aluminum foil sheets and carbon films bonded to collectors 23
  24. 24. Extreme Current Applications High current cycling eventually leads to reduction in component life. • At 200A the carbon loading is 3x normal for continuous operation. BCAP650 C% fade during constant curre nt cycling, 2.7V, 15s rest 110 105 100 100A minal 95 % C/C norm 90 85 200A 80 75 70 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 # cycles 24
  25. 25. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Maxwell Products Presentation Title MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  26. 26. Product Range  From 4F to 10F (PC family)  From 140 – 350F (BC family)  From 650 – 3000F (MC family) 26
  27. 27. Product Line-up Energy and power products available Cells  From 4F to 10F (PC family)  From 140 to 350F (BC family)  From 650 to 3000F (MC family) Modules  16V and 48V  75V UPS  125 HTM 27
  28. 28. Complete Application Specific Solution Portfolio  Train, Hybrid Vehicle HTM  Energy Storage 125V  Voltage Stabilization  Regenerative Braking 48V  Peak Demand Modules  Start-stop  Engine Cranking 16V Modules  Custom  Solutions MC Cells  Door Actuators  Accessories BC Cells 28
  29. 29. Ultracapacitor Parameters Ultracapacitor cells • Basic data sheet parameters • Trends are for ESR*C = t <1s and PML  10 kW/kg C= 650 1200 1500 2000 2600 3000 F ESRac = 0.6 0.44 0.35 0.26 0.21 0.20 m ESRdc = 0.8 0.58 0.47 0.35 0.31 0.30 m = 0.52 0.696 0.705 0.700 0.806 0.900 s Irms = 105 110 115 125 130 150+ 150 Arms Micro-Hybrid Industrial Applications Heavy Transportation 29
  30. 30. Ultracapacitor Modules Ultracapacitor Modules – Thermally: 15°C rise at 150Arms and 600 scfm air flow BMOD0165-E048 (165F, 48V, 150A, 8.5m) BMOD0063-P125 (63F, 125V, 150A, 17m ESR) Attribute BMOD0165E048 - BMOD0063 -P125 BMOD0018 -P390 Energy, useable 40 Wh 102 Wh 282 Wh Umx Umx/2, Cont. Amps 150 150 150 Peak Amps 750 5s 750, 950 5s 950, Mass, kg 14.2 58 165 Power, (kW/kg) 6.6 4 3.5 Cycles 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 Cells/module 18 48 146 30
  31. 31. Maxwell Large Cell Development History Design is the key to: performance, robustness, AND COST Current Cell Too Cost Effective VERY Robust Early Designs expensive, expensive poor not sufficiently High improved perf robust Performance performance Easy to Build PC2500 Cell BCAP0010 LCELL proto MC Family Dual Coll Gen 1 Gen 3 Gen 4 Gen 5 Gen 6 Major Mech Components 23 17 4 4 5 Materials Cost Labor Minutes 60 min 30 min 15 min 6 min 31
  32. 32. Application Perspectives – Power & Energy Trends Since i t d ti of P Si introduction f Panasonic’s power cell i 1980’ (470F i ’ ll in 1980’s (470F, 2.3V, 3.9m) carbon-carbon cell potential has increased ~20mV/yry Ultracapacitor P&E Evolution 30 Energy ecific Energy, Power 25 Pow er Voltage 20 15 10 Spe 5 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 Year History of voltage trend: 1988 2.3V (Panasonic 470F) ( ) Ultracapacitor specific power, Pm (W/kg) can 1996 2.5V (MXWL starts prod.) 2002 2.5V (MXWL+Montena) reach 20kW/kg only if cell potential increases 2005 2.7V and ESR decreases. 2008+2.85V estimate 2010 3 0V projection 3.0V 2012 3.1V projection 32
  33. 33. Key Features of Ultracapacitors & Modules  Excellent power density  Highly efficient energy transfer  High durability and lifetime  1 Mio cycles y  10 years lifetime  Cost effective in terms of Wh-cycles  Stable performance over large temperature range  Safety  Designed to withstand harsh environmental conditions 33
  34. 34. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Applications Presentation Title MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  35. 35. Transportation Automotive Renewable Industrial Energy 35 Applications
  36. 36. Application Model 36
  37. 37. Application Classification Dynamic  Static  Current Cycling  Steady operation vs.  Power Cycling time  Voltage level changes  Most of the time is  (periodic/cyclic) wide spent in a charged state temperature swings  Ch i requirements Charging i t  High power/current can be benign loading. loading  Discharge timing can  (Severe) vibration be quick conditions in parallel  Vibration typically not a  Cycle life is a critical factor f parameter –  DC life/Self Discharge current/power + characteristics are temperature + vibration critical parameters 37
