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A Clear description of Aquaponics: integration of hydroponics with aquaculture


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Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture

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A Clear description of Aquaponics: integration of hydroponics with aquaculture

  1. 1. Aquaponics—Integration of ATTRA Hydroponics with Aquaculture A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • By Steve Diver Aquaponics is a bio-integrated system that links recirculating aquaculture with hydroponic vegetable, NCAT Agriculture flower, and/or herb production. Recent advances by researchers and growers alike have turned aqua- Specialist ponics into a working model of sustainable food production. This publication provides an introduction ©2006 NCAT to aquaponics with brief profiles of working units around the country. An extensive list of resources point the reader to print and Web-based educational materials for further technical assistance. Contents In aquaponics, nutrient-rich effluent from fish tanks is used to fertigate hydroponic Introduction ..................... 1 production beds. This is good for the Aquaponics: Key Elements and fish because plant roots and rhizobacteria Considerations ................ 2 remove nutrients from the water. These Aquaponic Systems ....... 3 nutrients—generated from fish manure, The North Carolina State algae, and decomposing fish feed—are con- University System .......... 4 taminants that would otherwise build up The Speraneo System ... 5 to toxic levels in the fish tanks, but instead The University of the serve as liquid fertilizer to hydroponically Virgin Islands System .... 7 Aquaponic vegetable bed in Australia. grown plants. In turn, the hydroponic beds The Freshwater Institute Photo by Joel Malcolm, Backyard Aquaponics. function as a biofilter— stripping off ammo- System ................................ 8 (with permission) nia, nitrates, nitrites, and phosphorus— The Cabbage Hill Farm System ................................ 9 so the freshly cleansed water can then be The New Alchemy recirculated back into the fish tanks. The Institute.............................. 9 Introduction nitrifying bacteria living in the gravel and in A Miscellaneous association with the plant roots play a criti- Systems ............................ 11 quaponics, also known as the integra- cal role in nutrient cycling; without these Organic Aquaculture .. 11 tion of hydroponics with aquaculture, microorganisms the whole system would Evaluating an Aquaponic is gaining increased attention as a stop functioning. Enterprise ........................ 12 bio-integrated food production system. References ...................... 13 Greenhouse growers and farmers are taking Aquaponics serves as a model of sus- note of aquaponics for several reasons: Resources ........................ 13 tainable food production by following Appendix......................... 19 • Hydroponic growers view fish- Bibliography on certain principles: manured irrigation water as a Aquaponics .............. 19 source of organic fertilizer that • The waste products of one biological Dissertations............ 25 enables plants to grow well. system serve as nutrients for a sec- ond biological system. • Fish farmers view hydroponics as • The integration of fish and plants a biofiltration method to facilitate intensive recirculating aquaculture. ATTRA—National Sustainable results in a polyculture that Agriculture Information Service increases diversity and yields • Greenhouse growers view aquapon- is managed by the National Cen- ter for Appropriate Technology multiple products. ics as a way to introduce organic (NCAT) and is funded under a hydroponic produce into the market- grant from the United States • Water is re-used through biological place, since the only fertility input Department of Agriculture’s Rural Business-Cooperative Ser- filtration and recirculation. is fish feed and all of the nutrients vice. Visit the NCAT Web site ( • Loca l food product ion pro - pass through a biological process. html) for more informa- tion on our sustainable vides access to healthy foods and • Food-producing greenhouses— agriculture projects. ���� enhances the local economy. yielding two products from one
  2. 2. production unit—are naturally Hydroponics: Hydroponics is the produc- appealing for niche marketing and tion of plants in a soilless medium whereby green labeling. all of the nutrients supplied to the crop are • Aquaponics can enable the produc- dissolved in water. Liquid hydroponic sys- tems employ the nutrient film technique tion of fresh vegetables and fish pro- (NFT), floating rafts, and noncirculating tein in arid regions and on water- water culture. Aggregate hydroponic sys- limited farms, since it is a water tems employ inert, organic, and mixed re-use system. media contained in bag, trough, trench, • Aquaponics is a working model of pipe, or bench setups. Aggregate media sustainable food production wherein used in these systems include perlite, ver- plant and animal agriculture are miculite, gravel, sand, expanded clay, peat, integrated and recycling of nutrients and sawdust. Normally, hydroponic plants and water filtration are linked. are fertigated (soluble fertilizers injected • In addition to commercial appli- into irrigation water) on a periodical cycle cation, aquaponics has become a to maintain moist roots and provide a con- popular training aid on integrated stant supply of nutrients. These hydroponic Related ATTRA nutrients are usually derived from synthetic bio-systems with vocational agri- Publications commercial fertilizers, such as calcium culture programs and high school nitrate, that are highly soluble in water. Evaluating an biology classes. Aquaculture However, hydro-organics—based on solu- Enterprise The technology associated with aquapon- ble organic fertilizers such as fish hydrosyl- ics is complex. It requires the ability to ate—is an emerging practice. Hydroponic Agricultural Business simultaneously manage the production recipes are based on chemical formula- Planning Templates and marketing of two different agricultural tions that deliver precise concentrations of and Resources products. Until the 1980s, most attempts mineral elements. The controlled deliv- at integrated hydroponics and aquacul- ery of nutrients, water, and environmen- ture had limited success. However, inno- tal modifications under greenhouse condi- vations since the 1980s have transformed tions is a major reason why hydroponics is aquaponics technology into a viable sys- so successful. tem of food production. Modern aquaponic Nutrients in Aquaculture Eff luent: systems can be highly successful, but they Greenhouse growers normally control the require intensive management and they have delivery of precise quantities of mineral special considerations. elements to hydroponic plants. However, This publication provides an introduction to in aquaponics, nutrients are delivered via aquaponics, it profiles successful aquaponic aquacultural effluent. Fish effluent contains greenhouses, and it provides extensive sufficient levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, resources. It does not attempt to describe phosphorus, potassium, and other second- production methods in comprehensive tech- ary and micronutrients to produce hydro- nical detail, but it does provide a summary ponic plants. Naturally, some plant species are better adapted to this system than oth- of key elements and considerations. ers. The technical literature on aquaponics provides greater detail on hydroponic nutri- Aquaponics: Key Elements ent delivery; especially see papers cited in and Considerations the Bibliography by James Rakocy, PhD. A successful aquaponics enterprise requires Plants Adapted to Aquaponics: The special training, skills, and management. selection of plant species adapted to hydro- The following items point to key elements ponic culture in aquaponic greenhouses and considerations to help prospective grow- is related to stocking density of fish tanks ers evaluate the integration of hydroponics and subsequent nutrient concentration of with aquaculture. aquacultural effluent. Lettuce, herbs, and Page 2 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  3. 