The Water Cycle
There is a limited supply of potable water on earth. Earth's Water Supply
Earth’s Water
Diminished Water Supply Drought
<ul><li>Where is water stored? </li></ul>Water is stored in oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
<ul><li>How does water move from one place to another? </li></ul>Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation.
<ul><li>What is infiltration? </li></ul>Infiltration is water movement between the spaces in the soil.
What is runoff? <ul><li>Runoff occurs when water flows over the ground instead of sinking into the ground. </li></ul>
Flow  <ul><li>It´s the  volume of water which passes through a given cross- section of the river.  </li></ul>
Channel (artificial) bed (natural) <ul><li>It is  the place through which the river  goes . </li></ul><ul><li>The riverbed...
Basin river  or the drainage  basin <ul><li>It´s  an area of land  that drains into a lake, a river or  a sea </li></ul>
watershed (vertiente  o línea divisoria de aguas) <ul><li>Watershed  is a geographic term about rivers. It is an area of l...
River flow regimen <ul><li>It´s the variation of  the volume of flow  along one year , may be  steady when the volume of f...
River <ul><li>The  journey of a river is divided into three sections or courses  </li></ul><ul><li>1-Upper course </li></u...
Lakes  <ul><li>They are bodies of water , usually freshwater, taking place  in sunken areas by the accumulation of water f...
Groundwater <ul><li>Water that seeps into the soil, which can form deposits called aquifers .These sometimes emrge to the ...
Glaciers <ul><li>They are  masses odf ice accumu- lated at the poles or mountain peaks . The blocks of ices fallen off the...
Ocean currents <ul><li>An  ocean current  is a continuous, directed movement of ocean water generated by the forces acting...
Tides: <ul><li>They are  periodic movements  of rise and fall of sea level caused by the moon and sun. </li></ul>
Waves  <ul><li>They are  wavinesses on the sea surface  caused  by  wind . </li></ul>
Difference  between  weather  and  climate?  <ul><li>The  atmospheric weather is the state of  the atmosphere at time  and...
Elements  of Climate :Temperature: <ul><li>It is the degree of warming in the air. It`s measured with a thermometer using ...
Latitude <ul><li>Latitude  :  The temperature  drops as we move  away from equator  </li></ul><ul><li>Low Latitudes </li><...
Altitude <ul><li>Elevation of the relief: </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature drops as we ascend 0.6 º each 100 meters </li>...
Places  exposed to sunlight <ul><li>The temperature is  higher in sunny spot that  shady side   </li></ul>
The influence of the sea <ul><li>The sea warms  and cools more  slowly than the Earth´s  surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Temper...
The ocean currents   <ul><li>They  heat and cool coastal areas   </li></ul><ul><li>What  will be the difference between gr...
Precipitation <ul><li>Precipitation is water from the atmosphere that falls onto the Earth´s  surface in the  form of rain...
Which  instrument  measures  rainfall? <ul><li>A pluviometer  measures the precipitation in square metres (l/m2) or in mil...
Remember!!!!!!!! <ul><li>The amount of precipitation varies from one zone to another  , depending on factors like altitude...
Types of rain. <ul><li>Relief (orographic) rain </li></ul><ul><li>Air hits  the  side of mountain and is forced  to rise ....
Conventional rain  <ul><li>Air directly above  the Earth´s  surface heats up, becames lighter and  rises. </li></ul><ul><l...
Frontal rain <ul><li>A  mass of cool air meets a mass of warm air. The cool air is heavier and falls below the warm air. T...
Which  instument measures  the  atmospheric pressure? <ul><li>We measure pressure with a barometer in milibars (mbar) . No...
Anticyclones  or High  pressure  areas <ul><li>These are  areas where pressure is more  than 1013 mbar </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Anticyclones <ul><li>They  produce  stable weather conditions .  The air is  dary, so  there is no precipitation. </li></ul>
Low  pressure or Depressions  <ul><li>These  are areas  where  pressure is below 1013 mbr </li></ul><ul><li>They are  show...
Low  pressure  <ul><li>Depressions  produce  unstable  weather conditions, with  a lot of cloud and precipitation. The air...
Wind <ul><li>This  is  the  horizontal movement of air, which moves from high pressure to Low pressure  </li></ul>
The pressure  gradient   <ul><li>Differences in pressure  are shown  on a weather map by isobars. </li></ul><ul><li>The  c...
Weather  forecasting <ul><li>Weather forecasting  is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the...
Climates  on the  Earth  <ul><li>The  climate refers to  the  periodical and  usual succesion  of certain weather types in...
Equatorial Climate <ul><li>Temperature:  Is high throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>The mean annual temperature is aro...