  38. 38. Peak Power Shaving  Ultracapacitors provide peak power ...  … and back-up power Available Power Required Power Ultracapacitor Peak Power Available Power Ultracapacitor Backup Power Required Power 38
  39. 39. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Maxwell Experience Presentation Title MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  40. 40. Experience Maxwell Hybrid Bus Drive Trains  Gasoline-electric, since 2003  Vehicles equipped with ultracapacitor systems have over 2,000,000 kilometers in service  Over 200 packs produced per year = 30’000 caps = 78 Million Farads per year Electric rail  SITRAS installations in operation since 2001  Up to 250k cycles per year  Energy saving and voltage stabilization  1344 Ultracapacitors per installations Fork lifts  BOOSTCAPs qualified for fuel cell powered fork lifts  Fuel cell combined with Ultracapacitors  Maxwell signed largest supply agreement in ultracapacitors ever: 500k BCAP2600 in 3 years C 40
  41. 41. Experience Maxwell Windmills  Burst power to trim blades, since 2003  Up to 3 x 128 Ultracapacitors per wind mill  More than 1’000’000 BCAP0350 installed  Maxwell received order for 3M BCAP0350 to be supplied in next 2 years Aerospace  Burst power for door opening, 16 x 56 UCs  Useful life 25 years,140.000 flight hours  BOOSTCAPs passed Airbus qualification testing in 2004, in series production now  Almost 100k PC100 delivered  Design chnge to BCAP0140 On-vehicle recuperation  Braking energy recuperation  Up to 30% energy savings allows longer, faster or more trains in the same network  Power up to 300 kW per system (up to 2 systems per train)  In operation since 2004 41
  42. 42. Experience Maxwell Diesel engine starting  Burst power for diesel engine cranking  Power module installed on diesel locomotives since 2003  28V, 6 x 12 BCAP2600  Expected lifetime of 15 years Solar buoys  Hybrid concept using both solar power and conventional batteries  Ultracaps used for short-term surplus solar energy storage while the batteries are used as a backup  BCAP0350 Telecommunication  Battery replacement  Graceful power down and bridge power  Long lifetime and high reliability  500k BCAP0350 in 2006 42
  43. 43. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Traction/Drives Applications Presentation Title MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  44. 44. Transportation - Buses ISE Hybrid bus drive train  Diesel-electric and gasoline-electric  Operated by various TAs p y Regenerative braking 288 ultracaps/module, 2 modules/bus Gasoline economy 76% Diesel economy 22% Production Over 100 buses per year Over 200 packs ( p (78’M F) ) 2,000,000 Miles! 44
  45. 45. Buses & Trolleybuses - Europe Trolley Bus - SOP in 2008 Hybrid Bus – SOP in 2010 45
  46. 46. Buses & Trolleybuses - China SOP in 2008 SOP in 2008 SOP in 2008 SOP in 2009 46
  47. 47. Energy Recuperation for Trains Light rail vehicles, metro, DMU  Rapid energy storage through braking energy recapture, re-use for acceleration re use  Stationary and on-vehicle  In operation since 2002 Stationary HTM125  Energy savings of 320 MWh per year  Cost reduction (operation and energy)  Voltage stabilization On-vehicle  Reduce grid power consumption: 30% energy consumption, 50% peak power  Bridge non-powered sections  Larger, heavier or more vehicles/trains 47
  48. 48. Traction Energy Saving Operation Energy storage system: Stationnary or on the vehicle Time t1 Time t2 Vehicle 1 is braking Vehicle 2 is acccelerating Energy storage system stores the Energy storage system delivers the energy braking energy Application: Time shifted delivery of the stored braking energy for vehicle re- acceleration Solutions: Possible with either stationary or on-vehicle energy storage system y gy g y Advantage: Cost savings through reduced primary energy consumption 48
