National Movement 1

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National Movement 1

  1. 1. National Movement 1914-1917 A Bird’s Eye View
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>The First World War </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu – Muslim Relations </li></ul><ul><li>The LUCKNOW Pact 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>Home Rule Leagues </li></ul><ul><li>The August Declaration, 1917 </li></ul>
  3. 3. The First World War <ul><li>Broke out in 1914 and lasted till 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>War between two groups of hostile nations </li></ul><ul><li>ALLIES AXIS </li></ul><ul><li>Britain Germany </li></ul><ul><li>France Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Italy Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Japan Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul>
  4. 4. Involvement of India <ul><li>The main cause of the war= the policy of some powers to expand their empires. </li></ul><ul><li>India then being the colony of England was led into the war to safeguard the British interests. </li></ul><ul><li>British decided using Indian soldiers in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>First the nationalists opposed. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates followed a conciliatory attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Later INC agreed to cooperate with British in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Even Tilak supported. </li></ul><ul><li>India helped England with M,M,M. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 1million Indian troops served on the British side. </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence of this Congress leaders hoped for self governing domain under the British throne. </li></ul><ul><li>British appreciated Indian contribution in the war. </li></ul><ul><li>But British did not keep their word. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Hindu Muslim Relations <ul><li>Many international events that occurred changed the attitude of Muslims against British. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain was indifferent towards Turkey in Wars between Turkey and Italy & Balkan Wars between 1912&1913. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims felt British were pro- Christian and anti- Muslim. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims decided to support the Congress in their efforts to gain self government in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim leaders fostered the idea of self government in India. </li></ul><ul><li>News papers to published in order to mobolize public opinion for self govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim League session of 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1913 M A Jinnah joined League </li></ul><ul><li>Aim of Congress and League became identical </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest of famous leaders under Seditions Meeting Act. </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Madam Annie Besant and Tilak in fostering unity among the 2 organiastions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Lucknow Pact, 1916 <ul><li>LP- An outcome of efforts made by both the organisations to come to an agreement regarding political reforms in India. </li></ul><ul><li>December 1915, Mumbai- Annual Session of Congress and League. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders of both the parties forged a common plan of post war reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>December 1916, Lucknow- Annual Session of Congress and League, this joint scheme was adopted at Lucknow and came to be known as the Lucknow Pact. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of the Pact </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of the Pact </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Impact </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Terms of the Lucknow Pact <ul><li>India must not be treated as a dependency but as a self governing state. </li></ul><ul><li>ILC should consist of 150 members, of these 4/5 th were to be elected and 1/5 th nominated, 1/3 rd of the elected were to be Muslims, elected members of the ILC were to be elected by the elected members of the PLC. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate separate representation in elected bodies for minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Govt of India should not ordinarily interfere in the local affairs of the Province. Defence, foreign and political relations of India were excluded from the control of the IL. </li></ul><ul><li>No bill would be introduced by a non-official member if it affected the interest of any community. </li></ul><ul><li>Two permanent Under Secretaries should replace India Council of Secretary of State. </li></ul><ul><li>½ the members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be Indians, elected by the elected members of the ILC </li></ul><ul><li>Each bill passed by the Legislature should be effective unless vetoed by the G-G in Council. If the same bill was passed again by the legislative council within a year the govt would be obliged to pass it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Impact of the Pact <ul><li>Praised as great achievement, symbolized Hindu Muslim unity. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress and League demanded self govt </li></ul><ul><li>Govt could not easily reject the demand for constitutional reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Lucknow Session of the Congress- Extremists and the Moderate Congressmen were reconciled, Tilak became the most popular politician in the country, Home Rule Movement gave new impetus to National Movement. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Negative Impact <ul><li>The Congress failed to retain its secular character by agreeing to a scheme of communal electorate. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides this scheme provided for Muslim representation in the council in excess of their proportion in the total population. </li></ul><ul><li>The compromise demanded more sacrifice on the part of the Hindus. This marked the beginning of appeasement of Muslims by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>By the acceptance of separate electorates for Muslims, the Congress paved the way for future communal tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, the scheme did not involve either the masses of Hindus or Muslims. It was an agreement at the level of leadership. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Home Rule Leagues <ul><li>Two Home Rule leagues were founded in India in 1915-16 one led by Lokmanya Tilak and other by Mrs. Annie Besant and Subramanya Iyer. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Annie Besant and the Home Rule Movement </li></ul><ul><li>B. Tilak and the Home Rule Movement </li></ul><ul><li>c. Impact of the Movement </li></ul>
  11. 11. C. Impact of the Movement <ul><li>HRM intensified the demand for the grant of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Tilak and Mrs. Besant infused new life in the National Movement. </li></ul><ul><li>HRM brought together the Moderates and the Radicals in the Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>HRM encouraged participation of women in large numbers, HRL for India were established in London and New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress and the League joined hands in presenting a Common Charter of Demand. </li></ul><ul><li>British Govt was forced to change its attitude in India. </li></ul><ul><li>On August 20, 1917, the Secrt of State, Mr. Montague announced in the House of Commons, that the policy of the British government was to develop gradually self-governing institutions in India. </li></ul><ul><li>The Government of India Act was passed which introduced several significant changes in the administration of the provinces. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 5. The August Declaration. 1917 (Montague-Chelmsford Declaration) <ul><li>British Govt made a declaration on 20 th Aug, 1917 announcing the British policy towards India. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The August Declaration 1917 <ul><li>20 th Aug 1917-declaration by British Govt announcing the British policy towards India. </li></ul><ul><li>E S Montague made the announcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement disappointed the Indian Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Motague the Secretary of State for India with Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy of India. </li></ul><ul><li>Govt of India Act 1919 was passed on the basis of their Report – came into operation in 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>The reforms embodied – Montague Chelmsford Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Object of the Act- to give some responsibility to the Indian representatives elected by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>British-Central Govt = Indians-administration of the provinces (states) </li></ul><ul><li>Diarchy- Dual Rule </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>According to this arrangement: </li></ul><ul><li>Centre would control Law & Order, affairs, finance, defence, external and communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Provinces would control irrigation, forests, health, education. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian leaders found these reforms inadequate, unsatisfactory and illusory. </li></ul><ul><li>This dissatisfaction of the people spurred them to widespread agitations. </li></ul>

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