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Rules and regulations


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Rules and regulations

  1. 1. PREPARED BY:Geraldine D. Reyes
  2. 2. Softball Rules and Regulations
  3. 3.  Softball Rules and Regulations Softball rules and regulations affect field setup, placement of the players on the field, batting, pitching and length of the game. Here is a quick glimpse of this subject. If we travel back into history of softball, then the game came into existence in Chicago, Illinois; thanks to George Hancock. The very first game took off using a rolled up boxing glove as a ball, and broomstick as a bat. Softball game is among the popular sports in the United States. The game has its roots in baseball. Size of the balls and throw of the pitches separates the two games. Softball game uses balls that are larger in size than what are used in a baseball game. The pitches are thrown underhand instead of overhand, as in baseball. League specifications determine the types of rules and regulations of a softball game. How skilled the players are, and the amount of participation in league play, also decides the variation of the rules and regulations.
  4. 4. Players and the Game A softball game generally indulges 10 players in a match. However, some teams may also have 8 to 9 players also. The playing ground is divided into two sections - the infield and the outfield. There are three bases on the infield. At each of these bases, there is a base defender. At the home plate, a catcher is placed and the pitcher is at the pitchers rubber. This is the kind of setup of the infield. Left fielder, center fielder, right center fielder and right fielder are involved in the outfield. The softball is a 7 innings game and the time frame is about an hour.
  5. 5. Pitching The pitchers rubber at the infield is required to be stepped on by both the feet of the pitcher. According to the softball pitching instructions, while pitching, only one step is allowed to be taken in the forward direction. As mentioned above, the ball is pitched underhand instead of overhand. When the pitcher is about to make the pitch, he has to ensure that both his hands are on the ball.
  6. 6. Batting The batting rules have to be followed by the batter throughout the game. The rules say that the batter is allowed three strikes until he gets called out. The batter is also called out if a fly ball is caught or if the batter does not stand in the batters box, once the game has started. The bats used by the batters are mostly made of aluminum or composites. An approved bat list is available with each softball team. One of the important softball regulations is that the bats have to be closely monitored by most softball governing associations. The umpires also need to check the bats legality.
  7. 7. Basic Rules and Regulations for Base Running and Scoring When moving forward through the bases, runners must touch each base in order. Until the ball has been hit by a subsequent batter, base runners cannot lead off a base. Softball allows the batters to only run past the first base, not the second and third one. If the ball hit by the batter has been caught in mid air, the base runner needs to tag the occupied base before proceeding to the next base. According to the rules and regulations of softball, one base runner cannot overtake another base runner. Although stealing from one base to another is permitted by some fast-pitch leagues, generally this is not allowed in regular softball games. Base runners are called out if they are tagged with the ball before they reach a base or if the fielders get the ball to the first base before the runners. Runners are also tagged out if they cross 3 feet out of the base line. This normally happens when they try to avoid getting tagged out by the fielders.
  8. 8. Fastpitch Softball Rules As the name suggests, in a fast pitch softball game, you can expect a faster pitch than normal. Generally, the pitch goes up to a speed of 60 to 70 miles per hour. Here the playing field has smaller dimensions, with 200 feet maintained between the home plate and the center field wall. Helmet, mask and a throat protector are a must for players in a fast pitch softball game. Stealing bases is also permitted in this type of game.
  9. 9. Slow Pitch Softball Rules Here the pitchers are required to arc the ball while pitching. The field used in a slow pitch softball game is larger than that of the fastpitch game. Slow pitch game does not allow foul balls to be counted as strikes, if there are already two strikes on the batter. This is one of the softball rules that is similar to baseball rules. Slow pitch soft ball games are preferred by most amateur players as the ball is easier to hit than a fastpitch game.
  10. 10. The above mentioned softball regulations and ruleshave been presented in a simplified version.However, it may feel different while actuallyplaying on the field, even if the rules remain thesame. A practical hands-on experience in the fieldprovides a real taste of getting acquainted with allthe rules and regulations that have been set up forthe game.
  12. 12.  Umpire Signs and Signals Jon T Anderson Introduction The base umpire touches the brim of his hat with one finger pointed up then gives the plate umpire a thumbs up signal. The plate umpire responds with a similar, unobtrusive thumb motion. You look at the field and realize it is an infield fly situation. The initial hat touch also relayed the fact that one is out, the thumb signaled the infield fly situation. This signal may not the one your crew uses but it is an effective form of communication around the diamond. Umpires have developed a unique set of signs and signals to convey the game situation, the count, even anticipated on field rotations to each other. Their discreet, and sometimes not so discreet, motions do not distract the fan, who rarely sees them take place. Instead they insure that every umpire on the field is focused on the task at hand, that the count is consistent and everyone knows what might occur on the next play.