3. specialty greens (spinach, chives, basil, and products to forms more available to plants watercress) have low to medium nutritional prior to delivery to hydroponic vegetable requirements and are well adapted to aqua- beds. Other systems deliver fish effluent ponic systems. Plants yielding fruit (toma- directly to gravel-cultured hydroponic veg- toes, bell peppers, and cucumbers) have etable beds. The gravel functions as a “flu- a higher nutritional demand and perform idized bed bioreactor,” removing dissolved better in a heavily stocked, well established solids and providing habitat for nitrifying aquaponic system. Greenhouse varieties bacteria involved in nutrient conversions. of tomatoes are better adapted to low light, The design manuals and technical docu- high humidity conditions in greenhouses mentation available in the Resources sec- than field varieties. tion can help growers decide which system is most appropriate. Fish Species: Several warm-water and cold-water fish species are adapted to recir- Component Ratio: Matching the volume culating aquaculture systems, including of fish tank water to volume of hydroponic tilapia, trout, perch, Arctic char, and bass. media is known as component ratio. Early However, most commercial aquaponic sys- aquaponics systems were based on a ratio T tems in North America are based on tila- of 1:1, but 1:2 is now common and tank: ilapia is a pia. Tilapia is a warm-water species that bed ratios as high as 1:4 are employed. warm-water grows well in a recirculating tank culture. The variation in range depends on type of Furthermore, tilapia is tolerant of fluctuat- hydroponic system (gravel vs. raft), fish spe- species that ing water conditions such as pH, tempera- cies, fish density, feeding rate, plant spe- grows well in a recir- ture, oxygen, and dissolved solids. Tilapia cies, etc. For example, the Speraneo system culating tank cul- produces a white-fleshed meat suitable to described below is designed for one cubic ture. local and wholesale markets. The literature foot of water to two cubic feet of grow bed on tilapia contains extensive technical doc- media (pea gravel). Further, when shallow umentation and cultural procedures. Bar- bed systems only three inches in depth are ramundi and Murray cod fish species are employed for the production of specialty raised in recirculating aquaponic systems greens such as lettuce and basil, the square in Australia. footage of grow space will increase four times. Depending on the system design, the Water Quality Characteristics: Fish component ratio can favor greater outputs of raised in recirculating tank culture require either hydroponic produce or fish protein. good water quality conditions. Water qual- A “node” is a configuration that links one ity testing kits from aquacultural sup- fish tank to a certain number of hydroponic ply companies are fundamental. Critical beds. Thus, one greenhouse may contain water quality parameters include dissolved a multiple number of fish tanks and asso- oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrate, ciated growing beds, each arranged in a nitrite, pH, chlorine, and other character- separate node. istics. The stocking density of fish, growth rate of fish, feeding rate and volume, and related environmental fluctuations can elicit Male tilapia fish. AARM rapid changes in water quality; constant - Aquaculture & Aquatic and vigilant water quality monitoring Resources Management Asian Institute of is essential. Technology, Thailand. Biofiltration and Suspended Solids: modules/xcgal/ Aquaculture effluent contains nutrients, dis- solved solids, and waste byproducts. Some aquaponic systems are designed with inter- Aquaponic Systems mediate filters and cartridges to collect sus- Profiles of several aquaponic greenhouses pended solids in fish effluent, and to facili- are highlighted below as models of com- tate conversion of ammonia and other waste mercially viable systems. Most of these ATTRA Page 3
  4. 4. operations are featured in magazine articles fish can bring premium prices, and conference proceedings. Some oper- particularly during winter months ations offer technical assistance through in urban areas. short courses, design manuals, and on-site • Biofilters (sand beds with vegeta- tours. Please refer to articles in the Sug- bles) that are alternately flooded gested Reading list, the Resources sec- and drained with nutrient-laden fish tion, and the Bibliography for in-depth tank water are called reciprocating descriptions and technical details. biofilters. • Reciprocating biofilters provide The North Carolina State uniform distribution of nutrient- University System laden water within the filtration In the 1980’s Mark McMurtry (former medium during the flood cycle, and graduate student) and the late Doug Sand- improved aeration from atmospheric ers (professor) at North Carolina State Uni- exchange during each dewatering versity developed an aqua-vegeculture sys- with benefits to both nitrifying bac- tem based on tilapia fish tanks sunk below teria and plant roots. W ater con- the greenhouse floor. Effluent from the fish • Dissolved and suspended organic sump- tanks was trickle-irrigated onto sand-cul- materia ls accumulate rapidly tion in tured hydroponic vegetable beds located at in aquaculture systems and must ground level. The nutrients in the irrigation be removed for efficient fish an integrated aqua- water fed tomato and cucumber crops, and production. vegeculture system the sand beds and plant roots functioned as • Previous integrated fish-vegetable amounts to 1 per- a biofilter. After draining from the beds, systems removed suspended solids cent of that required the water recirculated back into the fish from the water by sedimentation in in pond culture to tanks. The only fertility input to the system clarifiers prior to plant application. was fish feed (32 percent protein). Removal of the solid wastes resulted produce equivalent tilapia yields. S ome f i nd i ng s a nd h i gh l i ght s of in insufficient residual nutrients for McMurtry’s research: good plant growth; acceptable fruit yields had previously only been • Benefits of integrating aquaculture achieved with substantial supple- and vegetable production are: mentation of plant nutrients. 1. conservation of water resources • Aquaeous nitrate concentrations in and plant nutrients recirculating aquaculture can be 2. intensive production of fish adequately regulated when fish and protein vegetable production are linked via reciprocating biofilters. 