Humid  tropical climate  <ul><li>Temperaure is  high  all the year . The mean annual  temperature is  over 20º C </li></ul...
Dry tropical  climate <ul><li>The mean annual temperature usually over 20ºC </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is  scarce, al...
Hot desert  climate  <ul><li>Temperature is high and with a pronounced difference  betwenn day and night. The mean annual ...
Temperate  climates: Mediterranean  climate. <ul><li>Temperature is mild  in winter  and  hot in summer. The  mean annual ...
Oceanic  Climate: <ul><li>Temperature is mild  in  winter  and cool in summer . The  mean annual temperature  varies betwe...
Continental climate <ul><li>Temperature  is  very cold in winter and  hot in summer  </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation  is  ...
Polar  Climate <ul><li>Temperature  is  very low  all the  year, only occasionaly exceeding  0º  C  in summer </li></ul><u...
Alpine  Climate <ul><li>Temperature falls  with  altitude Winters are  cold and  summers cool. </li></ul><ul><li>Precipita...
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Water cycle 2012 climate and pressure

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Water cycle 2012 climate and pressure

  1. 1. The Water Cycle
  2. 2. There is a limited supply of potable water on earth. Earth's Water Supply
  3. 3. Earth’s Water
  4. 4. Diminished Water Supply Drought
  5. 5. <ul><li>Where is water stored? </li></ul>Water is stored in oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
  6. 6. <ul><li>How does water move from one place to another? </li></ul>Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation.
  7. 7. <ul><li>What is infiltration? </li></ul>Infiltration is water movement between the spaces in the soil.
  8. 8. What is runoff? <ul><li>Runoff occurs when water flows over the ground instead of sinking into the ground. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flow <ul><li>It´s the volume of water which passes through a given cross- section of the river. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Channel (artificial) bed (natural) <ul><li>It is the place through which the river goes . </li></ul><ul><li>The riverbed is the channel the river flows through </li></ul>
  11. 11. Basin river or the drainage basin <ul><li>It´s an area of land that drains into a lake, a river or a sea </li></ul>
  12. 12. watershed (vertiente o línea divisoria de aguas) <ul><li>Watershed is a geographic term about rivers. It is an area of land. All water that falls on the watershed flows into one river. It can flow directly into the river or go through tributaries (smaller rivers that flow into the bigger river) first </li></ul>
  13. 13. River flow regimen <ul><li>It´s the variation of the volume of flow along one year , may be steady when the volume of flow is constant and irregular when the volume of flow has irregular seasonal variations </li></ul>
  14. 14. River <ul><li>The journey of a river is divided into three sections or courses </li></ul><ul><li>1-Upper course </li></ul><ul><li>2-Middle course </li></ul><ul><li>3-Lower course </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lakes <ul><li>They are bodies of water , usually freshwater, taking place in sunken areas by the accumulation of water from different origins. </li></ul><ul><li>Lagoons are smaller . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Groundwater <ul><li>Water that seeps into the soil, which can form deposits called aquifers .These sometimes emrge to the surface as springs (manantiales) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Glaciers <ul><li>They are masses odf ice accumu- lated at the poles or mountain peaks . The blocks of ices fallen off the glacier and floating in the sea are called icebergs. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ocean currents <ul><li>An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of ocean water generated by the forces acting upon this mean flow, such as temperature and salinity differences and tides </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents can flow for great distances, and together they create the great flow of the global conveyor belt which plays a dominant part in determining the climate of many of the Earth’s regions </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tides: <ul><li>They are periodic movements of rise and fall of sea level caused by the moon and sun. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Waves <ul><li>They are wavinesses on the sea surface caused by wind . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Difference between weather and climate? <ul><li>The atmospheric weather is the state of the atmosphere at time and certain geographic area . </li></ul><ul><li>The climate is a normal and regular succesion of certain types of weather particular geographic area </li></ul>
  22. 22. Elements of Climate :Temperature: <ul><li>It is the degree of warming in the air. It`s measured with a thermometer using different scales; degrees centigrades ( Spain), degrees Farenheit( GB). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Latitude <ul><li>Latitude : The temperature drops as we move away from equator </li></ul><ul><li>Low Latitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Latitudes </li></ul><ul><li>High Latitudes </li></ul>Cold area Warm area Hot area
  24. 24. Altitude <ul><li>Elevation of the relief: </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature drops as we ascend 0.6 º each 100 meters </li></ul>
  25. 25. Places exposed to sunlight <ul><li>The temperature is higher in sunny spot that shady side </li></ul>
  26. 26. The influence of the sea <ul><li>The sea warms and cools more slowly than the Earth´s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures vary little between seasons and between day and night in the coastal areas temperatures </li></ul>Distance from the sea