  13. 13.  Play Along with strike and ball, this is the one call the plate umpire will make most often during a game. Pointing at the pitcher (or the plate) with the right hand and calling "play." The call is essential for the batter and catcher. The gesture is essential for the pitcher, defense and offense.. In every case in the rule book (Section 5.00) it is clear that the play signal is a verbal signal: "....the umpire shall call "Play"." Erick Barkhuis, an umpire from the Netherlands, points out that "this signal/call is very important for your partner(s) too! They must know the exact moment the ball becomes alive. If they dont, they will not be able to respond correctly in situations where the pitcher makes a pickoff attempt or drops the ball while standing on the rubber. These are just a few examples." Perhaps more important than the ballplayer knowing is your partner(s) knowing the ball is alive. Strike Always signaled with the right hand, each umpire develops a personalized system for signaling the strike. Some do the traditional clenched fist, some indicate the strike out to the side with an open hand.. Some umpires face forward, some turn. Some call strike then signal, others do both simultaneously. One essential element is not to turn away from the action particularly in a two man system. In a two or three man system, by not facing forward, an umpire might even miss a play at the plate while going through their actions. Should you say "Strike," signal "Strike" or both? Philip Gawthrop from Anne Arundel County, Maryland wrote to add this comment : "Generally, on a swinging strike, as the plate umpire, I NEVER VERBALIZE my call but rather indicate to the players and fans with a raised right arm (in my case, with a clenched fist). The exception to the NOT VERBALIZING is on a third strike; the plate umpire again raises his right arm and says "Strike Three" firmly but does not "sell the call." If the catcher has dropped or trapped the pitch, you still go through with a firm "Strike Three" keeping eye-contact with the batter/catcher."
  14. 14.  Ball Never signaled. Alright, maybe a touch of body english but no hand gestures. The general preference is that the verbal signal "ball" loud enough that both dugouts can hear it. Calling "ball" allows you to maintain the rhythm of your calls. Never indicate why a pitch was a ball, for example: "High, Ball One" Ball Four Ball four is the one ball count that an umpire should announce aloud. You should NEVER point to first base even with the left hand. Just say "BALL FOUR". If the umpire points to first after the pitch and the defense thinks its strike 3 and starts to leave the field chaos abounds. Even if you use the left hand, the players may not take note of which hand it was and be confused. Professional umpires never point to first. Why ball four? It is an important count, but even more important is that you may arrive at a point where you will have to "sell" the walk. Having adopted a vocal call you are now in a position to act with authority should you need to. Time Raising both hands into the air and calling in a loud voice "TIME." All umpires on the field will immediately signal the time call. Sometimes the call must be made several times in order to shut things down. Once time is called every effort must be made by all umpires to stop the action taking place. It is preferred that umpires maintain the time signal with at least the right arm until play is prepared to resume.
  15. 15.  Ballsare signaled using the left hand. Strikes are signaled using the right hand. A full count is always signaled as "three balls, two strikes" and never signaled using clenched fists. The count is relayed back to the pitcher after every pitch and a verbal report is made usually after the second or third pitch and from that point on. The count is always read aloud as "two balls, two strikes" and not "two and two" or "twenty-two" or other similar variation.
  16. 16.  Bothleft and right arms are raised together, to shoulder level, in front of the umpire and then a sweeping motion is performed out, parallel to the ground, palms down. The verbal call of "safe" may be made. To complete the call you may elect to return to the set position. To sell a safe call you might consider doing it two or three times in rapid succession. It is not always necessary to even make the sign or call. If the play is obvious do nothing.
  17. 17.  The clenched right fist and a short hammered motion seem to be favored by most umpires. Again, personal style is acceptable as long as it does not distract you from seeing any further plays taking place. It is advisable to wait a second or two before making this call. Watch that the ball does not come loose and check that the fielder is really in possession of the ball. The call can be made with only a gesture or can be sold with a loud call of "Out!" Signal every out.