3. reduced operating costs relative to either system in isolation. • Tomatoes may have also assimi- lated nitrogen in organic amino • Water consumption in an integrated acid forms. In 1950 Gosh and Bur- aqua-vegeculture system amounts to ris (Utilization of nitrogenous com- 1 percent of that required in pond pounds by plants. Soil Science. culture to produce equivalent tilapia Vol. 70: 187-203) found that toma- yields. toes utilize alanine, glutamic acid, • Such low-water-use symbiotic sys- histidine, and leucine as effectively tems are applicable to the needs as inorganic nitrogen sources. of arid or semi-arid regions where • Research to determine the optimum fish and fresh vegetables are in high ratio of fish tank to biofilter volume demand. on fish growth rate and water qual- • Organic vine-ripened, pesticide- ity found that stocking density of free produce and “fresh-daily” fish and plants can vary depending Page 4 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  5. 5. on desired goal. The component tank-plus-hydroponic bed setup as a “node.” ratios of the system may be manipu- This way, each node can operate indepen- lated to favour fish or vegetable pro- dently of one another. duction according to local market Some aspects of the Speraneo system were trends or dietary needs. Fish stock- modeled after the aquaponics research at ing density and feeding rates are North Carolina State University, while oth- adjusted to optimize water quality ers are modified. The Speraneos employ as influenced by plant growth rate. hydroponic vegetable beds as “fluidized See the Bibliography on Aquaponics bed reactors,” but they use pea-grade river in the appendix for a of list articles that gravel instead of sand. Tilapia are raised resulted from the North Carolina research. in fish tanks, but the tanks are more con- Aqua-vegeculture research at NCSU has veniently located above ground and tilapia been discontinued because the technology hybrids adapted to cooler water tempera- had evolved to the point where it is ready tures are grown. The reciprocating water for grower application. The Department of cycle, PVC piping, and return-flow water Horticulture and the Cooperative Extension pumping methods were designed by Tom T Service at NCSU provide technical assis- and Paula to match their system. he Spera- tance to aquaponic greenhouse growers in For years, Purina® fish chow at 40 percent neo system North Carolina. protein was the primary fertility input, sup- was practi- plemented with tank-cultured algae. Tila- cal, productive, and The Speraneo System pia in the Speraneo system are raised for 7 to 12 months, then harvested at one to wildly successful. In the early 1990s, Tom and Paula Spe- raneo—owners of S & S Aqua Farm near one-and-a-half pounds in size. Later, Tom West Plains, Missouri—modified the North started adding small amounts of Planters Carolina State method by raising tilapia in 2® rock dust on top of the gravel as a trace a 500-gallon tank, with fish effluent linked element supplement. to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable S & S Aqua Farm has grown fresh basil, beds inside an attached solar greenhouse. tomatoes, cucumbers, mixed salad greens, Later, they expanded to a full-size commer- and an assortment of vegetable, herb, and cial greenhouse. The Speraneo system was ornamental bedding plants in the aqua- practical, productive, and wildly successful. ponic greenhouse. In the early 1990’s, It became the model for dozens of commer- Tom and Paula were raising and selling cial aquaponic greenhouses and high school basil for $12 a pound to gourmet restau- biology programs. rants about four hours away in St. Louis, Sadly, Tom Speraneo died in February Missouri. Following passage of the North 2004. Tom was a true pioneer in aqua- American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), ponics, and he was unfailingly generous however, Mexican imports of basil resulted and helpful to others. Paula Speraneo in a market crash to $4 per pound, so they and her family continue to run the green- dropped the St. Louis market. S & S Aqua house and actively participate in aqua- Farm now grows a diverse variety of vege- ponics technology transfer. The following table and herbs, selling locally at a farmers notes describe the Speraneo system and market combined with direct sales out of available resources. their greenhouse. The commercia l-sca le solar g reen- Tom once calculated the farm produces 45 house at S & S Aqua Farm is 50 feet by to 70 pounds of produce for every pound of 80 feet, oriented East-West to create a tilapia, an impressive yield. However, Paula south-facing slope. It contains six 1,200 explained this figure takes into account the gallon fish tanks. Each tank is linked to cummulative yields of multiple vegetable six one-foot-deep hydroponic beds filled crops raised during the 7 to 12 month time with river gravel. Tom referred to each period required to raise fish to harvest. ATTRA Page 5
  6. 6. Aquaponic greenhouse at S&S Aqua Farms, West Plains, Missouri. Photos by Steve Diver, NCAT. Page 6 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  7. 7. The component ratio favors vegetables over rearing tanks, and the aquacultural efflu- fish yields in the Speraneo system. ent is linked to floating raft hydroponics. Basil, lettuce, okra, and other crops have Interest in the Speraneo system resulted been raised successfully, with outstanding in more than 10,000 visitors to the small quality and yields. farm in Missouri, including school children, farmers, researchers, and government offi- The system components include: Four fish cials. To handle requests for assistance, the rearing tanks at 7,800 liters each, clarifi- Speraneos compiled a resource packet and ers, filter and degassing tanks, air diffus- design manual with technical specifications ers, sump, base addition tank, pipes and to establish an S & S Aqua Farm-style aqua- pumps, and six 400-square foot hydroponic ponic system. The resource packet includes troughs totaling 2,400 sq. ft. The pH is a 10-minute video and a list of supplies. monitored daily and maintained at 7.0 to Response from growers to a practical design 7.5 by alternately adding calcium hydroxide manual such as this was tremendous. The and potassium hydroxide to the base addi- Speraneo system is now in use worldwide. tion tank, which buffers the aquatic system The resource packet, which sells for $250, and supplements calcium and potassium J is available through: ions at the same time. The only other sup- ames Rakocy, S & S Aqua Farm plemental nutrient required is iron, which PhD, and asso- [Contact: Paula Speraneo] is added in a chelated form once every ciates at the 8386 County Rd. 8820 three weeks. University of the West Plains, MO 65775 Tilapia are stocked at a rate of 77 fish per Virgin Islands (UVI) 417-256-5124 cubic meter for Nile tilapia, or 154 fish per developed a com- cubic meter for red tilapia and cultured for 24 weeks. The production schedule is stag- mercial-scale aqua- gered so that one tank is harvested every ponic system that Especially see: six weeks. After harvest, the fish tank is has run continu- Maturing Marvel immediately restocked. The fish are fed ously for more than by Vern Modeland three times daily with a complete, floating five years. The Growing Edge, May-June 1998 fish pellet at 32 percent protein. Projected annual fish production is 4.16 metric tons The Genius of Simplicity for Nile tilapia and 4.78 metric tons for by John Wesely Smith red tilapia. The Growing Edge, Winter 1993-94 In one notable experiment the UVI researchers compared the yields of a leafy Bioponics—Revolution in Food Grow- herb (basil) and a fruiting vegetable (okra) ing: Missouri Aquafarmer Discovers grown in aquaponic vs field production sys- Huge Benefits in Trace Elements tems. Basil and okra were raised in raft by David Yarrow hydroponics. Yields of aquaponic basil Remineralize the Earth, December 1997 were three times greater than field-grown, while yields of aquaponic okra were 18 bioponics.htm times greater than field-grown. Based on a market price in the U.S. Virgin Islands of $22 per kg for fresh basil with stems, The University of the Virgin researchers calculated gross income poten- Islands System tial. The aquaponic method would result in James Rakocy, PhD, and associates at the $515 per cubic meter per year or $110,210 University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) devel- per system per year. This compares to field- oped a commercial-scale aquaponic system produced basil at $172 per cubic meter that has run continuously for more than five per year or $36,808 per year for the same years. Nile and red tilapia are raised in fish production area. When fish sales ATTRA Page 7
