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An Introduction to Translating Software Documentation Ryan Ginstrom
What I will talk about today <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Honing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Tools of the trade </li...
Many different types <ul><li>Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Targets </li></ul>
Readers <ul><li>End users </li></ul><ul><li>Programmers </li></ul><ul><li>“Pointy-haired people” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mar...
Target: end users vs. developers Load the application in X mode (run also OK) Run the program in X mode X モードでアプリケーションを起動す...
Targets <ul><li>Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft / *Nix / Mac / Web application / mobile devices </li></ul></ul><u...
What is good translation? <ul><li>Should read like a target-language document </li></ul><ul><li>Not like a translation </l...
Honing skills <ul><li>Technical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of source language </li></ul><ul><li>Technical writi...
Honing technical knowledge <ul><li>Read one technical book in our target language per month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think ab...
Learn to program! <ul><li>Python </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.python.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to learn  </li></ul>...
Source language <ul><li>Know the  terminology  in the source language </li></ul><ul><li>Read fluently </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...
Rite away… <ul><li>English original (method description): </li></ul><ul><li>Performs last rites on the object. </li></ul><...
Target language <ul><li>Technical writing </li></ul><ul><li>Pretending to sound like you know what you’re talking about </...
Weaknesses abound <ul><li>We’re not engineers </li></ul><ul><li>We’re not technical writers </li></ul><ul><li>We’re not na...
We are translators <ul><li>Humility (but not too much!) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an open mind </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly l...
Tools of the trade <ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Technical references </li></ul><ul><li>Technical  style guides <...
Dictionaries <ul><li>電気情報和英辞典 オーム社 編 </li></ul><ul><li>数学 英和・和英辞典 小松勇作 編 </li></ul><ul><li>和英 コンピュータ用語大辞典 Japanese-English...
Technical references <ul><li>O’Reilly’s “In a Nutshell” series </li></ul><ul><li>Books on software development </li></ul><...
Others… <ul><li>The Windows Interface Guidelines for Software Design </li></ul><ul><li>Developing User Interfaces for Micr...
Technical style guides (online) <ul><li>Apple Publications Style Guide (PDF)  http://developer.apple.com/documentation/ </...
Technical style guides (dead trees) <ul><li>Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Read Me...
From Microsoft Manual of Style <ul><li>Correct </li></ul><ul><li>On the  File  menu, click  Open . </li></ul><ul><li>Incor...
But from Sun’s manual… <ul><li>Menu option names appear in the document’s default font and do not receive any special typo...
Microsoft Manual of Style on Usage Do not use in content for home users or information workers. Use  command  instead (c.f...
Software <ul><li>Translation memory </li></ul><ul><li>Online/electronic dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Text to speech/dict...
The good, the bad, and the ugly <ul><li>Sample source and translation </li></ul><ul><li>You make the call </li></ul><ul><l...
Exceptional <ul><li>Japanese original </li></ul><ul><li>このメソッドでは、要素の取得に失敗する場合、例外が発生します。 </li></ul><ul><li>English translat...
UGLY <ul><li>このメソッドでは、要素の取得に失敗する場合、例外が発生します。 </li></ul><ul><li>In this method, an exception occurs if the acquisition of t...
Use the source, Luke! <ul><li>ファイルの保存時に保存元と保存先のファイル内容を比較する </li></ul><ul><li>When saving a file, the contents of the save ...
BAD <ul><li>ファイルの保存時に保存元と保存先のファイル内容を比較する </li></ul><ul><li>When saving a file, the contents of the save source and save de...
Count on it <ul><li>この参照カウントは、 LoadLibrary  関数が呼び出されるたびに  1  増加し、 FreeLibrary  関数が呼び出されるたびに  1  減少します。 </li></ul><ul><li>T...
GOOD <ul><li>この参照カウントは、 LoadLibrary  関数が呼び出されるたびに  1  増加し、 FreeLibrary  関数が呼び出されるたびに  1  減少します。 </li></ul><ul><li>This ref...
More on exceptions <ul><li>例外 :  </li></ul><ul><li>XYZException -  引数  foo  が  null  の場合に発生します。  </li></ul><ul><li>Excepti...
UGLY (trick question) <ul><li>例外 :  </li></ul><ul><li>XYZException -  引数  foo  が  null  の場合に発生します。  </li></ul><ul><li>Exce...
The dating game <ul><li>このサンプルでは、これらのテーブルを  XML  データとして保存します。 </li></ul><ul><li>In this sample, these tables are saved as ...
BAD <ul><li>このサンプルでは、これらのテーブルを  XML  データとして保存します。 </li></ul><ul><li>In this sample, these tables are saved as XML data. </...