  18. 18.  Never say "Strike Three - Youre Out!" Umpires are encouraged not to make this call a part of their repertoire. Why? In some leagues the third strike does not have to be caught while in others it must be caught. Often the plate umpire is in the worst situation to call the trapped ball, for example: a breaking ball in the dirt for the swinging third strike. An umpire should only call "Strike Three." If you have a situation where you know the batter now erroneously becomes a runner you can follow this by the call "The Batter Is Out!" Dropped Third Strike Where this call is made the base umpire is often in a better position to relay the possession or trapping of the ball to the plate umpire. Signaling, not calling, a small discreet "out" means the ball was caught. Pointing to the ground with your right hand can mean the ball was trapped or not caught. Out on the force! This is a simple out call but the concentration is on the base. Raise both hands together, just like you are going to call "safe". Point towards, or focus on, the base then signal the out with the right hand, the left hand usually moves up to your chest. Complete the sign by saying "...hes out" or "out at first" etc. if required Out on the tag! Point at the runner with the left hand, signal the out with the right hand. Complete the sign by saying "out" plus "on the tag" if you want to sell it a touch. (Remember you are the umpire, not the color commentator.) Safe, he missed the tag! A "selling it" call that occurs when a runner slides under or around the tag or the tag is high. You can save some grief by indicating a loud "safe" and following it with a tapping motion where the tag was. Everyone will know you saw the tag and most will assume the runner had the bag before it. Fair Ball The right hand points into the field in fair territory. There is no call "Fair" anything ever made. Foul Ball The same signal as "Time" but the call becomes "Foul." Umpires often add a point into foul territory with one hand after giving the time signal.
  19. 19.  Dead Ball The same signal as "Time" but the call becomes "Dead Ball" or is simply left at "Time." The base umpire needs to pay specific attention to a ball hitting the batter in the batters box. The base umpire will immediately call "Time" or "Dead Ball" if the plate umpire did not see the infraction. Never say "foul" in this situation. See above . . . No Pitch The same signal as "Time" but the call becomes "No Pitch." If you are the plate umpire, step away from the plate. You will use this call most often in a softball game. It is used to indicate a leading off violation in some leagues. The call is a clear "No Pitch" and the "Runner is Out!" with a point and Out signal.. See above . . . The Run Counts Here there are two schools of thought. Often you will see an umpires point at the plate each time a run crosses the plate legally. Scorers often key on this gesture (as well as catchers!) This can be important on the "time-play" or a "third-out" situation. Bob Bainter, a professional umpire noted, "As far as the point on the run scoring, I think it is a matter of personal preference. Umpire Development wants no signal from us whether it is obvious or not. It is not our job to let anyone know, because what if the defense wants to appeal and throws the ball away, allowing another runner to advance or even score? That is a situation could put the offensive team in a tizzy. It has happened before." The Run Does Not Count! Signal and announce when the runner does not score so that the scorer and coaches maintain accurate records. The signal, done by the plate umpire, begins by forming an X with the arms in front of the body then sweeping the arms out to the "time" position. The gesture is repeated and the call "The runner does not score!" is made.
  20. 20.  The Foul Tip A two part signal. Extend you left arm up, in front of your body, palm down, to at least shoulder level. Brush the fingers of the right hand over the back of the left hand two or three times. The signal is completed by signaling the strike with the right hand. Because the ball is alive and runners can advance never say "Foul Tip." Announcing "foul" anything could stop the action. Infield Fly Called All umpires point into the air with their right hand. On some crews every umpire on the field echoes the infield fly call, on others only the gesture is echoed. This should be dealt with in the pre-game conference. Home Run or Ground Rule Double First, the ball is dead. Make sure any unnecessary action is killed, particularly if the ball has rebounded back into the field. The signal for a home run is circling the right arm and index finger overhead. The ground rule double is awarded by signaling "two bases" with two fingers held up usually on the left hand. Awarding Bases Using the left hand point clearly at the runner and state "You second base" or "You third base", "You home" whatever the case may be. The runner is protected all the way to the base but not one inch beyond it. Thats a Balk! Balks must be called with reference to the action. Remember, if the pitcher completes the delivery of the ball, or throws to a base, you are in a delayed balk situation. The sequence of arriving at that signal is: point at the pitcher, arm at shoulder height, and say "Thats a balk" .... now if the pitcher hesitates in his delivery call "Time" .... and award the bases "Runner, second base." etc. Pointing at the pitcher will allow sufficient time to determine a delayed balk call situation. The Interference Call An immediate decision is needed: "dead ball" or "delayed dead ball." Point at the offensive player and make the call "Thats Interference" followed by your decision on whether or not the ball is dead, announced with a loud gestured "Time" or (...nothing...) meaning a delayed dead ball. If the ball remains alive avoid any signal that looks or sounds like "Time" until the appropriate moment. If the ball is dead call "Time" immediately and shut down any remaining play on the field.