  49. 49. Traction Voltage Stabilization Operation  Energy storage system is kept at fully charged state  Energy storage system is only discharged when the network voltage is pulled below a critical level  Energy storage system is rapidly recharged by braking vehicles or slowly through the DC network  S l ti Solution: St ti Stationary energy storage system t t  Advantage: Optimization of the network voltage level Substation Energy storage system H H H 49
  50. 50. Windmill Applications Switched S it h d mode power supply Energy storage Motor Inverter AC Pitch Motor Turbine hub showing the three independent pitch systems 50
  51. 51. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Automotive Applications Presentation Title MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  52. 52. Evolution of Electric Loads Power on time Light EVT Common-rail EHPS Control it C t l units Active h A ti chassis i Wiper Radio Conventional Radio/Navi/Tel Traffic mgmt Actual 1h Water pump AC compressor Trend Seat heater Brake-by-wire Rear window heater PTC EC cool fan Catalyst heater 30s Electric defrost Power window EPB EPS Hybrids / Door and hood Start-stop Seat adjuster 5s actuator Starter Peak power 100W 1kW 2kW 5kW Source: Continental AG 52
  53. 53. Voltage Profiles Board Net Stabilization Battery Voltage Recuperation Start-stop Power steering Boa net quality 15 V ard 11 V 9V Additional energy Increase of storage voltage Battery g Voltage cycling oscillation Functions  Improved stability of the board net  Less stress of the 12 V battery Source: BMW AG 53
  54. 54. Automotive Hybrid Functions Ultracapacitors Battery Systems Full Hybrid y Pure El. Driving g Enhanced Driving Performance ality Mild Hybrid Econ. Econ Load Distribution Functiona Launch Assist, Re-Gen Boost Micro Hybrid Basic Re-Gen Start-Stop Quelle: Siemens VDO, IAV 2007 ≈ l l l 6 20 80 [kW] 12 120 400 [V] 1-2 60-120 >1’000 [Wh] 54
  55. 55. Hybrid Systems and Functional Principle System Full hybrid Mild hybrid Mini hybrid Micro hybrid Principle <400V DC 14V <120V DC 14V 14V Inverter Inverter Linear DC DC Controller 14V Inverter 14 - 42V DC Steering, DC Power consumer Function Start-stop    * Recuperation    Passive “boost”    Active “boost”   El. driving  Power assist  **  **  * with modified series starter ** with additional power electronics 55
  56. 56. StARS +X Starter-alternator DC 12 V Bordnet Reversible system DC Control unit High power 12V Battery Ultracapacitor electrical loads  In addition to start-stop, the system provides regenerative p, y p g braking functionality (4kW) and light torque assist  Dual voltage architecture with floating voltage between 14 and 24V using EDLC technology  Improved bord net quality  Fuel Economy  Ripple filtering with DC/DC pp g  10 12% on drive cycle 10-12%  Higher dependability with a split energy storage 56
  57. 57. Micro Hybrids G 14 V G Consumer Verbraucher Generator DC DC 500/1’000W 200/1’000W M A 16-40V / 26F 16-30V 20F E steering Ultracapacitor Ultrakondensator Power 12V Dyn.Energy storage . consumer Battery  Energy management based on a variable board net voltage and recuperation function  Target of the concept: f  Ultracapacitor module powers board net during acceleration, resulting in lower demand of generator power and hence higher engine torque at low rpm  Peak power for power consumer  Start-Stop 57
  58. 58. Alcoa System, Functional Principle Overrun conditions: Ultracap charging Acceleration: Ultracap powers board net, generator power available for acceleration 40A 0A 40A Power distribution box x Power distribution box x 70A 40A 14V 14V 14V C 35V 14V C 35V Ultracap storage system with integrated bidirectional Buck/Boost-DC/DC converter  1’000 W power output  100 A assistance during motor start  Operating temperature -40°C to +75°C  Air convection based cooling design  CAN interface 58
  59. 59. Mild Hybrid - BMW X3 Concept Car BMW Efficient Dynamics  Energy recuperation and boosting  Start/Stop function  15% fuel savings Ultracapacitor module  300V 70kW power 300V,  1500F cells, 2.7V 59