  8. 8. are included, the aquaponic system ista6web/pdf/676.pdf yields $134,245. (1) PowerPoint presentation; 49 pages Like McMurtry, researcher Rakocy sees ista6web/presentation/p676.pdf integrated water reuse systems as a viable solution to sustainable food production in Aquaponics: Integrated Technology developing countries and arid regions— for Fish and Vegetable Production in such as the Caribbean Islands—where fresh Recirculating Systems water is scarce. James Rakocy, University of the Virgin To provide in-depth technical support, the Islands UVI research team offers a week-long short USDA Ministerial Conference and Expo on course on aquaponics each year at the UVI Agricultural Science and Technology agricultural experiment station. The UVI PowerPoint presentation; 69 slides short course is the premier educational training program available to farmers in the session%202d/02-rakocy_ j-2D%202nd_ world. In addition to aquaponics, UVI spe- files/frame.htm cializes in greenwater tank culture, a recir- L ike culating aquaculture system. The Freshwater Institute System McMurtry, The Freshwater Institute in Shepherdstown, Rakocy has published extensive research researcher reports and several Extension Service bul- West Virginia—a program of The Conser- Rakocy sees inte- letins on recirculating aquaculture and vation Fund, an environmental non-profit grated water reuse aquaponics. See the Bibliography in the organization—specializes in aquaculture systems as a viable appendix for citations to articles and papers research and education. Fresh spring water by Rackocy. is an abundant resource in the Appala- solution to sustain- chian region. However, protection of spring able food produc- Contact: water quality as it relates to aquaculture tion in develop- effluent is viewed as a vital component of James Rakocy, PhD ing countries and University of the Virgin Islands this technology. arid regions—such Agriculture Experiment Station For years, the institute has specialized in as the Caribbean RR 1, Box 10,000 cold-water recirculating aquaculture systems Islands—where Kingshill, St. Croix raising trout and arctic char. The institute fresh water is scarce. U.S. Virgin Islands 00850-9781 helps Appalachian farmers set up two types 340-692-4020 of aquaculture systems: (a) an indoor, high- tech recirculating tank method and (b) an outdoor, low-tech recirculating tank method. aqua.html Treatment of aquaculture effluent prior to its return to the natural stream flow led aquaponics.html to collaborative research with USDA-ARS Especially see: scientists in Kearneysville, West Virginia, on integrated hydroponic-fish culture Update on Tilapia and Vegetable Pro- systems. Trials at the institute’s green- duction in the UVI Aquaponic System houses showed that nitrogen, phosphorus, James E. Rakocy, Donald S. Bailey, R. and other nutrients in aquaculture efflu- Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Thoman page ent can be effectively removed by plants 676-690. In: New Dimensions on Farmed grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth Inter- wetland systems. national Symposium on Tilapia in Aqua- culture, Held September 12-16, 2004 in In the mid-1990s, the institute implemented Manila, Philippines. an aquaponic demonstration program based Proceedings paper: 15 pages on a Sperraneo-style gravel-cultured sys- tem. Tilapia is raised as a warm-water fish Page 8 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  9. 9. species. Hydroponic crops include basil, Cabbage Hill Farm designed and continues lettuce, and wetland plants. to operate a simple recirculating aquaponic To provide technical assistance to farmers system. Cabbage Hill Farm promotes edu- and high school biology teachers, the insti- cation on aquaponics and hosts greenhouse tute published a series of publications on interns. Tours are available. recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. Tilapia fish and leaf lettuce are the main The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Pow- products of the Cabbage Hill Farm system, ered Aquaponic System—Design Manual is a though basil and watercress are also grown 37-page manual published by the institute in smaller quantities. In addition to hydro- in 1997. Included are diagrams and pho- ponics, water passes through a constructed tos, details on greenhouse layout and aqua- reed bed outside the greenhouse for addi- ponic production, parts list with suppliers tional nutrient removal. and cost, estimated operating expense, and further informational resources. Aquaponics—Preserving the Future is a video Please note the institute no longer pro- film documenting the research and dem- onstration of aquaponics at Cabbage Hill C vides direct technical assistance to farm- ers on aquaponics. Instead, it has made Farms. The cost is $18. abbage Hill the aquaponics design manual and related Farm pro- Cabbage Hill Farm publications on recirculating aquaculture 205 Crow Hill Road motes edu- and aquaponics ava i lable a s free Mount Kisco, NY 10549 cation on aqua- Web downloads. ponics and hosts 914-241-2658 The Freshwater Institute 914-241-8264 FAX greenhouse interns. Shepherdstown, WV Selected Web Publications from The The New Alchemy Institute Freshwater Institute The New Alchemy Institute in East Fal- • Suggested Management Guidelines mouth, Massachusetts, conducted research for An Integrated Recycle Aquacul- on integrated aquaculture systems during ture – Hydroponic System the 1970s and 1980s. Although the insti- tute closed in 1991, New Alchemy pub- • The Freshwater Institute Natural lications on greenhouse production and Gas Powered Aquaponic System - aquaponics provide historical insight to Design Manual the emerging bioshelter (ecosystem green- • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture houses) concept and are still a valuable System Installation Guide resource for technical information. The • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gal- Green Center, formed by a group of for- lon Recycle Fish Rearing System mer New Alchemists, is again making these • Operators Manual for 880 - Recycle publications available for sale. The Web System site has a section featuring for-sale articles on aquaculture and bioshelters (integrated The Cabbage Hill Farm System systems). A selection of past articles is Cabbage Hill Farm is a non-profit organi- available online. zation located about 30 miles north of New Contact: York City. The foundation is dedicated to the preservation of rare breeds of farm The Green Center animals, sustainable agriculture and 237 Hatchville Rd. local food systems, and aquaponic East Falmouth, MA 02536 greenhouse production. ATTRA Page 9