  27. 27. The ocean currents <ul><li>They heat and cool coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the difference between greenland coastal and icelandic one? Why? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Precipitation <ul><li>Precipitation is water from the atmosphere that falls onto the Earth´s surface in the form of rain , snow, sleet or hail </li></ul><ul><li>The atmosphere contains water vapour, The amount of water vapour in the air called the humidity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Which instrument measures rainfall? <ul><li>A pluviometer measures the precipitation in square metres (l/m2) or in milimeters (mm) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Remember!!!!!!!! <ul><li>The amount of precipitation varies from one zone to another , depending on factors like altitude , latitude and proximity to the sea. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Types of rain. <ul><li>Relief (orographic) rain </li></ul><ul><li>Air hits the side of mountain and is forced to rise . </li></ul><ul><li>As it rises , it cools and produces precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is common in montanious areas </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conventional rain <ul><li>Air directly above the Earth´s surface heats up, becames lighter and rises. </li></ul><ul><li>As it rises, it cools and produces precipitation. It is frequent on the Equator and temperate zones in summer. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Frontal rain <ul><li>A mass of cool air meets a mass of warm air. The cool air is heavier and falls below the warm air. The warm air rises and produces precipitation. It is common in temperate zones </li></ul>
  34. 34. Which instument measures the atmospheric pressure? <ul><li>We measure pressure with a barometer in milibars (mbar) . Normal pressure(at sea level) is 1013 milibars </li></ul><ul><li>We show pressure areas on maps using lines called isobars </li></ul>
  35. 35. Anticyclones or High pressure areas <ul><li>These are areas where pressure is more than 1013 mbar </li></ul><ul><li>They are shown on maps by circular isobars, where the pressure increases towards the center, which is marked by the letter H </li></ul>
  36. 36. Anticyclones <ul><li>They produce stable weather conditions . The air is dary, so there is no precipitation. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Low pressure or Depressions <ul><li>These are areas where pressure is below 1013 mbr </li></ul><ul><li>They are shown on maps by circular isobars , but the pressure decreases towards the centre , which is marked by the Letter L. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Low pressure <ul><li>Depressions produce unstable weather conditions, with a lot of cloud and precipitation. The air is warn and humid. It is rises , the air cools and can produce rain. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Wind <ul><li>This is the horizontal movement of air, which moves from high pressure to Low pressure </li></ul>
  40. 40. The pressure gradient <ul><li>Differences in pressure are shown on a weather map by isobars. </li></ul><ul><li>The closer together the isobars, the greater the difference in pressure and the stronger the wind </li></ul><ul><li>Winds follow slightly inwards from isobars </li></ul>
  41. 41. Weather forecasting <ul><li>Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a given location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia, and formally since the nineteenth century </li></ul>
  42. 42. Climates on the Earth <ul><li>The climate refers to the periodical and usual succesion of certain weather types in a specific geographical area . </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of climate on Earth, Tropical or hot , temperate and cold </li></ul>
  43. 43. Equatorial Climate <ul><li>Temperature: Is high throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>The mean annual temperature is around 25ºC </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation:It is abundant all the year, over 1500 mm annually </li></ul><ul><li>There is no dry season </li></ul>
  44. 44. Humid tropical climate <ul><li>Temperaure is high all the year . The mean annual temperature is over 20º C </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation ia abundant , although generally less than 1500mm annualy. There are two seasons, dry season and wet season </li></ul>
  45. 45. Dry tropical climate <ul><li>The mean annual temperature usually over 20ºC </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is scarce, although more than 250mm There is a long dry season </li></ul>
  46. 46. Hot desert climate <ul><li>Temperature is high and with a pronounced difference betwenn day and night. The mean annual is usually over 20º </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall less than 25o mm a year </li></ul>
  47. 47. Temperate climates: Mediterranean climate. <ul><li>Temperature is mild in winter and hot in summer. The mean annual temperature varies between 10º C and 20º C </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation falls in winter , spring and autumn , summers are dry. It varies between 300 mm and 1000 mm </li></ul>
  48. 48. Oceanic Climate: <ul><li>Temperature is mild in winter and cool in summer . The mean annual temperature varies between 10º C and 18 º C </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is around or above 1000mm annually. Precipitation is constant all the year </li></ul>
  49. 49. Continental climate <ul><li>Temperature is very cold in winter and hot in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is between 300mm and 1000mm </li></ul>
  50. 50. Polar Climate <ul><li>Temperature is very low all the year, only occasionaly exceeding 0º C in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation is rare , less than 250mm annualy , and frequently in form of snow </li></ul>
  51. 51. Alpine Climate <ul><li>Temperature falls with altitude Winters are cold and summers cool. </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation increases with altiyude and is often in the form odf snow </li></ul>

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