  60. 60. Full Hybrid Powertrain System - AFS  Extreme Hybrid™ system based on Fast Energy Storage™ consisting of  Batteries to provide a slow, steady flow of electricity  Ultracapacitors to provide power for short periods for all electric acceleration all-electric  Control electronics to control power flow cache power  Conventional, engine-driven front-wheel and fully-electric rear-wheel drive 60
  61. 61. AFS Concept Li Ion battery pack Plug-in connection Plug in Control electronics Ultracapacitor module 61
  62. 62. Energy Storage Solution for Full Hybrids  Target is to meet energy storage requirements of full hybrids over the full operating temperature range without any sacrifice in performance  Lithium alone cannot meet this challenge due to  Low power performance for temperatures below -10°C  Susceptibility against high power requirements and deep discharges  Ultracapacitors alone cannot meet this challenge due to p g  Low energy density which results in extensive package space  What is recommended is an active parallel combination of ultracaps with lithium, requiring  Power flows subject to supervisory energy management  Maintain energy component (lithium) within its high efficient range meaning low power stress levels  Maintaining pulse power component within its energy range – meaning without incurring wide SOC swings that shave off efficiency points  Bi-directional DC-DC converter (most efficient power processor) 62
  63. 63. Ultracapacitors • Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors Application Perspective Presentation Title MORE POWER. MORE ENERGY ENERGY. MORE IDEAS.™ © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  64. 64. Ultracaps and Lithium-ion Capability How well does each technology support energy exchange over the full temperature range? • The reciprocal charge/discharge of ultracapacitors means high power level is maintained across the full temperature range. range • Lithium-ion, because it relies on redox reactions, slows down when cold and becomes too reactive when hot. Overheating on charge when hot is a problem. Lithium-ion pack cycle and calendar life are reduced as operation moves outside the normal operating window (or climate control actions must be taken). Lithium-ion chemistries can shift the discharge and charge profiles, but cannot widen them. Cold discharge power and hot charge power levels are significantly reduced from normal temperature range levels. 64
  65. 65. Ultracapacitor Efficiency  It is necessary that the ultracapacitor (plus DC/DC converter) deliver a combined efficiency on the order of 90% or better to build a value proposition  Ultracaps possess very low ESR  high efficiency at relatively high power levels CP Efficiency 3000F UC (0.1, 0.25, 0.4Pml)  At fixed power demand the ultracap 1.00 internal potential decreases p 0.90  The current must increase  Efficiency curve at constant power 0.80 drops as power level increases: Eff 0.70 This presents a design criterion for the 0.60 interface DC/DC converter in sizing of 0.50 the boost switch 0.40 2 U mx 0.00 0 00 2 00 2.00 4 00 4.00 6.00 6 00 8.00 8 00 10.00 10 00 12 00 12.00 14 00 14.00 16 00 16.00 PML  Time, s 4 ESRdc  High efficiency means more compact modules, less cooling system burden  Improved efficiency in energy storage means transportation systems with improved fuel economy, reduced emissions and uncompromised performance 65
  66. 66. Ultracap vs Lithium-Ion: Energy Efficiency  It is an established industry fact that for power demands less than 20 seconds ultracapacitors outperform lithium-ion batteries 1000 Graphic compares 12Ah lithium-ion Li-ion battery pack vs. 3000F, 2.7V ultracapacitor pack in ability to capture regen energy J/kg) in an HEV then discharge it. Specif Energy (kJ 100 At 100s the lithium will capture 5x more energy than the ultracap but at captured 10s both capture the same energy only the capacitor discharges 95% of fic ultracap this energy whereas the lithium ion lithium-ion 10 can only discharge 50%. Therefore, for 10s power the stored ultracapacitor is 2x as effective as the lithium-ion. Hence, ultracapacitor , p applicability extends up to 20s versus 1 lithium-ion. 1 10 100 1000 10000 Charging time (s) John R. Miller, Alex D. Klementov,quot;Electrochemical Capacitor Performance Compared with the Performance of Advanced Lithium , , p p Ion Batteries, Proc. 17th International Seminar on Double Layer Capacitors and Hybrid Energy Storage Devices,” Deerfield Beach, Florida, (Dec. 10-12, 2007). 66