  10. 10. Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia. Photos by Joel Malcolm, Backyard Aquaponics. (with permission) www.backyard Page 10 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  11. 11. Especially see: In Australia, barramundi (Lates calcari- fer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii An Integrated Fish Culture Hydro- peelii) fish species have been adapted to ponic Vegetable Production System recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics by Ronald D. Zweig systems. The stocking densities for these Aquaculture Magazine, May-June 1986. fish species is higher than tilapia, which in turn results in greater hydroponic sur- zweig.pdf face under production. Several references Summary of Fish Culture Techniques are provided on these fish species and in Solar Aquatic Ponds aquaponic systems in the Resources and by John Wolfe and Ron Zweig Bibliography sections. Journal of The New Alchemists, 1977 Organic Aquaculture j6ponds.pdf Organic production of crops and livestock in the United States is regulated by the Depart- Miscellaneous Systems ment of Agriculture’s National Organic Pro- O gram, or NOP. The NOP is an organic Instead of locating the fish and vegetable rganic pro- certification and marketing program that components in separate containers inside a duction ensures foods and food products labeled greenhouse, fish production can be located of crops as “organic” meet universal standards and in outdoor tanks or adjacent buildings. The guidelines for organic production. Produc- and livestock in effluent simply needs to be delivered to tion inputs used in organic production— the United States hydroponic vegetable beds. such as feed and fertilizers—must be of nat- is regulated by the In warm climates, hydroponic vegetable ural origin and free of synthetic materials. Department of Agri- beds may be located outside. As an exam- A farm plan, documentation of inputs and production methods, and farm inspection culture’s National ple, the Center for Regenerative Studies at California State Polytechnic University- are required to obtain “certified organic” Organic Program, or Pomona implemented an outdoor integrated status. This process allows farm products NOP. bio-system that links: (a) a pond contain- to be labeled and sold as organic. ing treated sewage wastewater stocked with Organic trout, tilapia, salmon and other fish tilapia and carp; (b) water hyacinth—an species are raised in Europe, Australia, and aquatic plant very efficient at sucking up Israel using production standards devel- nutrients—covering 50 percent of the water oped by international organic certification surface area; the plant biomass generated agencies. However, organic aquaculture by water hyacinth is used as feedstock was not clearly defined in the NOP and the for compost heaps; (c) nearby vegetable lack of organic aquaculture guidelines has gardens irrigated with nutrient-laden hampered the growth of a domestic organic pond water. aquaculture industry in the United States. In addition to locating the fish and vegetable The ATTRA publication Evaluating an components in separate containers, fish and Aquaculture Enterprise contains a section on plants can be placed in the same container organic aquaculture. It states that accred- to function as a polyculture. For exam- ited organic certifying agencies can cer- ple, plants sit on top of floating polystyrene tify organic aquaculture operations, but the panels with their roots hanging down into products are not allowed to carry the USDA the water that fish swim around in. Mod- organic label. els include the Rackocy system, solar-algae In fact, Quality Certification Services in ponds (see literature by Zweig and Klein- Florida has certified about a dozen organic holz), and the solar-aquatic ponds, or Liv- aquaculture operations in the U.S. and ing Machines, made popular by John Todd abroad under a private label. AquaRanch, at Ocean Arks International. an aquaponic greenhouse in Illinois, set ATTRA Page 11
  12. 12. a precedent for the aquaponics industry Vegetable Production and Integrated Pest by obtaining organic certification for its Management for Greenhouse Crops. hydroponic produce through Indiana Cer- Building and equipping a commercial-sized tified Organic. Meanwhile, AquaRanch aquaponic greenhouse can cost $10,000 markets its greenhouse-raised tilapia as to $30,000, depending on the system “naturally grown.” design and choice of components. Due to To address the issue of organic aquacul- the highly technical nature of aquaponics ture, the National Organic Standards Board and the expense associated with green- (NOSB) established an Aquatic Animals house production, prospective growers are Task Force in June 2000. In 2003, a sec- advised to thoroughly investigate production ond group—The National Organic Aquacul- methods and market potential. A sequence ture Working Group (NOAWG), comprised of considerations and learning opportunities of 80 aquaculture professionals and related geared to evaluating an aquaponic green- stakeholders—formed to provide further house enterprise are listed below. guidance and clarification to the NOSB. 1) Aquaponic greenhouses yield two food The 81-page white paper published by products. To evaluate greenhouse prof- D ue to the NOAWG in May 2005 provides historical itability, obtain typical yields and mar- highly tech- notes and documents on this topic as well ket prices for hydroponic vegetables and as the currently proposed recommenda- fish, and investigate local and regional nical nature tions to NOSB, accessible through the Aqua markets and related point of sales. of aquaponics and KE Government Documents collection at Retail sales directly out of your green- the expense asso- house or roadside stand might be an ciated with green- abstract/2005/801/8010170. ideal situation, but this will depend on house production, To provide guidance to the large volume of your location. prospective growers documents, reports, and organic production 2) Aquaponics is one method of hydropon- are advised to standards surrounding the issue of organic ics, and hydroponics is one method of thoroughly inves- aquaculture, the National Agricultural greenhouse production. Consider lower- tigate production Library published an 80-page bibliography, cost and simpler alternatives. Bag cul- Organic Aquaculture, through the Alterna- ture of greenhouse vegetables—raising methods and tive Farming Systems Information Center. plants in polyethylene grow bags filled market potential. Organic Aquaculture with compost-based potting mixes—is a AFSIC Notes #5 simple and productive way to get started Stephanie Boehmer, Mary Gold, Stephanie in greenhouse vegetable production. Hauser, Bill Thomas, and Ann Young You may quickly find that your biggest Alternative Farming Systems Informa- challenge is weekly marketing of fresh tion Center, National Agricultural Library, produce rather than successful produc- USDA tion of vegetables. This includes labor to harvest vegetables, grading and pack- ing with brand name labels, post-harvest afnotes5.htm handling methods to maintain superior quality, and quick delivery of perishable Evaluating an Aquaponic produce to established markets. Enterprise 3) Read technical and popular literature For general information and supplies asso- on recirculating aquaculture and aqua- ciated with greenhouse vegetable produc- ponics to become familiar with produc- tion, see the ATTRA resource list Green- tion methods, yields, and market prices house Vegetable Production and Greenhouse for fresh fish and hydroponic vege- & Hydroponic Vegetable Production Resources tables. The Web Resources listed on the Internet. Complementary ATTRA below provide quick access to reading publications include Organic Greenhouse material, diagrams and images, and Page 12 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  13. 