  21. 21.  The Obstruction Call This call is like interference except the ball may remain alive. In all cases the call "Thats Obstruction" is made while pointing at the defensive player making the obstruction. If a play is being made on the obstructed runner the ball is dead so immediately signal "Time." This is followed by an awarding of a base or bases either after play has stopped or even while play remains ongoing. Unless a play was being made on the obstructed runner the ball remains alive. Any gesture which resembles "Time" being called can cause problems on a diamond. This is one reason why some umpiring organizations teach to initially extend the left hand horizontally with a clenched fist. The professional baseball umpires point at the fielder with one hand only. Catch or No Catch When signaled the "catch" resembles the "out" signal. No verbal indication needs to be given. The "no-catch" signal resembles the "safe" signal except the call of "No Catch" is clearly given. Sometimes it will be necessary to repeat this sign several times. An addition to the "No Catch" is the juggling routine which indicates the fielder did not have possession. Juggle when the fielder is on the base for the force out but not in full possession of the ball. Some crews give the safe signal and then point to the ground several times saying "on the ground, on the ground" when the ball is dropped. The terms "Catch" and "No Catch" could be mixed up over the crowd noise. The verbal call needs only to be given on a trouble ball, for example: a ball caught diving or below the fielders knees. Routine flys can be signaled or not signaled depending on crew and local practice. If a ball is on the foul lines first signal whether the ball is fair or foul, then the catch or no-catch status if desired.
  22. 22.  Signs for the Umpire Crew The last thing a crew needs are a whole collection of "secret" or "private" signs. Keep any signs simple. Much beyond these few universal signs and the umpires sign list is growing too long. How many are out? There are two signs for making this request: 1) a cutting motion made across the throat or 2) tapping the right pant leg with a closed right fist. Responses 1) The number of outs are relayed by hold the appropriate number of fingers, pointing down, pressed against the right leg or 2) touching the brim of the hat with the appropriate number of fingers (or a clenched fist if no one is out.) A plate umpire often signals the number of outs by touching the side of the mask with a closed fist (0 out), one finger (1 out) or two fingers (2 out) extended.
  23. 23.  Whats the count? A quick tapping on the top of head or on the brim of the hat indicates confirmation of the count being requested. An alternative sign is placing the palms of both hands horizontally on the umpires chest. Response is made by holding the number of balls in the left hand and the number of strikes in the right hand. These are held pressed against the shirt just above the belt. The responding umpire also calls the count aloud. Possible Infield Fly Situation Some crews signal each other by first relaying the number of outs from the brim of their hats then signaling the infield fly. Another infield fly signal is done simply with the thumb pointing and moving upwards. A standard signal is to tap your left shoulder with your right palm indicating that the infield fly could be called. What is important is that play does not resume until all umpires are aware of the pending situation.
  24. 24.  Watch out for a time play A sign flashed around many diamonds is a warning to be alert for a potential "two- out" time play situation. The plate umpire simply taps the back of his wrist where he would normally wear a watch. wrote this note: "I just finished 5 weeks at the Jim Evans Academy of Professional Umpiring and they gave this time play instruction: Indicate to partner with right arm extended toward him with two finger indicating two outs and then a sharp point to the plate. This indicates that there is a possible time play and I am staying at home plate for a possible time play. I need help! As soon as a manager leaves the dugout good umpires will move towards the umpire being addressed. If the discussion goes beyond a few pleasant words they will move in very close. If that umpire places two hand on his waist, particularly if he pumps them another umpire will step in between the umpire and manager. This request for intervention allows the umpire to immediately walk away from the area. As the intervening umpire there is only one objective, calmly say to the coach "OK coach, lets get back to playing baseball, the discussion is over, lets get back to the game." Under no circumstances will the intervening umpire discuss the play or become involved in any rules discussion. Copyright © 2000 Brookside Little League, Inc. All rights reserved
  25. 25. Sec. A team shall consist of:9 players with a designated hitter- 10 players
  26. 26.  Sec.2.Player’s position shall be designated as follows: Pitcher, catcher, first baseman, second baseman, third baseman, shortstop, left fielder, center fielder, and right fielder and Sec.3 Designated Hitter Sec.4 Any of the starting players except a “DH” may be withdrawn and re-enter once provided such player occupies the same batting position. Whenever he/she is in the line up.