  67. 67. Li-Ion vs. Ultracapacitor - Performance State of the Art Electrochemical Characteristic Lithium Ion Battery Capacitor *Charge time ~3-5 minutes ~1 second *Discharge Time ~3-5 minutes ~1 second *Cycle life <5,000 @ 1C rate >500,000 Specific Energy (Wh/kg) 50-100 5 Specific power (kW/kg) **1-2 5-10 Cycle ffi i C l efficiency (%) 0% <50% to >90% 90% <75 to >95% 9 % Cost/Wh $.5-1/Wh $10-20/Wh Cost/kW $50-150/kW $15-30/kW Source: John R. Miller, Andy F. Burke, “Electrochemical Capacitors: Challenges and Opportunities for Real-World Applications,” VOl. 17, No. 1 Electrochemical Society Interface, Spring 2008 67
  68. 68. Application Perspectives – Power & Energy Trends Since introduction of Panasonic’s power cell in 1980’s (470F, 2.3V, 3.9m) carbon-carbon cell potential has increased ~20mV/yr Ultracapacitor P&E Evolution 30 Energy Specific Energy, Power 25 Pow er Voltage 20 15 E 10 5 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 Year Ultracapacitor specific power, Pm (W/kg) can reach 20kW/kg only if cell potential increases and ESR decreases. 68
  69. 69. Application Perspectives  Review of EC’s and attributes  Equivalent circuit model & simulation q  Safe operating area  Ultracapacitor + Lithium ion example  Power electronic interface to the ultracap tank for plug-in hybrid vehicle 69
  70. 70. Electrochemical Capacitors Electrochemical Capacitors (EC) - Symmetric EC – Physical energy storage Adsorption of ion Solvated ions Conductivity, (SOC) E = f(electrode surface) Non-Faradaic no mass transfer Non Faradaic, Re Ri Re + + C(U) C(U) 70
  71. 71. Review of Battery Lithium-ion Chemistry Charge e A e Graphene Structure x x LiMO2 Structure x e Cathode (+) x Li+ Ion node (-) x - PF6 Ion x e electron e An x x x solvent x x Cathode LiMO2   Li 1-x MO2 + xLi+ + xe- x e x x Discharge   Charge Porous Separator p Al Anode Current C Cn + xLi+ + xe-   CnLix Li Collector Lithium-ion Battery Battery – chemical energy storage Orbital electron exchange Redox Ion intercalation Conductivity: =constant E=f(electrode E f(electrode mass) Faradaic process – mass transfer 71
  72. 72. Ultracap and Li-Ion Battery Models Ultracapacitor model  Series combination of two double layer Re Ri Re capacitances p + +  Resistance elements of equivalent series C(U) C(U) resistance, ESR: electronic (Re) and ionic (Ri) components Cdl Lithium model  Single time constant RC network i(t)  Ri (SOC,T): Ionic concentration gradients at the electrode- Ri(SOC,T) electrolyte interface and reaction kinetics  Re(SOC,T): Electronic contribution based on bulk resistance of Re(SOC,T) ULi(t) the electrode terminals the current collector foils and interfaces terminals, to electrode constituents  Capacitance element Cdl across the ionic resistance component to model transient effects (polarization and pseudo- E(SOC,T,t) capacitance effects at the electrode-electrolyte i t f it ff t t th l t d l t l t interface 72
  73. 73. Ultracapacitor Model Terminal_Voltage Terminal Voltage • St d state and t Steady t t d transient model. i t d l 2.77 2.70 Rsa1 Cs1 VM1.V . AM2 2.60 2.40 mOhm 130 F 2.50 A Rs1 0V 2.44 28.91 35.00 39.16 0.8 mOhm DATAPAIRS2 VM2 + Co1 Improves transient performance XY1 XY 2.7 V I2 V Rp1 Ny quPlotSel1 tY Im 0.60m 0. 80m 28. 99m 28.99m 26. 36m 10m 26.36m XY1.VAL F 2.27 kOhm 20m 40m 79m 0.16 0.63 0.32 0.00 103 5 1 0. 00 -2.63m -2.63m 0.60m 0. 80m Re Agrees with Nyquist results, ESRdc; ESRac Cel l_T emperat 45.40 H1 CTH1 40.00 H RTH1 6.8 K/W SUM1 188.57 Ws/K 299 K 30.00 Tamb 26.00 0 5.00k 9.60k  Consistent thermal test results, I=90Arms 73
