Many states began to be united by marriage alliances and by conquest, Consequently great powers were createdThe Catholic Kings unified allthe Iberian peninsula, excerpt Portugal , Later Spain would be the hegemonic country inthe world during Carlos I and Philip II After the Hundred Years war , French monarchs from Charles VII to Francis I Valois united the country and consolidated their power. So France lived a short period of political and social stability until religious wars .
The Two Roses War• During the 15th century the nobility in England was divided over a big conflict about who should inherit the throne of England.• There were two families who thought they should get to rule: The house of Lancaster and the house of York.• The families of Lancaster and York fought bitterly to gain control of the throne. It was called the War of the Two Roses because the house of Lancaster was symbolized by a red rose, and the house of York was symbolized by a white rose.
The Two Roses War• The fighting began in the mid-15th century when Henry V, of the Lancaster family, died, leaving as heir to the throne Henry VI, who was just a baby. Richard, the Duke of York, challenged Henry VI’s right to the throne and the long period of conflict began.• The war finally ended when Henry VII, of Lancaster, gained control of the throne and married Elizabeth of York to unite the two houses. Henry VII began using the single red and white Tudor Rose to symbolize the union of the country and the end of the fighting.
Who wasHenry VIII? And why did he have 6 wives?
The Tudors• The Tudors were a royal family who ruled England from 1485 until 1603.• The first Tudor king was called Henry VII.• He fought another king, Richard III, at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. Richard was killed, Henry became king, and a new period of history began. Henry VII
The TudorsThis is the Tudor family tree. It shows when people were born, when they died, who they married and how many children they had.
Henry VIII• Henry VIII was king of England from 1509 until 1547.• He was born in 1491, and was only 17 years and 10 months old when he became king.• Henry composed music, which we can listen to athttp://www.brims.co.uk/tudors/henry.html Henry VIII
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Look again at this picture of Henry. How would you describe him now? Is he still young and handsome? Describe the expression on his face. How old do you think he is? What is HenryHow can you tell he trying to tell us is an important about himself in this person? portrait? Do you think What sort of that Henry clothes is he wearing? really looked like this?
Henry and his wives• In England, the crown is passed from the parent to the child when the parent dies. Henry was desperate to have a son to pass the crown on to.• In order to have children, Henry had to find himself a wife. But he married not once, not twice, but SIX times!!• Some of these wives died, some he divorced, some he had killed and one survived him. Let’s have a look at these wives in more detail.
Wife Number 1 Catherine of Aragon• Henry married Catherine of Aragon in 1509.• Catherine was a Spanish princess.• They had one daughter, Mary, who later became Queen of England.• Henryhappened? Mary What divorced Catherine. Catherine of Aragon
Wife Number 2 Anne Boleyn• Next, Henry fell for Anne Boleyn.• Henry and Anne were married in 1533 in secret – because Henry hadn’t got rid of his first wife yet!• They had a daughter, Elizabeth, who also Elizabeth later became a Queen of England.• Henry happened? What had Anne beheaded. Anne Boleyn
Wife Number 3 Jane Seymour• After getting rid of Anne, Henry married Jane Seymour in 1536.• Jane finally gave Henry the son he so wanted – Edward.• Unfortunately, Edward died when he Edward was just 16.• Jane died after What happened? giving birth to Jane Seymour Edward.
Wife Number 4 Anne of Cleves• After Jane died, Henry sent a painter, Holbein, to Germany in 1540 to paint a picture of Anne of Cleves.• He thought she looked very pretty, but when he saw her he hated her!• He thought she was very ugly, and called her the “Flanders Mare”.• They had no children.• Henry divorced Anne. What happened? Anne of Cleves
Wife Number 5 Catherine Howard• Next came Catherine Howard.• She married Henry in 1540.• They had no children, mainly because she didn’t like Henry and had lots of other boyfriends!• Henry wasn’t very happy about this, and she was What happened? beheaded in 1542. Catherine Howard
Wife Number 6 Catherine Parr• Henry married his final wife in 1543.• She is supposed to have been very nice and kind, and Henry seems to have been quite happy with her.• They had no children, but stayed married.• Catherine Parr outlived Henry What happened?1547, – he died in while she lived until 1548. Catherine Parr