What’s your destination? <ul><li>保存先のフォルダを開いて,「 foo. exe」をダブルクリックして下さい。 </li></ul><ul><li>Open the save destination folder...
UGLY <ul><li>保存先のフォルダを開いて,「 foo. exe」をダブルクリックして下さい。 </li></ul><ul><li>Open the save destination folder, and double click t...
More API stuff <ul><li>インデックスが範囲外の場合に 黒色  ( 0, 0, 0 )  を返します。 </li></ul><ul><li>If the index is outside the scope, returns...
BAD <ul><li>インデックスが範囲外の場合に 黒色  ( 0, 0, 0 )  を返します。 </li></ul><ul><li>If the index is outside the scope, returns black (0, ...
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Ijet Talk

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My talk from IJET-17 on software-related translation

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Ijet Talk

  1. 1. An Introduction to Translating Software Documentation Ryan Ginstrom
  2. 2. What I will talk about today <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Honing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Tools of the trade </li></ul><ul><li>The good, the bad, and the ugly </li></ul>
  3. 3. Many different types <ul><li>Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Targets </li></ul>
  4. 4. Readers <ul><li>End users </li></ul><ul><li>Programmers </li></ul><ul><li>“Pointy-haired people” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing departments… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Target: end users vs. developers Load the application in X mode (run also OK) Run the program in X mode X モードでアプリケーションを起動する Deprecated Obsolete 推奨されない Debugging Troubleshooting 不具合の究明 Developers End users
  6. 6. Targets <ul><li>Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft / *Nix / Mac / Web application / mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device driver / desktop application / online shopping cart / Webmail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruct / inform / publicize </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is good translation? <ul><li>Should read like a target-language document </li></ul><ul><li>Not like a translation </li></ul><ul><li>Write for the reader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Honing skills <ul><li>Technical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of source language </li></ul><ul><li>Technical writing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Honing technical knowledge <ul><li>Read one technical book in our target language per month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about that </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learn to program? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learn to program! <ul><li>Python </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.python.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ruby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ruby-lang.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Made in Japan” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Basic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros: Simple, useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con: Dead (replaced by VB .NET) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Source language <ul><li>Know the terminology in the source language </li></ul><ul><li>Read fluently </li></ul><ul><li>“ Good enough” isn’t </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rite away… <ul><li>English original (method description): </li></ul><ul><li>Performs last rites on the object. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese translation: </li></ul><ul><li>オブジェクトに対して 最終書き込み を行います。 </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Target language <ul><li>Technical writing </li></ul><ul><li>Pretending to sound like you know what you’re talking about </li></ul>
  14. 14. Weaknesses abound <ul><li>We’re not engineers </li></ul><ul><li>We’re not technical writers </li></ul><ul><li>We’re not native speakers of one of our languages </li></ul>
  15. 15. We are translators <ul><li>Humility (but not too much!) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an open mind </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly learn </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tools of the trade <ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Technical references </li></ul><ul><li>Technical style guides </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dictionaries <ul><li>電気情報和英辞典 オーム社 編 </li></ul><ul><li>数学 英和・和英辞典 小松勇作 編 </li></ul><ul><li>和英 コンピュータ用語大辞典 Japanese-English Dictionary of Computer (AKA “The Lacker”) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Technical references <ul><li>O’Reilly’s “In a Nutshell” series </li></ul><ul><li>Books on software development </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly target language </li></ul>
  19. 19. Others… <ul><li>The Windows Interface Guidelines for Software Design </li></ul><ul><li>Developing User Interfaces for Microsoft Windows </li></ul>
  20. 20. Technical style guides (online) <ul><li>Apple Publications Style Guide (PDF) http://developer.apple.com/documentation/ </li></ul><ul><li>Sun – Writing for the Web http://www.sun.com/980713/webwriting/ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Technical style guides (dead trees) <ul><li>Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Read Me First! A Style Guide for the Computer Industry (Sun) </li></ul>