  74. 74. Ultracapacitor Cell Model – Collaboration with Ansoft Electrical equivalent circuit model in SimplorerV8 employs q p p y the Maxwell’s reduced order model technique Equivalent Circuit Component Interface Component Parameters Models will be available from Maxwell Technologies and will be posted on Ansoft website for download into Simplorer V8 library 74
  75. 75. Ultracapacitor SOA The Ragone relationship for the ultracapacitor over its Umx to ultracapacitor, Umx/2 range and characteristic time define its SOA. • Operation to 0.25PML can be viewed as continuous SOA • Operation beyond this is intermittent SOA • Operation below the characteristic time is Abuse Tolerance Tolerance. 75
  76. 76. Ford’s Escape and Mariner Hybrids Vehicles such as this are opportunities for combo’s combo s NiMH pack 330Vdc 5.5 Ah 39 kW 76
  77. 77. Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations Standalone systems y • Battery has the energy but not the cycling performance • Ultracapacitor has cycling and power capacity but insufficient energy Battery plus capacitor combination is technically attractive but must make a business case case. GM says it best in a single chart… M.Verbrugge, et al, “Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems And Range Extended Electric Vehicles,” The 25th International Battery Seminar I i lB S i & Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 2008 77
  78. 78. Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations M.Verbrugge, et al, “Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems And Range Extended Electric Vehicles,” The 25th I International Battery Seminar i lB S i & Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, FL, March 2008 78
  79. 79. Ultracaps and Lithium-Ion Combination • Today HEV battery packs are oversized to meet EOL performance requirements. Ultracaps could meet EOL performance without g oversizing • Ultracapacitor de-stresses the lithium under charge conditions, all high rate burdens and during cold weather operation • Limiting battery peak currents may – allow use of energy optimized lithium-ion pack of >10kWh dedicated to meeting vehicle range requirements, thus optimizing battery costs requirements – reduce wear, prolong cycling and enable longer warranty of the battery • I2R losses in batteries can be relocated to losses in power p electronics and ultracaps, where they may be lower magnitude, easier to remove, far less harmful to battery wear and tear Ultracap and lithium-ion battery combination for improved performance and longer life at lower net energy storage cost 79
  80. 80. UC + Li-Ion Solution: • Energy optimized lithium-ion pack of >10kWh dedicated to meeting vehicle range requirements • Ultracaps de-stresses the lithium battery under charge conditions, all hi h rate b d h diti ll high t burdens and d during cold weather operation Growing i t • G th t t from other customers f i interest f for ultracapacitor + lithium-ion “ultra-battery”, especially for Plug-in and Battery-EV applications. applications 80
  81. 81. Combination of Ultracap and Li-Ion Battery Different potential behavior: Cell Potential (V)  Batteries store and deliver their 4.4 energy via redox reactions and 4.2 thereby hold th b h ld near constant potential t t t ti l 4.0 40 Spinel until the reactant mass is consumed 3.8 LiCoO2 Li(NMC)O2 3.6  Ultracapacitors are energy LiFePO4 3.4 accumulators and require a potential 3.2 change to absorb or deliver their 3.0 charge Ultracap 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Ah/kg  Direct parallel configuration (used in UPS) reveals unsufficient efficiency Power  Because of different voltage-current voltage current Li Ion Electronic ltracapacitor behaviors an active parallel Battery Converter configuration having a DC/DC converter interface the ultracapacitor to the lithi th lithium-ion b tt i battery is used i d Ul 81
  82. 82. Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations • Take a close look at the most common configurations – Tandem – direct paralleling of ultracacitor with battery – Active parallel – reliance on power electronic converter & controls. controls 82