13. related details. The Bibliography in the Appen- saying, “Get the engine running first, then adjust the dix provides access to in-depth research and carburetor,” can be aptly applied to aquaponic technical data. start-up greenhouses. 4) Visit an aquaponic greenhouse to gain first-hand observations. Take lots of pictures to document References the system components and how they relate to 1. Rakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, R. Charlie one another. Keep in mind that aquaponic growers Shultz and Eric S. Thoman. 2004. Update are busy people with a considerable investment in on tilapia and vegetable production in the time and resources to establish their businesses. UVI aquaponic system. p. 676-690. In: New 5) Attend a short course. There are three prominent Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings aquaponic short courses in North America, offered of the Sixth International Symposium on Tila- by University of the Virgin Islands, (2) Aquacul- pia in Aquaculture, Held September 12-16, ture International (3) in North Carolina, and Grow 2004 in Manila, Philippines. Power (4) in Wisconsin. Cornell University co-hosts 2. University of the Virgin Islands—Short Course on a recirculating aquaculture short course in associa- Aquaponics tion with The Freshwater Institute. (5) 6) Obtain one or two aquaponic training manuals to UVIShortCourse.html acquire detailed technical specifications. The Cab- bage Hill video ($18) can provide a quick overview 3. Aquaculture International—Short Course on of an aquaponic system. The Desktop Aquapon- Aquaponics ics Booklet ($15) and the Introduction to Aquapon- ics DVD ($50) from Nelson/Pade Multimedia are 4. Grow Power—Short Course on Aquaponics another good starting point. When you are ready to explore a commercial system, the design man- 5. Cornell University—Short Course on Recirculating uals from S&S Aqua Farm ($250) in Missouri Aquaculture and Joel Malcolm’s Backyard Aquaponics ($95) in Western Australia contain in-depth techni- shortcourse.htm cal specifications, illustrations, and parts lists (6–7). The Web Resources section lists additional 6. S&S Aqua Farm—Design Manual training manuals and technical documentation. 7) Hire an agricultural consultant to acquire expert index.html advice and consultation, and to shorten the time 7. Joel Malcolm—Backyard Aquaponics and risk involved getting started. A few consultants Design Manual with expertise in aquaponics are listed in the Agri- Western Australia culture Consultants section below. 8) Participate on the Aquaponics E-mail Discussion Group. E-mail discussion lists have become the modern town square. This is where practitioners, Resources scientists, specialists, and business people all share resources, supplies, and production methods. The E-mail Discussion Lists for e-mail list is hosted by Paula Speraneo with S&S Aquaponics - Hydroponics - Aquaculture Aqua Farms. The archives are publicly accessible, and serve as a treasure trove of technical informa- Aquaponic E-Mail List tion and farmer-to-farmer exchange. See below. Paula Speraneo of S & S Aqua Farm in 9) Lastly, avoid the “inventor’s urge” to re-invent the Missouri hosts the Aquaponics E-Mail List on the wheel. Successful aquaponic greenhouse opera- Internet. The Aquaponics List is a prominent source tors have already figured out the system compo- of technology transfer and resource sharing on all nents and methods of production, based on years of aspects of aquaponics: hydroponics, aquaculture, fish research and experience. Pick one of the existing species, supplies, practical solutions, and resources. models and duplicate it insofar as possible. The old The e-mail archives are a key source of information. ATTRA Page 13
  14. 14. To subscribe, send an email request to: Phone: +61 (02) 9905 9933 Fax: +61 (02) 9905 9030 To view Web e-mail archives, go to: Aquaponics List—2002 Onwards Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses is a bi- monthly magazine dedicated to soilless culture and greenhouse production. Articles profile soilless Aquaponics List—Before 2002 culture and greenhouse enterprises from around the world. It also reports on new products, research and Hydroponics and Aquaculture development, and industry news. Back issues are a E-Mail List valuable resource. The award-winning magazine is now online as an exact digital copy of the print A number of e-mail lists on hydroponics and aqua- edition, using DjVu technology. Subscription: $60 culture are scattered among the Internet hosting sites Australian/year. like,, and Aquaculture Magazine P.O. Box 1409 Arden, NC 28704 Trade Magazines 828-687-0011 Aquaponics Journal 828-681-0601 FAX Nelson/Pade Multimedia 877-687-0011 Toll-Free P.O. Box 1848 Mariposa, CA 95338 209-742-6869 Aquaculture Magazine is the trade magazine for aquaculture and fish culture. It publishes a regular issue every two months, an Annual Products Guide Aquaponics Journal is the quarterly journal from Nelson/Pade Multimedia. It has become a promi- each summer and The Buyers Guide and Industry nent source for articles, reports, news, and supplies Directory each December. Subscription: $19/year; for the aquaponics industry. Back issues are a val- back issues $5. ueable resource, available in print or as e-files. Print Grower Talks Subscription, $39/year; E-Subscription, $29/year. The Growing Edge Magazine Greenhouse Management & Production New Moon Publishing P.O. Box 1027 Corvallis, OR 97339-1027 Greenhouse Grower 800-888-6785 541-757-8477 Greenhouse Product News 541-757-0028 Fax World Aquaculture The Growing Edge is a bi-monthly trade magazine on high-tech gardening systems like hydroponics, summary.asp?page=magazine bioponics, aquaponics, and ecologically based pest management. Past articles are an important source of technical information on aquaponics, bioponics, and organic hydroponics. Subscription: $27/year; Austasia Aquaculture back issues $5 each. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses P.O. Box 225 Narrabeen, NSW 2101 Australia Page 14 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  15. 15. Aquaponic Books and Videos Gordon Creaser 5431 S. Bracken Court Nelson/Pade Multimedia, publisher of Aquaponics Winter Park, FL 32792 Journal, offers booklets, DVDs, videos, and educational 407-671-5075 curricula on aquaponics, hydroponics, and aquaculture. 407-671-5628 FAX See their Web page for details. Contact: Nelson/Pade Multimedia P.O. Box 1848 Mark R. McMurtry Mariposa, CA 95338 PMB 267 209-742-6869 1627 W. Main St. Bozeman, MT 59715-4011 406-580-0382 Agricultural Consultants for Nelson/Pade Multimedia Integrated Hydroponics and [Contact: John Pade and Rebecca Nelson] Aquaculture P.O. Box 1848 AquaRanch Industries, LLC Mariposa, CA 95338 [Contact: Myles Harston] 209-742-6869 404 D. East Lincoln St. P.O. Box 658 Flanagan, IL 61740 S&S Aqua Farms 309-208-5230 [Contact: Paula Speraneo] 815-796-2978 8386 County Rd. 8820 309-923-7479 FAX West Plains, MO 65775 417-256-5124 Fisheries Technology Associates, Inc. [Contact: Bill Manci] 506 Wabash Street Aquaculture Associations Fort Collins, CO 80522-3245 Aquacultural Engineering Society 970-225-0150 American Tilapia Association Future Aqua Farms Limited The Alternative Aquaculture [Contact: Carla MacQuarrie] Association RR2, Site 1a, Box 26 Head of Chezzetcook, NS Directory of Aquaculture Associations Canada B0J 1N0 Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) 902-827-3682 Aquaculture Directories and Resource Global Aquatics USA, Inc. Collections 505 Aldino Stepney Rd. Aberdeen, MD 21001 USA National Agricultural Library—Alternative 443-243-8840 Farming Systems Information Center 410-734-7473 FAX The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) at the National Agricultural Library, a program of USDA-ARS, provides extensive ATTRA Page 15