  22. 22. From Microsoft Manual of Style <ul><li>Correct </li></ul><ul><li>On the File menu, click Open . </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>On the File menu, choose the Open command . </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>[ ファイル ] メニューから [ 開く ] コマンド を 選択 し… </li></ul>
  23. 23. But from Sun’s manual… <ul><li>Menu option names appear in the document’s default font and do not receive any special typographic styling. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Edit menu, choose Paste. </li></ul><ul><li>(or) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose Edit  Paste. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Read Me First! </li></ul>
  24. 24. Microsoft Manual of Style on Usage Do not use in content for home users or information workers. Use command instead (c.f. メニュー項目 ) menu item Avoid in all content as a verb; use type or another appropriate verb instead. (c.f. 入力 ) input Do not use hint as a heading for a type of note; use tip instead. hint Not PC or machine or box , regardless of audience. computer In general, refer to a button only by its label. Correct: Select the file you want to open and then click OK . button Avoid in content for home users and information workers; use program instead. application
  25. 25. Software <ul><li>Translation memory </li></ul><ul><li>Online/electronic dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Text to speech/dictation </li></ul><ul><li>Gluing </li></ul>
  26. 26. The good, the bad, and the ugly <ul><li>Sample source and translation </li></ul><ul><li>You make the call </li></ul><ul><li>Then look at what I thought when I wrote this </li></ul>
  27. 27. Exceptional <ul><li>Japanese original </li></ul><ul><li>このメソッドでは、要素の取得に失敗する場合、例外が発生します。 </li></ul><ul><li>English translation </li></ul><ul><li>In this method, an exception occurs if the acquisition of the element fails. </li></ul>
  28. 28. UGLY <ul><li>このメソッドでは、要素の取得に失敗する場合、例外が発生します。 </li></ul><ul><li>In this method, an exception occurs if the acquisition of the element fails. </li></ul><ul><li>This method throws an exception if it fails to acquire the element. </li></ul>例外の発生 : Throw/raise an exception
  29. 29. Use the source, Luke! <ul><li>ファイルの保存時に保存元と保存先のファイル内容を比較する </li></ul><ul><li>When saving a file, the contents of the save source and save destination files are compared </li></ul>
  30. 30. BAD <ul><li>ファイルの保存時に保存元と保存先のファイル内容を比較する </li></ul><ul><li>When saving a file, the contents of the save source and save destination files are compared </li></ul><ul><li>When you save the file, the original file and the file to be saved are compared. </li></ul>Don’t be afraid to write English
  31. 31. Count on it <ul><li>この参照カウントは、 LoadLibrary 関数が呼び出されるたびに 1 増加し、 FreeLibrary 関数が呼び出されるたびに 1 減少します。 </li></ul><ul><li>This reference count is incremented each time LoadLibrary is called and decremented each time FreeLibrary is called. </li></ul>
  32. 32. GOOD <ul><li>この参照カウントは、 LoadLibrary 関数が呼び出されるたびに 1 増加し、 FreeLibrary 関数が呼び出されるたびに 1 減少します。 </li></ul><ul><li>This reference count is incremented each time LoadLibrary is called and decremented each time FreeLibrary is called. </li></ul>参照カウント : reference count 1 増加 : increment 1 減少 : decrement
  33. 33. More on exceptions <ul><li>例外 : </li></ul><ul><li>XYZException - 引数 foo が null の場合に発生します。 </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>XYZException – Thrown if parameter foo is null. </li></ul>
  34. 34. UGLY (trick question) <ul><li>例外 : </li></ul><ul><li>XYZException - 引数 foo が null の場合に発生します。 </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>XYZException – Thrown if parameter foo is null. </li></ul><ul><li>Throws: </li></ul><ul><li>XYZException – If parameter foo is null. </li></ul>Convention!
  35. 35. The dating game <ul><li>このサンプルでは、これらのテーブルを XML データとして保存します。 </li></ul><ul><li>In this sample, these tables are saved as XML data. </li></ul>
  36. 36. BAD <ul><li>このサンプルでは、これらのテーブルを XML データとして保存します。 </li></ul><ul><li>In this sample, these tables are saved as XML data. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sample, these tables are saved as an XML file. </li></ul>データ : File
  37. 37. What’s your destination? <ul><li>保存先のフォルダを開いて,「 foo. exe」をダブルクリックして下さい。 </li></ul><ul><li>Open the save destination folder, and double click the “foo.exe” icon. </li></ul>
  38. 38. UGLY <ul><li>保存先のフォルダを開いて,「 foo. exe」をダブルクリックして下さい。 </li></ul><ul><li>Open the save destination folder, and double click the “foo.exe” icon. </li></ul><ul><li>Open the folder where you saved the file, and click on the “foo.exe” icon. </li></ul>The user just wants to get the job done
  39. 39. More API stuff <ul><li>インデックスが範囲外の場合に 黒色 ( 0, 0, 0 ) を返します。 </li></ul><ul><li>If the index is outside the scope, returns black (0, 0, 0). </li></ul>
  40. 40. BAD <ul><li>インデックスが範囲外の場合に 黒色 ( 0, 0, 0 ) を返します。 </li></ul><ul><li>If the index is outside the scope, returns black (0, 0, 0). </li></ul><ul><li>If the index is out of bounds, returns black (0, 0, 0). </li></ul>範囲外 : out of bounds
  41. 41. Thank You

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