Qui & Sbc


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Qui & Sbc

  1. 1. Quit India Movement and Subhas Chandra Bose
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Events leading to QIM </li></ul><ul><li>Resignation of Congress Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of the Resignation </li></ul><ul><li>The August Offer 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Satyagraha </li></ul><ul><li>Cripps Mission 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of the Offer </li></ul><ul><li>The Course of the Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Government Repression </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of the Movement </li></ul><ul><li>S C Bose and the INA </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Events leading to the QIM <ul><li>The British Govt had thought that something had to be done in order to continue their rule in India. </li></ul><ul><li>After 3 RTC the British drew proposals for the reforms of the Indian Govt. </li></ul><ul><li>These reforms gave rise to the GIA 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>This Act provided for the creation of the AIF comprising the eleven British provinces and these Princely states </li></ul><ul><li>Elections in 1937- Congress ministers were formed in 7 out of 11 provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Sept 1939- II WW </li></ul>
  4. 4. Resignation of Congress Ministers <ul><li>British declared war without consulting the Indian leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians did not wish the Britain to lose because they looked down upon the Nazis and the Fascists as enemies of freedom and progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians opposed Imperialism of Italy, Germany and Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>British was against Imperialist tendencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians were unhappy. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian troops were sent to Singapore and Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>ILA passed emergency laws – limited the autonomy of the provinces and restricted the civil liberties of the people- hurt Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>CWC 8 th Sept 1939. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Lord Linlithgow- Viceroy of India issued a statement on 17 th Oct 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>Viceroy proposed to establish an advising council, representing all Indians in order to associate them in the war efforts of the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude- not ready to part with power and grant complete freedom- Dominion Status distant future. </li></ul><ul><li>Preaching of British. </li></ul><ul><li>Viceroy ordered the PG to carry on the war policy and made the Congress leaders powerless. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress accused British of Imperialistic designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuating their rule in India </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. Implications of the Resignation <ul><li>Viceroy was relieved by the resignation of the Congress Ministers as they controlled several policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress justified by reiterating its demands for independence and its opposition to imperialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress lost its goodwill of the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Resignation of Congress gave new lease of life to ML </li></ul><ul><li>ML lying low for 2 years burst into creativity and offered its friendship to British Govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 22 nd 1939- ML celebrated as a day of deliverance and launched a new offensive against the Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers of Punjab Bengal and Sindh did not resign and won the goodwill of the British. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4. The August Offer <ul><li>In WW II England was the target of Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>CWC offered help to British in War but…….. </li></ul><ul><li>India’s demand for independence should be conceded and a provincial National Government was formed at the Centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Also Viceroy should continue to hold office, but he should not veto the decision of the NG. </li></ul><ul><li>League opposed and British rejected to grant. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason – Power could not be given to a body whose authority is denied by large and powerful elements in India’s national life. </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 8 th 1940- Lord Linlithgow- August Offer </li></ul>
  8. 8. The August Offer <ul><li>After the war the Constitution would set up a Constitution making body to frame a Constitution for India. </li></ul><ul><li>The present Executive Council of the Viceroy would be expanded to include Indian leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>The Govt would give due weightage to the minority’s demand in the new scheme of reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>OFFFER WAS REJECTED BY CONGRESS BECAUSE: </li></ul><ul><li>AO did not satisfy the demands of the Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>No time limit to set up the Constitution making body. </li></ul><ul><li>No agreement could be reached on the expansion of the EC. </li></ul><ul><li>AO did not touch the provision of the NG </li></ul><ul><li>Nehru- AO was ‘as dead as a door nail’. </li></ul><ul><li>AO strengthen the hands of Jinnah to veto all Constitutional progress. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 5.Cripps Mission 1942 <ul><li>Dec 1941- Japan entered against in WW against England and started advancing towards India. </li></ul><ul><li>March 1942 Japanese were at the eastern frontiers of India. </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of Indian soldiers supporting the Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>British were alarmed. </li></ul><ul><li>British made another offer to Indian nationalists in order to win their support. </li></ul><ul><li>PM Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps with fresh proposals of Constitutional reforms. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Offer made by the Cripps <ul><li>A Constitution making body would be set up to draft a new Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian would be given the Dominion Status immediately after the end of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>It envisaged a federation of British India and the Indian states as a dominion within the British Commonwealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain would accept the Constitution framed by Constitution making body, subject to few conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian leaders were invited to participate in the Council of their country and the Commonwealth. </li></ul><ul><li>The power of Viceroy would remain as hitherto and he would be responsible for the defence of the country. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rejection of the Offer <ul><li>It offered Dominion Status and at the same time, granted provinces the right to secede from the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The powers of the Viceroy remained undiminished during the war and he was still responsible for the defence of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of the British Empire seemed to be uncertain at the moment . </li></ul><ul><li>The people from the Princely States had no right to send their representatives to the proposed Constitution making body. Their representatives were to be selected y the rulers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 6. Quit India Resolution <ul><li>CWC met at Wardha- demanded immediate withdrawal of the British from India. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted a resolution known as - QIR. </li></ul><ul><li>AICC- ratified the Resolution at Mumbai in 1942. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution said that – the continuance of BR in India was not good for India nor for the success of the allied nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Insisted – provisional government should be formed in India. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reasons that led to the Passing of QIR <ul><li>Failure of Cripps Mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan posed a threat to India. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Communal Problem. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 7.The Course of the Movement <ul><li>QIR – Gandhi: Final struggle for the freedom of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>9 th August Gandhi and others were arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>QIR and arrest of leaders reached India and the people responded by organising protests and demonstrations. </li></ul><ul><li>People from all walks of life and of all ages actively participated. </li></ul><ul><li>British offices of administration were attacked. </li></ul><ul><li>Some places – hartals, processions and demonstrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent protest halted public life and everything was paralysed. </li></ul><ul><li>In Ballia UP, the local leaders took over the town, Satars & Karnataka farmers started underground guerrilla resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Jayprakash Narayan, Ram Manohar Lohia, and Asaf Ali- prominent leaders of the underground movement. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Government Repression <ul><li>Sharp reaction by the Govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Repression transformed the country into a police state. </li></ul><ul><li>QIR and arrest of leaders reached India and the people responded by organising protests and demonstrations. </li></ul><ul><li>10,000people were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Unarmed people were killed in firing in Delhi by British. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress leaders of Bombay were hustled away from city in a special train. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi was detained in AKP & other leaders in jail at Ahmednagar Fort. </li></ul><ul><li>Machine gunning of mobs in Patna, Bhagalpur, Monghyr, Nadia and Talchar city. Many were convicted under the Defence of India Rules. </li></ul><ul><li>QIM was the last uprising against the British Rule in India & marked the culmination of British Rule in India. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Impact of the Movement <ul><li>It displayed the depth of national feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>People acquired great capacity for struggle and sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>It made the British realize that their days are numbered. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Subhash Chandra Bose and The INA <ul><li>Subhash Chandra Bose. </li></ul><ul><li>Forward Bloc </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest of Subhash Chandra Bose. </li></ul><ul><li>His work in South East Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Indian National Army </li></ul>
  18. 18. Subhash Chandra Bose <ul><li>Born on 23 rd Jan 1897 in a Bengali family settled at Cuttack in Orissa. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined Presidency college at Calcutta </li></ul><ul><li>Went to England for higher studies & passed ICS exam in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t like to work as a bureaucrat under British, hence joined the freedom movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not agree with Gandhiji yet actively participated in the freedom movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Participated in the CD movement. Filled with socialist ideas. Was elected President of Congress with the support of the younger elements in the Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>His differences with Gandhiji reached their heights in 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>Again elected President off Congress in 1939. </li></ul>
  19. 19. FORWARD BLOC <ul><li>Bose founded FB on 3 rd May in 1939 after having differences of opinion with Gandhiji. </li></ul><ul><li>FB wanted to unite the members of the left wing under 1 banner. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim of FB- rally all progressive, radical and anti imperialist elements in the Congress for struggle, for immediate liberation of India 4rm da British. </li></ul><ul><li>FB worked 4- rebuilding India on Socialist, fair and equitable lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers, peasants, employees, students and youths. </li></ul><ul><li>FB stood for world peace, disarmament, friendly relations with socialist countries, non alignment and a new economic order. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Formation of Indian Army <ul><li>Tokyo Conference passed a resolution: </li></ul><ul><li>To form an INA </li></ul><ul><li>To establish provisionally an Indian Independence League of overseas Indians in all Asian countries controlled by Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>To hold a conference of the representatives of Indians at Bangkok in June 1942. </li></ul>