  16. 16. aquaculture resource listings. Organic Aquaculture Recirculating Aquaculture Systems—Index (AFSIC Notes No. 5), published in January 2005, Aquaculture Network Information Center is an important new publication from AFSIC that (AquaNIC) addresses the potential of organic aquacultural products; it also contains a section on recycle.htm recirculating aquaculture. Regional Aquaculture Center Publications— Aquaculture Resources Index Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) • Organic Aquaculture • Aquaculture-Related Internet Sites and Documents fact.htm • Directory of Aquaculture Related Associations and • Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture Trade Organizations • North Central Regional Aquaculture Center • Directory of State Aquaculture Coordinators and • Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center Contacts • Southern Regional Aquaculture Center • Automated Searches on General Aquaculture Topics • Western Regional Aquaculture Center AFSIC, NAL, USDA-ARS Aqua KE 10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132 Beltsville, MD 20705-2351 Aqua Ke, or Aquaculture Knowledge Environment, 301-504-6559 is a database and documents library featuring full- 301-504-6409 Fax text access to aquaculture articles and government reports. The library is organized by themes for brows- ing of aquacultue topics. The database provides The Aquaculture Center—Educational Resources keyword, author, and title search capacity for hun- Virginia Tech University dreds of scientific journals via a portal to Stanford University’s HighWire Press database. Center/educational_resources.htm Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Virginia Tech offers aquaculture eduational cur- Library ricula, fact sheets, and PowerPoint presentations, National Sea Grant Library including a section on recirculating aquaculture. Proceedings of the Recirculating Aquaculture Con- The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) contains a ference held in Roanoke, VA, in 1996, 1998, 2000, complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. The 2002, and 2004 are available in CD-ROM, and NSGL maintains a bibliographical database con- hard copies (except for 1996); inquire with Ms. Terry taining over 36,000 records that can be searched by Rakestraw ( in the Food Science & author-keyword or browsed by topic. Selected items Technology Department. include proceedings from recirculating aquaculture Aquaculture Network Information Center conferences and related documents. The Environ- (AquaNIC) mentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library is a topic-oriented portal to NSGL, organized by subject category. AquaNIC is the gateway to the world’s electronic resources for aquaculture information. Especially see the extensive resource listing on recirculating aqua- culture systems, and the complete listing of publica- tions from the Regional Aquaculture Centers. Page 16 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  17. 17. Aquaponic Resources on the Web A 10-page reprint article, originally published in Journal of Agricultural Mechanization (1997). It Selected Publications from Southern describes a low cost (less than $600) recirculating Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) aquaculture-hydroponic system suitable for use in laboratory settings, including a materials list with Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Sys- approximate cost of materials to set up a 350-gallon tems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture aquaponic unit. SRAC Publication No. 454 The Freshwater Institute Publications Index 6807933-454fs.pdf Shepherdstown, West Virginia Recirculating Aquaculture Tank index.html Production Systems: An Overview of Critical Considerations • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Inte- SRAC Publication No. 451 grated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered 6807933-451fs.pdf Aquaponic System - Design Manual Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Sys- • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System tems: Management of Recirculating Systems Installation Guide SRAC Publication No. 452 • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System 6807933-452fs.pdf • Operators Manual for 880 - Recycle System Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Component Options Aquaculture on Cat Beach SRAC Publication No. 453 HTML 6807933-453fs.pdf DOC Tank Culture of Tilapia short.doc SRAC Publication No. 282 A 10-page booklet with directions on establishing a 6807933-282fs.pdf small aquaponic system, including a parts list. The HTML version contains additional photos that illus- Selected Aquaponic Training trate system components and greenhouse production. Materials and Design Manuals S&S Aqua Farm Paul and Bonnie Range, homesteaders in Texas, Design manual with specifications offer two aquaponic manuals: Small Unit Aqua- ponics Manual and Simplified Aquaponics Manual Backyard Aquaponics for $20 each. Barrel-Ponic (aka Aquaponics in a Barrel) Design manual with specifications By Travis W. Hughey A Prototype Recirculating Aquaculture- Hydroponic System barrel-ponics.pdf By Donald Johnson and George Wardlow University of Arkansas, Department of Agricultural General Aquaponic Resources on the Web and Extension Education The Essence of Aquaponics—Index to AgriScience Project Aquaponics Mail Group Topics ATTRA Page 17
  18. 18. The Essence of Aquaponics Web site of Pekka Nygard Integrated Systems of Agriculture and and Stefan Goës in Sweden provides an index to Aquaculture key topics (aquaponics, fish, fish feed, plants, plant Aquaculture in the Classroom, University of Arizona nutrition, water, biofilters, greenhouses, mainte- nance, economics, links, literature) posted on the Aquaponics.htm Aquaponics Mail Group (see e-mail resources above). Aquaponics Library Aquaculture on the Web Greenhouse Tilapia Production in Louisiana Enhancing Student Interests in the Agricultural Louisiana State University Sciences through Aquaponics by G.W. Wardlow and D.M. Johnson tilapia/Greenhouse+Tilapia+ University of Arkansas, Department of Agricultural Production+in+Louisiana.htm and Extension Education Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -- Teacher’s Resource Web Site Aquaponics - The Theory Behind Auburn University Integration by Wilson Lennard recirculatingaquaculture.php Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network The Urban Aquaculture Manual content.asp?ContentId=1060 by Jonathan Woods ADM - Turning Waste into Growth TOC.html Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses, May-June 2000 Regional Aquaculture Centers sponsored by the Extension Service Tailormade Aquaponics Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses, November- (NRAC) December 1998 North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Aquaponics Simplified (NCRAC) Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses, July-August 2005 Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) Young’s Greenhouses, Texas Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses, Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC) January-February 2000 Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture Aquaponics Proves Profitable in Australia Aquaponics Journal, First Quarter, 2002. Aquaculture Network Information Center articleaustralia.htm Fisheries Publications at Texas A&M Developing an Aquaponic System Aquaponics Journal, July-August 1999 Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publica- tions at Texas A&M Vertical Aquaponics by Tom Osher Page 18 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  19. 