  83. 83. Ultracapacitor and Battery Combinations Easiest is the direct parallel or tandem connection parallel, connection. For this investigation a representative Li-ion chemistry (LiFePO4) in large format (40Ah) is paralleled by a small ultracapacitor string: 24S x 1P x BMOD0058-P15 D Cell size (350F 2.5V), 144 cells in 24 modules of 6 (350F, 2 5V) 6. 83
  84. 84. Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination Obtain Obt i performance d t on t d f data tandem connection ti Software switch S1=0 S1 =1 84
  85. 85. Tandem (Direct) Ultracapacitor & Battery Combination Thermal stress of th combination i reduced overall (l Th l t f the bi ti is d d ll (low ESR of ultracapacitor) f lt it ) and partially shifted to ultracap for tandem connection. Switch S1 = 0 S1 = 1 85
  86. 86. Active Parallel HESS  Ultracap model connected by half-bridge converter (buck-boost) to the Li-Ion model  Key aspect of this configuration is the control of the DC/DC converter through the supervisory EMS controller Ib Ub IL Cdl Energy Management Supervisory Controller C t ll Ri(SOC,T) H1 Uc Ic Re(SOC,T) Ruc3 Ruc2 Ruc1 Lbb +Uo E(SOC,T,t) +Uo +Uo H2 Ac-Drive Cuc3(U) Cuc2(U) Cuc1(U) Buck-boost Motor Load Rsd dc-dc d d converter Ultracapacitor Pack Lithium-ion Pack Maxwell has released the ultracapacitor model through Ansoft as a library model in Simplorer. The description is also available in Battery Design Studio software used for lithium-ion battery modeling. 86
  87. 87. Active Parallel Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination Ultracapacitor and Lithi Ult it d Lithium-ion i A ti P ll l i in Active Parallel 87
  88. 88. Active Parallel Ultracapacitor and Battery Combination Model the lithium-ion, ultracapacitor, d d converter (Half-H) M d l th lithi i lt it dc-dc t (H lf H) and controller 88
  89. 89. Ultracapacitor – Battery Combinations Ultracapacitor and Lithium-ion in Active Parallel P ll l Energy lithium 8kWh to 30 kWh gy 280V to 400V 80 Wh to 150 Wh 90V to 150V Dc-dc converter Inductor Phase leg semiconductor Mototron controller 89
  90. 90. Ultracapacitor – Battery in Active Parallel Simulation d l for Si l ti model f 335 V lithi i k lithium-ion pack, pair of 48V ultracap modules and i f lt d l d dc-dc converter (half-H) with input current limits of 225A R term Bidire c tion al dc -d c C o n v e 3 35 V to 92 V w ith los s e s 2 mOhm B uck A M2 A D1 S1 R Li C filter IGB T TP _H 1 A 22 mF R ind L1 A M1 R uc 0.3 Ohm 335 V A M3 A W 4.5 mOhm 110 mH 22 mOhm + W M1 B oost S2 + V M1 E1 V R filter C dl 335 V + 150P Ohm 82 F D2 IGB T2 V V M2 TP _H 2 74 V I1 Equ iv Ba tte ry Pa D A TA P A IRS Equ iv U ltra c a p Pa c k Yt 2 S x 1 P x BMOD 0 16 5 -P d igital filter G( s ) to s mo o the n dc -d c c o nv FML_IN IT1 ICA: o utp u t c ur ren t u s ing 1 /ta u =5 ra d /s c u toff D riv e Pr ofi GS 2 GAIN H ys:=12 GA IN 3 3 G( s ) B uck:=0 GS 1 B oost:=0 oost: 0 C on s tra in U C c u rre n t t G( s ) LIMIT2 N ame := I_lim_pos:=225 le s s th a n 2 25 A at U mn GA IN 6 I_lim_pos L I MIT Sele c t State 1 o r Sta te 2 V M1.V MUL1_C onvP wr N ame := I_lim_neg:=-225 GA IN 7 MUL_LiP w I_lim_neg d ep en d ing o n d riv e p r GAI N GAI N FML1 EQU GA IN 1 S UM2 TP _H 1 P li:=V M1.V * R Li GAIN P uc:=V M2.V * Ruc. S TA TE TR A NS 1 S TA TE TR A NS 2 GA IN4 TH R E S 1 := -H ys TH R E S 2 := Hys B uck:=1 GAIN B uck:=0 I1.I>4 I1 I>4 I1.I<-4 I1 I< 4 Y 0 := 0 B oost:=1 B oost:=0 GA IN 2 S UM3 TP _H 2 GAIN B att_Losse Ene rg y Ma na g eme nt Str ateg y GA IN 5 TH R E S 1 := -H State ma c h in e for mod e c o ntro l P dl I H y s te re s is PW M c u rr en t b a nd c GAIN TH R E S 2 := H Y 0 := 0 UC_Losse P duc I H y s te re s is c omp ar ator s for PW M c on tr ol of the p ha s e leg : o n SU MMER ou tp ut ne g ativ e s lop e the c omp ar ator tra n s ition s fro m A2 to A1 lev el w he n inp u t SU MMER ou tpu t p o s itiv e s lo pe tr igg er s a tra ns itio n fro m A1 to A2 w h e n the in pu t r ea c h e s thr e U C_Conv_Lo P dac I 90