  27. 27.  Sec.5 A team must have the required Number of players preset to start or continue a game: No Aplayer(s) Name shall be on the starting line up unless the player is is available in the team area in uniform requirements are:9 players with a designated hitter-10 players Sec.6 A player shall be officially in the game when his/her name has been entered on the official score sheet of has been announced. A substitute may take the place of player whose name is in his/her team is batting order. The following regulations govern the substitution of players.
  28. 28.  Sec.1 The choice of the first or last bat in the inning shall be decided by a toss of a coin unless otherwise stated in the rules of the organization under which the schedule of games is being played. Sec.2 The fitness of the ground for a game shall be decided solely by the plate umpire. Sec.3 Regulation game shall consist of seven innings.
  29. 29.  Sec.4 The winner of the game shall be the team that scores the more in a regulation game. Sec.5 TIEBREAKER starting with the top of the tenth inning and each half inning thereafter, the offensive team shall begin its turn at bat , with the player who is scheduled to bat ninth in that respective half inning being placed on second base. The player who is running can be substituted in accordance with the concerned rules.
  30. 30.  Sec.6 One run shall be scored each time a baserunner legally touches first, second, third bases and home plate before the third out of the inning. Sec.7 A run shall not be scored if the third out of the inning . Sec.8 No succeeding runner shall score a run when a preceding runner has been declared the third out of an inning. Sec.9 A baserunner shall not score a run ahead of a baserunner preceding him/her in the batting order if the precedingrunner has not been put out.
  31. 31. PITCHING REGULATION●Sec.1 The pitcher shall take a position with a both feet firmly on the ground and in contact with, but not off the side of the pitcher’s plate.●Sec.2 The pitch starts when one hand is taken off the ball or pitcher makes any motion that is part of his/her windup.●Sec.3 A legal delivery shall be a ball which is delivered to the batter with an underhanded motion.
  32. 32.  Sec.4 The pitcher may use any windup desired provided: Sec.5 The pitcher shall not deliberately Drop, Roll, or Bounce the ball while inn pitching position in order to prevent the batter from striking it. Sec.6 The pitcher The pitcher shall not, at any time during the game be allowed to use tape or other substances on his pitching hand or fingers, nor shall a pitcher use a ball that has a foreign substance on it.
  33. 33.  Sec.7 No player shall take position in the batter’s line of vision or with deliberate unsportsmanlike intent, act in a manner to distract the batter. Sec.8 At the beginning of each half inning or when a pitcher relieves another, no more than 1 minute may be used to deliver not more than 5 pitches to the catcher or another teammate.
  34. 34.  Sec.9 The pitcher shall not throw to a base while his/her foot is in contact with the pitcher’s plate after he/she taken the pitching position. Sec.10 No pitch shall be declared. Sec.11 There shall be only one charged conference between the manager or other team representative from the dugout with each and every pitcher in an inning. Sec.12 If the ball slips from the pitcher’s hand during his/her windup or during the backswing.
  35. 35. BATTING Sec.1 The batter shall take his/her position within the lines of the batter’s box. Sec. 2 Each player of the side at bat shall become a batter in the order in which his/her name appears on the scoresheet. Sec.3 The batter shall not hinder the catcher from fielding or throwing the ball by stepping out of the batter’s box, or intentionally hinder the catcher while standing within the batter’s box.
  36. 36.  Sec.4 Members of the team at ball shall not interfere with the player attempting to field a foul fly ball. Sec.5 The batter shall not hit a fair ball with the bat a second time in fair territory. Sec.6 A strike is called by the umpire. Sec.7 A ball is called by the umpire. Sec.8 A fair ball is a legally batted ball. Sec.9 A foul ball is a legally batted ball. Sec.10 A foul tip is a batted ball which goes directly from the bat, not higher than the batter’s head, to catcher’s hands and is illegally caught by the catcher.
  37. 37.  Sec.11 The batter is out under the ff. circumstances. Sec.12 The batter or baserunner is not out if a fielder making a play on his/her uses an illegal glove. Sec.13 On deck batter.