19. Scientific Journals on Aquaculture Wastewater- Fed Aquaculture Systems: Status Aquaculture (Elsevier journal) and Prospects by Peter Edwards Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management Pro- Aquacultural Engineering (Elsevier journal) gram, Asian Institute of Technology Aquaculture International (Springer journal) Readings3New.pdf World Fish Center Aquaculture Research (Blackwell journal) Ecological Engineering (Elsevier journal) Integrated Bio-Systems on the Web Ecological engineering has been defined as the Internet Conference on Integrated Bio-Systems design of ecosystems for the mutual benefit of in Zero Emissions Applications humans and nature. Specific topics covered in the journal include: ecotechnology; synthetic ecology; Demonstrating Ecological Engineering for bioengineering; sustainable agroecology; habitat Wastewater Treatment in a Nordic Climate reconstruction; restoration ecology; ecosystem using Aquaculture Principles in a Green- conservation; ecosystem rehabilitation; stream house Mesocosm and river restoration; wetland restoration and by Bjorn Guterstam and Lasse Forsberg construction; reclamation ecology; non-renewable Internet Conference on Integrated Bio-Systems in resource conservation. Zero Emissions Applications Wastewater-fed Aquaculture in Temperate Climates - Nutrient recycling with Daphnia and Fish The design of living technologies for waste 4th International Conference on Ecological Engineer- treatment ing for Wastewater Treatment, June 1999, Aas Norway by John Todd and Beth Josephson Internet Conference on Integrated Bio-Systems in Zero Emissions Applications Appendix Internet Conference on Material Flow Analysis Bibliography on Aquaponics of Integrated Bio-Systems The following bibliography contains selected literature citations on aquaponics and integrated hydroponics- Study of Agriculture-Aquaculture Ecological aquaculture published in trade magazines and sci- Economic System With Nutrient Flow Analy- entific journals. Collectively, these articles provide sis (Surface Aquaponics) an instant library on aquaponics. They are provided by Song Xiangfu, et al. here as an important time saver to those seeking tech- Internet Conference on Material Flow Analysis of nical and popular information on this topic. Univer- Integrated Bio-Systems sity libraries carry scientific journals (e.g., Aquacul- ture International, Aquacultural Engineering) and trade paperv2.html magazines (Aquaculture, Greenhouse Management and Production), and they offer on-site photocoping Phytoremediation of Aquaculture Effluents services to library visitors. Inter-Library Loan is a by Paul Adler service available through most local libraries, and can Internet Conference on Material Flow Analysis of provide photocopies of articles for a small fee. Integrated Bio-Systems Please note The Growing Edge, Aquaponics Journal, and Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses are the most index.html relevant trade magazines for aquaponics, recirculating aquaculture, hydroponics, and related topics, ATTRA Page 19
  20. 20. including farmer profiles. However, they are relatively The Speraneo System new and less widely distributed in university libraries. Durham, Deni. 1992. Low-tech polycultural yields, For a complete list of articles and back issues high profit. Small Farm Today. June. available through these trade magazines, see the p. 23–25. publisher’s Web sites: Modeland, Vern. 1993. Aquafarming on a budget. The Growing Edge BackHome. Summer. p. 28–31. Modeland, Vern. 1998. The Ozarks’ S&S aqua farm. Aquaponics Journal The Ozarks Mountaineer. June-July. p. 42–44. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses Modeland, Vern. 1998. Maturing marvel: S&S Aqua Farm. The Growing Edge. Vol. 9, No. 5 (May- June). p. 35–38. North Carolina State University McMurtry, M.R., et al. 1990. Sand culture of vegeta- Rich, Doug. 1998. Closed system opens markets. bles using recirculating aquacultural effluents. The High Plains Journal. Vol. 115, No. 34. Applied Agricultural Research. Vol. 5, No. 4. August 24. p. 1–A. (Fall). p. 280–284. Smith, John Wesley. 1993. The genius of simplicity. McMurtry, Mark Richard. 1992. Integrated Aqua- The Growing Edge. Vol. 5, No. 2. (Fall). culture-Olericulture System as Influenced by p. 40–44, 70. Component Ratio. PhD. Dissertation, North Thompson, Nina. 1993. Fish + plants = food. Mis- Carolina State University. UMI, Ann Harbor, souri Conservationist. August. p. 28. MI. 78 p. Yarrow, David. 1998. A food production revolution: McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, and P.V. Nelson. Missouri aquafarmers discover huge benefits 1993. Mineral nutrient concentration and in trace elements integrated with hydroponics. uptake by tomato irrigated with recirculating Remineralize the Earth. Spring-Fall, No. 12- aquaculture water as influenced by quantity of 13. p. 38–43. fish waste products supplied. Journal of Plant Nutrition. Vol. 16, No. 3. p. 407–409. The Rakocy System and Related Papers McMurtry, M.R., et al. 1993. Yield of tomato irri- Rakocy, J., R.C. Shultz, D.S. Bailey, E.S. and gated with recirculating aquacultural water. Thoman. 2004. Aquaponic production of Journal of Production Agriculture. Vol. 6, No. tilapia and basil: comparing a batch and stag- 3. (July-September). p. 428–432. gered cropping system. Acta Horticulturae. McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, and R.G. Hodson. Vol. 648. p. 63–69. 1997. Effects of biofilter/culture tank volume ratios on productivity of a recirculating fish/ Rakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, R. Charlie Shultz vegetable co-culture system. Journal and Eric S. Thoman. 2004. Update on tila- of Applied Aquaculture. Vol. 7, No. 4. pia and vegetable production in the UVI aqua- p. 33–51. ponic system. p. 676–690. In: New Dimen- McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, J.D. Cure, R.G. Hod- sions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the son, B.C. Haning, and P.C.S. Amand. 1997. Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Efficiency of water use of an integrated fish/ Aquaculture, Manila, Philippines. vegetable co-culture system. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Vol. 28, No. 4. ista6web/pdf/676.pdf p. 420–428. Rakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, Eric. S. Thoman Sanders, Doug, and Mark McMurtry. 1988. Fish and R. Charlie Shultz. 2004. Intensive tank increase greenhouse profits. American Veg- culture of tilapia with a suspended, bacterial- etable Grower. February. p. 32–33. based, treatment process. p. 584–596. In: Page 20 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture